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nated, and only by implication could it be argued that we made any tender of regret for the secession of the Panamans.

Then there was another underlying reason of a decidedly practical character for approving this treaty-one which was perhaps not so much in evidence when the treaty was put before the Senate by President Wilson in 1914, but which now has become one of the first importance and that is the assistance it will give the United States in the world-wide hunt for oil. There are vast oil fields in Colombia, which should be developed by us. But with this treaty rejected concessions of the kind desired would .never be given to American capital, and it would be humiliating indeed to see them given to Great Britain.

Against these very practical reasons urged by the proponents of the treaty the opposition naturally weakened. Whereas a few years ago many of the strongest friends of the late President Roosevelt-men like Lodge, Fall, and McCumber—were against ratification, to-day they appeared as its strongest champions, in and out of the Senate.

The New York “Evening Post" rejoices as follows: "Gratification over the vote in the Senate upon the treaty with Colombia is enhanced by two circumstances: the promptness with which the Senate acted upon President Harding's recommendation and the size of the majority. ... It is the first important act of the new Administration, if by Administration we mean to include the Capitol as well as the White House. It was the subject of the first special Message by President Harding, who thus put his prestige to the test upon the question of whether we should or should not take the step' which alone could restore us to the confidence of Central and South America."

An independent Democratic paper, the New York "Times," thus pays its respects to the victors:

Voting to ratify the Colombian treaty yesterday meant a severe intellectual and moral strain for many Republican Senators. They had to approve what they had vehemently and virtuously condemned four years ago. And they had to find arguments for their change of front. This was in some ways harder than the change itself....

It certainly would seem that Mr. Lodge had in 1917 oocupied ground from which he could not withdraw his troops without exposing them to destruction. He had delivered himself against the Colombian treaty with great moral earnestness. "Any friendship," he said, "which is bought is worthless." This is especially the case when it is “under threats which, when successful, breed contempt in the mind of the seller and a sense of bitter dislike and humiliation in that of the buyer.” And the Massachusetts Senator made short work of the plea that the payment of $25,000,000 to Colombia would be anything but a "plea of guilty." "No other construction can or will be placed by the world on our action."

“We cannot afford to answer a black

The word "oil" apparently explains mail demand.” But a masterly leader the mystery, as indeed the Buffalo "Comto the rear like Mr. Lodge had little mercial" indicated. The Chicago “Tribdifficulty in getting away from all

une" (Rep.) is more specific:
this. He invited the Senate and the
country to look at "the larger aspects

Secretary Fall says that the oil in of the question." All of these could

Colombia is reason for bribing that not be seen four years ago. There

Latin Government to be good-natured were considerations of "international and obliging. The United States, he amity" to be dwelt upon to-day; there says, is getting the worst of it bewas the matter of trade, to which we

does not back its oil searchcould not be blind, and had Senators ers and producers as the British back duly weighed the vital necessity of

their own and that, in consequence, oil and were they aware that Colom

we shall be run out of many wonderbia contained vast and unexploited

ful oil fields. deposits to which Americans held

We want oil. We want to develop claims and concessions only waiting every possible opportunity and every on the ratification of the treaty? possible field. We particularly do not Moreover, Colombia was "the only want to overlook or neglect fields and South American state which has both opportunities in our own sphere. The an Atlantic and a Pacific coast, and oil of the future may contain the on those coasts are good harbors ca

supremacy of the future. pable of large development.”

What we do not see is the relevancy

of the $25,000,000 payment to ColomNaturally, other Democratic papers

bia to the oil resources of Colombia. also throughout the country cannot re- We can see its relevancy to the Pansist paying their sarcastic respects to ama Canal and we can see how it the Republican turn-coat Senators, while implies our apology for digging the opposing their action. Nor can Repub


The “Tribune" refuses to follow any lican papers whose editors dare think

Administration in making such an for themselves refrain. For instance,

apology by implication. We do not the New York “Tribune" referred to

believe in giving any money to any those “who would screen the transac- Colombian government at any time tion,.saying that it is an act of largess. as payment for the building of the to quiet the Colombians though they Canal. There would be more sense, have no just claim.” Another New as Senator Johnson remarks, in givYork paper speaks as follows:

ing it to our own unemployed, to our

veterans, to disabled soldiers, to AmerIt is a source of immeasurable as- icans who have done something for tonishment to the New York "Herald" the American Government. that there should be, by Republican

