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(C) Paul Thompson
(C) Paul Thompson
THE COMMON WEAL OF (C) Harris & Ewing
ENGLISH-SPEAKING (C) Keystone JUSTICE HOLMES, OF THE UNITED
THE PRINCE OF WALES, HEIR TO THE PEOPLES
BRITISH THRONE REPRESENTATIVE OPINIONS FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE ATLANTIC
SECURED AND ARRANGED FOR THE OUTLOOK BY P. W. WILSON
STATES SUPREME COURT
EN years ago, the Fourth of July support an unconditional treaty of arbi. was celebrated only by Americans, tration, covering all subjects, between
their own exclusive National England and America. While there is anniversary. To-day, the Fourth of in this country a widespread sentiment July is claimed by others. It belongs among many people in favor of some to the entire commonwealth of peoples kind of a league of nations to prevent who speak the English language. Over war, I am unable as yet to support the Houses of Parliament in London unconditional arbitration between the we have seen waving on this day United States and all countries. For the Stars and Stripes, honored equally instance, there is the immigration probwith the Union Jack. For years Sulgrave lem affecting Japan, and even Italy, on Manor, the home of George Washing which I should not consent to arbitrate. ton's ancestors, has been as carefully But with Britain I am ready. I think, by tended as Mount Vernon, the home of the way, that you should clear up your Washington himself.
Irish question as quickly as possible. These amenities express a fact of pro- It does you harm in the United States, found importance that for the whole and also, from what I learn, in Canada world good relations between the United and Australia." States of America and the British Com- That opinion may well stand first monwealth of Nations are essential to on chis Fourth of July. I shall peace-essential, therefore, to the bless- never forget the little room, the two or ings which depend on peace. Hence it three books on the table at Mr. Roosehas seemed good to the editors of The velt's hand, and the vigorous, kindly, Outlook to write me to collect for this indomitable man lying there, without Fourth of July a number of messages apparently one thought of his own cir. from eminent men expressive of the cumstances. No war within the common sense of the common wealth English-speaking nations that was invested in Anglo-American friendship. among his last thoughts.
A few days before he died Theodore The visit of the Prince of Wales Roosevelt was good enough to ask me to evoked a most cordial response from call upon him in hospital. I doubt Americans of all parties and creeds. It is whether he knew how near he was to therefore gratifying to record that The the end, and, while I could see that he Outlook has received from the personal was unusually pale, I certainly did not secretary of the Prince a request that realize that I was intrusted perhaps with this Special Number be sent to his Royal his last message to a journalist on for Highness at St. James's Palace, where it eign policy. “I want you to under- is recognized that we are dealing "with stand," he said, "that, in my judgment, the question which he [the Prince of no cause of difference can ever arise Wales] has very closely at heart." anywhere or at any time which would A personal note has also been rejustify war between your country and ceived from former President Taft—the mine. I do not know that I should have advocate of international arbitrationbeen ready to say this five years ago or who sends his "best wishes" for the ten years ago, but I am now prepared to Fourth of July Number of The Outlook,
It is with particular pleasure that there has been received from Viscount Bryce, O.M., whose Ambassadorship in the United States was so memorable, this message in his own hand:
One of the things that is most needed in our time is the creation of a public opinion of the civilized world which, being formed by the best minds of the leading nations and supported by the solid sense of the more educated part of the mass of the people everywhere could judge political and social questions with more fairness and deliver a weightier judgment upon them than any single nation can do. In the formation of such a "world opinion"—and there are already some few signs that it may be formed the opinion of the English-speaking peoples will be the most powerful factor, for they are the most numerous and most widely spread over the whole earth. Possessed of the same traditions from their early history, and cherish. ing the same ideals, they can under. stand one another better than can any other peoples. It is for the interest of mankind as a whole, as well as for their own interest that they should bring an opinion as far as possible united to bear upon the solution of the great problems, perhaps more difficult than ever before, which mankind has to solve now that all its peoples are being drawn together more and more closely.
JAMES BRYCE. Since leaving the United States, Viscount Bryce has entered the House of Lords. It is, however, significant that he still signs himself in plain American fashion-James Bryce—as he used to do as Ambassador at Washington.
For centuries no Lord High Chancellor of England had, until recently,
left the shores of Great Britain during affinity "opens large perspectives down his official guardianship of the Great which, I fear, I cannot pause to look.” Seal, which is the badge of supreme Every lawyer in the English-speaking authority under the British crown. The countries of the world recognizes that first Lord Chancellor to break this the “large perspectives” of Anglo-Saxon precedent was Viscount Haldane, O.M., jurisprudence are a common heritage of and he crossed the ocean in order to our courts. visit the United States. Lord Haldane's Sir Robert L. Borden, for many years message is as follows:
Prime Minister of Canada, writes thus:
28, Queen Anne's Gate,
Westminster. To the Editor of The Outlook:
I think that in regions not yet fully known to the public in both countries, the relationship between the people of the United States and Great Britain, in modes of thought and action, is growing more and more intimate. In Philosophy, in Science, in Jurisprudence, in the Theory of the State, new knowledge is growing up for both nations. Each is influencing the other, and the mutual stimulation which is taking place is highly beneficial. It is also important as contributing to unison of spirit in other directions.