If the $25,000,000 will get something initiative both in the White House and for the United States, let a treaty be in the Senate, a revival of this propo- formulated which will set forth the sal to duplicate to Colombia the legiti- considerations in the bond. mate indemnity which Colombia asked for nearly twenty years ago and then

If the money is actually intended as rejected, and which consequently and an inducement to Colombia to grant oil properly went to Panama, its rightful concessions to Americans and not to recipient; and not only to duplicate confiscate their property," declares the that huge grant already once paid Portland "Oregonian" (Rep.), "that but to increase it one hundred and

should be stated in black and white, but fifty per cent. This newspaper

it should be done by a separate treaty, cannot comprehend the position of Senator Lodge, for example, who now

in order that oil and the Canal may be advocates the payment to Colombia

kept apart.” invited by President Harding: the

As to the Panama Canal, if we wronged same payment which, when proposed Colombia, we ought, in the "Oregonian's" by President Wilson, was denounced opinion, "to restore what we took, not as blackmail.... If the measure was pay hush money.” Furthermore, "If we blackmail then, it is blackmail now.

did right, we ought to pay nothing, for ... Such, unquestionably, is not the

such payment would set a precedent for statesmanship of justice. It is the

an statesmanship of expediency. At the

endless series of like demands. expense of Roosevelt's fame for hon- Omission of the apology does not relieve est dealing, the New York "Herald" is the payment of the taint of blackmail. by no means prepared to believe that The United States grants valuable conthe implied confession and attempted cessions on the Canal and agrees to pay purchase of friendship will have the

$25,000,000 to boot without specifying effect upon Latin-American sentiment

for what it is paid. The plain inference which the promoters of the experi

is that it has something to do with the ment profess to expect.

Canal and Panama, for nothing else is Doubtless with reference to the report mentioned in the amended treaty." that not half a dozen Republican Sen- "The 'Bee' has opposed this treaty ators really favored the treaty, the “Her- from the start," the principal paper in ald” adds: “In putting through the Co- Omaha records. If any wrong was lombian treaty the Republican Senate done to Colombia," it says, "it should committed itself to a grand piece of have been adjusted long ago; if we owe mystery legislation. In this mystery that country anything, we ought to pay business it looks as if we already had it. ... Whatever the outcome, the relain the new Administration, a touch of tions of our Government with all others Wilsonian autocracy. But this isn't should rest on a foundation of fair and really the case. Instead it is only the honorable dealings, not on the uncersteam-rolled execution of a close cor- tainty of bargains such as seems to be poration machine.”

suggested by Secretary Fall. Pinckney's patriotic dictum, 'Millions for defense, not a cent for tribute,' ought to be remembered now."

The conclusion of the whole matter, as viewed by many people, is thus stated by the Kansas City "Star" (Rep.):

In its first important move the Harding Administration has made an exceedingly bad impression on the country. The Colombian treaty is simply a sale of National honor for

commercial privileges. The Adminis-
tration goes before the country as
ready to help the big oil interests at
the expense of the Nation's treasure
and the Nation's good name.

There has been no change in the
merits of the Colombian situation
since the Senate refused to ratify the
proposed blackmail treaty. The strik-
ing out of the apology to Colombia is
simply a subterfuge. The payment of
the $25,000,000 is the essential apol-

ogy, the essential admission of wrongdoing.

The contention is openly made that the United States must pay Colombia $25,000,000 blackmail in order to give American investors the chance to develop Colombian oil concessions. What sort of a policy is that for a self-respecting nation to pursue? What sort of ideals are embodied in it before the young men of America, before the world?




HERE is nothing so dead as a dead duty in respect to the development try in Canada. His experience of fifteen slogan. Take, for instance, the of trade with our great neighbor to months in the United States had shown slogan which did such

yeoman ser

the south. What are the conditions? him the advisability of such a course. vice in Canada in 1911—"No truck or

The United States Government has

At first glance, it would appear strange trade with the Yankees." He would be

to-day in Canada over one hundred

that Canada should apparently neglect

consuls, the great majority of these a rash individual indeed who would

being in reality trade agents.

such a rich field in favor of Rumania

You seek to rehabilitate that battle-cry in

find them scattered over this country

and Greece, where the money has had to Canada to-day-not that there are not

from the Pacific to the Atlantic.

be advanced by the Canadian Governsome politicians, and others, who would What are they doing? They are, in ment before orders were forthcomingmake the attempt quickly enough if their way, quite properly, placing or at least before the goods could be they thought there was a chance that with prospective Canadian customers paid for. The explanation is simple: the public could be hoodwinked by it the advantages of trading with and