HALDANE. 27 May, 1921.
In the great democracies of the world the issue of peace or war is more and more controlled by the people. The course of the British Government in 1914 and that of the American Government in 1917 exemplify this truth. Thus the individual responsibility of each citizen for the peace of the world has become more strikingly manifest. Upon a solemn and abiding sense of that personal responsibility among the people and in the press peace must chiefly rest in the future.
The struggle for economic advantage or supremacy powerfully influences the attitude and policy of each nation. Surely we have learned that the inconceivable and farreaching destruction and waste resulting from war under modern conditions offsets a hundred times all advantage that war can bring even to the victor. And the destruction is not physical alone; it affects also the moral fabric of society.
In the methods of determining international disputes humanity has made little, if any, advance during
more than twenty centuries. Democracy as we realize it is a new thing in the world. Let it bring to humanity this great service of ensuring peace by substituting international arbitrament for international murder. If our two democracies kindred in race, language, institutions, and ideals cannot meet that supreme test, the future is clouded with darkness and even with despair. R. L. BORDEN.
Ottawa, 14 June, 1921. In the Senate of the United States today there is a personality that stands out boldly and is known throughout the world. Senator Borah, of Idaho, the champion of disarmament, writes for The Outlook in these terms:
There are very few Americans who do not realize the importance of friendly relations between the two great English-speaking peoples. Perhaps civilization itself, as we understand the word, depends upon that relationship. For illustration, the cause of disarmament must halt and die if the United States and Great Britain are to be at enmity. And if disarmament is to fail and the race of armaments is to go forward, economic chaos, bankruptcy, and war are not far removed.
I do not mean to say that these two Powers alone should disarm, but I do mean to say that, unless they are willing to do so, nothing can be accomplished, and if they are willing to do so, other Powers will be induced to accede to a like programme. While
The Common Law of Great Britain and of the United States is the same in origin and is similar in interpretation. No one has done more to elucidate that Common Law for both countries than Mr. Justice 0. W. Holmes, of the Supreme Court at Washington, who says, in a letter to us, that this legal
Japan, instead of being left to fight her battle alone, should be included in the comradeship of the Great Powers, where her prestige would be acknowl. edged without effort on her part, military or otherwise."
It is our aim to show every side of this great problem. The Hon. George Foster Peabody is a close friend of former President Woodrow Wilson, a Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and a firm believer in international idealism. To The Outlook he sends this message:
If the principle of the brotherhood of all men be made the basis of a closer relationship between the peoples and Governments of the British Empire and the United States, there will be the greatest hope from every approach to a clearer understanding of the spirit of the men and women whose religious practice and political faith have common basis in Magna Charta, from which our Declaration of Independence logically evolved.
Our so-called melting-pot experience adds the emphasis needed upon the equal qualities and capacities of peoples of all races and languages. Therefore any closer union to be effective must at every point recognize the equal rights of all peoples and nations and definitely avoid any alliance that would mean in effect an overlordship or super-leadership by the Anglo-Saxon peoples with or without other allies.
Insisting, as the people of this coun- House of Commons when Gladstone's try always will, upon the most Government was defeated in 1886 over complete political independence and the first Home Rule Bill. It seemed to disentanglement, let us not under
me even then to be a grave error in value to mankind the incalculable
political psychology. That first rejecworth of friendly relations. There two great problems
tion of Home Rule was surely a solemn which must be solved in order that
blunder. Not that I can now give any the friendly relations between Great solution either for your Irish or for our Britain and the United States may Negro problem.” continue. The Irish question I will Dr. Butler discounted the idea of a not discuss here. The other is the
conflict between the United States and avoidance of a naval race. Either
Japan. He thought that Japan would one left unsolved and unsettled must necessarily militate greatly against
agree to shut off all further immigration the friendship which, in the interest
into California provided that immiof world peace, should be maintained. grants already admitted were received, It is sometimes said that war be- like Hungarians or Poles, into full tween the United States and Great American citizenship. He is not, how. Britain is unthinkable. That is all
ever, entirely at ease over the renewal right for banquet and dress-parade
of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. He occasions. But it is not unthinkable,
would apply a solution of wider scope to and if we enter a naval race, at the
the Asiatic situation. end of ten years no one will think it
"From the Nile improbable. Let us maintain friendly
to the Ganges," said he, "there is a relations in order to disarm, and let definite propaganda fomenting unrest, us disarm in order to maintain which is essentially the same in all friendly relations.
Oriental countries. This agitation may Owing to some misunderstanding, it be compared with the free silver camwas recently announced that Dr. Nich- paign in the United States, which was olas Murray Butler, President of Colum- promoted by means of little meetings bia University, New York, would address here, there, and everywhere, with one the Imperial Conference of Prime invariable theme under discussion. Ministers, now assembling in London. England is being thus attacked in the Dr. Butler has proceeded to London, and East not because she is England, but will undoubtedly conferin perhaps because she is the chief representative more informal fashion with statesmen of European civilization as a whole. there gathered; and before sailing he The East is being aroused against the was consulted by President Harding, politics, the economics, and the religion who is, it is safe to assume, fully cog- of the West. It is a definite challenge nizant of Dr. Butler's large conception which we should meet with a definite of American policy, based as it is upon answer. The Five Great Powersa new view of Anglo-American CO- France, the United States, Japan, Italy, operation in Asia. Dr. Butler was good and Britain-should act together. Britenough to give me a special interview ain and France should be supported for The Outlook.
by the rest of us in their large respon"I was present," he said, "in the sibilities throughout the East. And
the civilized inteit, being formed by the best minide of the rending nations and inspented be the solid sense of the more educated part of the nun of the heahle enam where inld judge holitical and sound questinen
mre ferien und deliver weighhei jument
than ang single nativi
the opinin of same fen signs that I may he found the English speatringheshiles will be the most henverful factor for they me the most municions und mat widely sliced over the whole earth. Penened of the same tradition von mein ennety hentry, and chenstung
the same ideals, then, can
other heller undent and me another nether than can any It
the interest in mankind as a while, as well a aun interest theat ther, shred bring an chuimicas
the as hernille united to heresein the solution of
difficult Great hoblem, hecha mine
noultancun here, which mantinel has to solue non that all ich hohlen wingdrawn together more
James Bryce closelig
advocated what Tennyson called "the parliament of man, the federation of the world” as the only means, in his opinion, of avoiding war. He writes:
The world is controlled politically by sovereignties.
Sovereignties are bound by the very nature of their being, to encroach on each other; a struggle for existence has naturally followed, and the fit and powerful alone survive.
By the developments of science the world has so shrunk that the United States and the British Empire together are not as large, measured in terms of transportation and the transmission of information, as the thirteen colonies were in 1789.
This has intensified the struggle. Germany's determination to burst the “ring of iron" by which she claimed to be bound in 1914 was an acute phase of the conflict of sovereignties.
Leagues or courts in which the units are sovereignties are mere palliatives; they solve no problems.
The problems cannot be solved by any artificial structure; they will be solved only by a plan which assumes and provides for organic growth. The idea (if not the model) lies in the Federal Government of the United States. All the Englishspeaking states of the world should federate under a constitution modeled on the Constitution of the United States.
Such federation-quite apart from its preponderant power-would end war over more than half the earth.
As the Federal Government expanded from thirteen to forty-eight States, so might the federation of the English world expand until it finally included all civilized peoples,
This would be organic growth.
This would not destroy nationality, but create a finer instrument to meet higher needs.
This would end war. Between American and Canadian colleges there are now intimate associations. Sir Robert A. Falconer, President of the University of Toronto, writes for The Outlook as follows:
The universities of Canada and the United States have very many points of similarity, though the national characteristics of the two peoples are marked upon these institutions. For a generation students have been going in large numbers from the Canadian universities to such universities as Johns Hopkins, Harvard, and Yale for post-graduate work, and in more recent years to Columbia, Cornell, Chicago, and other institutions, which have become equipped for this purpose. These Canadians have been warmly welcomed and have taken their share of honors. In fact, this emigration has in too many instances become permanent, and it is safe to say that hundreds of the brightest Canadians are to-day holding high positions in the colleges and universities of the United States. This has been a serious drain on Canada. There has been, also, little in the nature of a return stream.
There is much academic intercourse between the two countries—in learned and scientific societies at their annual meetings and in a great
FACSIMILE OF THE LETTER FROM VISCOUNT BRYCE
variety of professional gatherings- woman, to help bring about a solid so that the academic world on each friendship between England and side of the line understands its America. The English actor has neighbor.
more power for good or evil in this With gracious readiness, Mr. David
respect than the average private inBelasco, as representing the American
dividual. There are several clubs and
associations in America designed to drama, writes for The Outlook as fol.
promote friendship between the two lows:
countries, but the theatrical profesOur theater grows daily more and sion as a body can do so much more more cosmopolitan. The American than all these manufactured associapublic has a place in its heart for all tions put together. comers worthy of the great rewards it has to give. Our relations and Mr. Arliss tells the story of Blakeley interchange of players with the Eng
(or someone else) who slipped on a lish stage have been particularly
banana skin in New York and cried gratifying. The bond of language and sympathy has always been a
out, in his undignified sitting posture, strong one. While in London, on my
"I knew I shouldn't like the beastly recent trip abroad, I was struck by country!” Not among actors only, but the ease, finish, and charm of many among all who cross the ocean, there actors and actresses, and, generally is this tendency to judge of one country speaking, by their admirable diction. or of the other by superficial impresThey follow the lead of France in
sions. And, possibly, Americans hardly that vital point. And, I think, there
realize that nine-tenths of the movie is plenty of emotional power to call
films shown in the British Empire are upon. Much of the talk of English lack of temperament is nonsense.