Sir George Foster, who heads the Deagain; in fact, these persons hailed with

buying from firms in the United

partment of Trade and Commerce, is

States. We have agents abroad; but delight the recent agitation in the

where do we find them? We have a

one of the few men in Canada who have United States which resulted in the

trade agent in the Argentine Repub

remained true to the old slogan of Fordney Bill, but there was not much

lic; we have one in Australia; we

1911. response throughout the country.

have one in Brazil; we have trade Circumstances, however, have played On the other hand, the two political representatives in China; we have havoc with the plans of 1911. A great parties which are likely to return the them in New Zealand, in Italy, in cataclysm has shaken the world. It largest groups to the next Parliament, France, in Holland, and in South

had its origin in the age long rivalries the Liberals and the National Progress

Africa; but we have not one in the

and imperialisms of Europe. Canada, as

United States. I would suggest, I ives (Agrarian)-each have as a plank

an outpost of a European country, was

hope in a spirit of constructiveness, in their political platform, “Reciprocity

the need, the advisability, of the De

quickly engulfed — some people, when with the United States."

partment over which my right honor

they consider the national debt of over It was a Government preponderantly able friend presides getting busy in two and a quarter billions of dollars, Conservative, and headed by Sir Robert this direction. We have our great- are inclined to think the word "subBorden-who attained power in 1911 by est customers to the south. More merged” is more suitable. The convicmeans of the cry of "No truck or trade

than one-half of the trade of Canada

tion is slowly crystallizing in the minds with the Yankees"—which last year pro

is done with the United States, and

of vast numbers of Canadians that the

in that direction lies the best opporvided for the establishment at Washing

destiny of this country lies in the West

tunity we have in the near years apton of a Canadian Minister Plenipo

proaching for the development and

ern Hemisphere; that Canada's most tentiary. The appointment has not

extension of our trade.

natural allies are on this continent; actually been made up to the time of

and that a community of interest is the writing, but a Minister of the Govern- Mr. Crerar is the President of the best safeguard for the future. This last ment in March of this year, in answer great United Grain Growers, Limited, exists beyond question between Canada to a question in the House of Commons, the largest co-operative farmers' organi- and the United States. stated that the appointment would be zation in the world. He was Minister There is, however, no sentiment in made when a suitable man had been of Agriculture in the Union Government Canada for annexation—there never has found for the post.

during the war, but resigned in 1919 be- been any of much extent. The CanaIn the year 1920 Canada spent in the cause he did not agree with the fiscal dian people believe that there is room United States approximately $925,000,- policy of the Government. He is the on this North American continent for 000. In the same year the United States asknowledged leader of the organized two great nations; but they also believe spent $600,000,000 in Canada. Canada farmers of Canada, comprising practi- that close co-operation is not inconsisis Uncle Sam's second-best customer. cally every province in the Dominion. tent with national independence. The United States is Canada's best cus- It is conceded in political circles on all Of course there are many Imperialists tomer.

sides that the party which he leads will in Canada who view with alarm any In connection with Canada's trade hold the balance of power after the next move towards closer business, or other, with the United States, the view ex- election. In view of all these facts, his relations with any country other than pressed by the Hon. T. A. Crerar, leader opinion carries with it much weight. Great Britain. There will likely always of the National Progressive party, in While Canada does not maintain a be a very strong sentimental tie between the House of Commons on February 24 single trade representative in the Canada and Great Britain; but proof this year is of interest as showing United States, a publicity bureau has pinquity and mutual interests are probthe trend of opinion in the Dominion. been maintained in New York under the ably the stronger bonds. Canada now Mr. Crerar said, 'in part:

recent direction of Colonel J. A. Cooper. claims to be an independent nation

Speaking at a Canadian Club banquet still, of course, under the British King There is, however, one other criti

in New York on March 7, Colonel --but free to choose her own path and cism that I have to make, in the most friendly way, of the Minister of

Cooper stated that he had recommended her own goal. Trade and Commerce (Sir George

to the Canadian Government the ap- Failing some unforeseen calamity, the Foster], and that is that the Depart

pointment in the United States of an slogan of 1911 is about as inanimate in ment of Trade and Commerce is not equal number of trade representatives Canada as a last year's bird's-nest." at the present time discharging its to that maintained by the latter coun



(C) Underwood

President Harding exhibited his genius as a "good mixer" when he met a number of boys who called
on him at the White House to secure his help in raising funds for a swimming pool fund. Memories
of the "old swimmin' hole" of his boyhood days at Caledonia, Ohio, helped on the sale of the tickets
which the lad at the President's right brought with him when he called to enlist the aid of the

Nation's head


Wide World Photos

These young men will take part in the International Relay Race. Their names are: Front row, left
to right: M. Delvart, R. Goullioux. J. Seurin



Back row

left to right

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Here are three possible contenders for the trophy won by the Gloucester schooner Esperanto last year.

This is an international trophy, open

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to me once, "are trying to drive the wedge into the log butt end foremost, and they'll only spilt their beetle.” This they did. By the second term of Grant's Administration the Republican party existed in two bitterly hostile factions.

Meanwhile the corruption which the radicals had unwittingly fastened on the South returned to plague the North. A successful war is almost inevitably fol. lowed by corruption. Germany suffered more from her victory in the FrancoPrussian War than France suffered from her defeat. The most corrupt period in our National history was that which followed the Civil War. It was the period of the carpetbag government in the Southern States, of the Tweed Ring in New York State, of the Crédit Mobilier in the Federal Government. The most corrupt election in our history was that which followed the second term of General Grant. Charges of intimidation, of fraudulent registration, flagrant bribery, were preferred by each party against the other and were substantiated by indubitable evidence. When the election was over, it was very doubtful who had been elected. Threats of civil war were freely made by partisans; fears of civil war were seriously entertained by men behind the scenes. It was solemnly affirmed that 145,000 well-disciplined troops were ready to fight to seat the Democratic candidate. An army of men not disciplined and not organized, who had been thrown out of em

ployment by one of the worst panics BUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES

which ever struck the American market,

were believed to be ready for a campaign President of the United States, 1877-1881

of plunder. Three circumstances conHE spirit in which General Lee full citizenship. The burden of that spired to ward off the danger: the asand General Grant met at Appo- education must not be thrown upon the surance that General Grant would use

mattox Court House when, after South alone. Federal aid must be given all the resources of the Nation to prefour years of skillful and courageous to Southern education. But there were serve order; the dread of civil war by fighting, the Southern leader surrendered radicals of a different opinion. They a generation just emerging from one; to his chivalric antagonist augured well held that suffrage is a natural right and and the poise of both the Presidential for the early establishment of friendly that democracy means government by candidates who showed equal anxiety to relations between the South and the the majority. Their policy was: “Give secure a peaceable decision of the issue. North. These leaders truly represented the Negro the ballot and he will take In the election Mr. Hayes had taken their respective sections.

care of himself. His late masters will no such active part as has now become But the assassination of Abraham be his enemies. If he cannot protect the fashion of Presidential candidates. Lincoln, which so quickly followed that himself against them, the Federal Gov. In the post-election controversy his insurrender, wrought an almost instant ernment must protect him.”

fluence is indicated by a letter he wrote revolution; it inspired bitterness in the The incompetence and corruption to Senator Sherman at New Orleans: North and despair in the South. Presi- which this policy inflicted on the South We are not to allow our friends to dedent Johnson combined hatred of the surpasses belief. James Ford Rhodes feat one outrage and fraud by another. ex-slaveholder with contempt for the in his history of this period tells us There must be nothing crooked on our ex-slave. For four years a new political that at first Southern men attempted to part. Let Mr. Tilden have the place by battle raged between the South and the co-operate with the Republican party in violence, intimidation, and fraud, rather North after the four years of military rebuilding a new civilization on the than undertake to prevent it by means battle had ended. There were statesmen ruins of that which slavery and war that will not bear the severest scrutiny." who welcomed Grant's "Let us have had destroyed. But they soon gave up Finally, by an almost unanimous conpeace," and saw clearly how it could the endeavor in despair. Nine-tenths sent a tribunal was created to determine be attained. If the ex-slaveholder and of the Republican party in the South the issue; and when this tribunal, by a the ex-slave were to live prosper. were Negroes; one-tenth was white; and majority of one, declared Mr. Hayes duly ously together in the same commu- the one-tenth were rarely wise and not elected the decision was accepted by the nity, mutual respect and mutual friend always honest. The inevitable effect of Congress and by the country—sullenly, ship must be cultivated between them. this policy on the Republican party but still accepted. To this day history Years of education would be needed Henry Ward Beecher foretold in is doubtful whether this decision was to prepare the uneducated Negro for graphic figure. “The radicals,” he said right or wrong.




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