American and furnish what is repreBut it is possible that English pro
sented to be life in America. In India ducers rather than the players are American films are shown which would responsible for some want of snap, a be censured in most States of the tendency to overdo restraint.
Union. Mr. George Arliss, whose interpreta- A word may here be said dismissing tion of "The Green Goddess" has de- as unfounded the occasional rumors of lighted. New York, is "greatly inter- vast sums spent by the British on ested” in this subject of the Anglo- propaganda in the United States. It American stage. He says:
can be said emphatically that Britain It is the duty of every Englishman,
does not want friendly Americans to be and especially of every English- hyphenates even in her interest. The
that America may have in winning that world peace—but in smashing Japan and in breaking the power of Great Britain.
The one way to end the intolerable and hideous anti-British conspiracy in America is to enter into conference with Great Britain and Japan touching the possibility of a halt in armament building, a conference which may prove to be decisive for world peace:
Finally, I will give an opinion which cost the distinguished and popular writer something more than words. Mr. Charles M. Schwab, of the Bethlehem Steel Works, writes:
Americans that Britain respects are conscience shed upon the times, was hundred per cent Americans.
precisely that which inspired the inThe deepest of all bonds between the comparable heroism of the people of various commonwealths is religion. It
Plymouth Rock. To-day the lands
are one in the living spirit of faith was the Society for the Propagation of
which is remolding the ancient forms the Gospel in Foreign Parts—what Eng.
to the new conditions and widening land calls the S. P. G.—which, as Miss the horizons of religion to every kind Sebring, the Principal, reminds me, of human interest. They stood bestarted the St. Agatha School for Girls side one another and fought to the in New York over two centuries ago. death in the Great War, and they
It is on the King James's Version of are one in the highest interpretations the Bible as read by Washington that
and aims of peace. every President takes the oath of office. The Bible came over to the United In the distribution of the Bible our States in the Mayflower. It was Dwight two nations are intimately associated. L. Moody who, more than any popular It is a work that makes history. Dr. preacher, brought the Bible back to William I. Haven, General Secretary of England again. I am therefore glad to the American Bible Society, thus writes have from Mr. William R. Moody, the about it for The Outlook:
President of the Northfield Schools, Instances of fellowship are worth which his father founded, the following noting. For example, the new Span- message: ish Version of the New Testament
The term "the old country" has has been produced, after many years, as the co-operative labor of the two
only one meaning in America, and Societies in equal shares. In the same
that is, Great Britain. However we
may differ at times in our point of way the two Societies (American and
view and in our policies, in every British) have worked together in the translation and revision of the Scrip
great moral crisis in the world, I be
lieve, we shall stand together, for the tures in Japan, the American Bible
spiritual forces of our two countries Society bearing half the cost and the British and Scotch Societies sharing
are the greatest factors in molding the other half.
public opinion. What is essential is
that there shall be in both our counSimilar co-operation between the tries a greater spirit of mutual conBritish and American Societies has fidence and faith. been maintained all over the world.
From Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, the All churches—Catholic, Baptist, Qua- eminent leader of the Free Synagogue ker, Episcopalian, Methodist—link up
in New York, there comes the same genthe Old World with the New. The his
eral testimony: “There is nothing," he toric parish of Trinity, Wall Street, was
writes, “which lies nearer to my heart founded from Bow Church, London.
than the hope of unshatterable underThere is a constant interchange of
standing between the two Englishpreachers. Dr. Fort Newton occupies speaking commonwealths.” He adds: the pulpit of the City Temple, and Dr. John Kelman succeeds Dr. Jowett at the It is undebatable that we have the
right to urge the Executive and the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church. Dr.
Senate to move forward honestly and Kelman writes for The Outlook:
genuinely on behalf of a disarmaThe bonds between America and ment conference with England and Scotland stretch back through cen- Japan. This disarmament conference turies. In older theological tradition might not only avail to avert an the two countries were nearer to unthinkable war with Great Britain, each other than either of them was but would end the anti-American to any other land. The spirit of the machinations of those groups of Covenanters, with its indomitable Americans who are not interested in fidelity to the highest light which world peace—in the glorious part
The war undoubtedly quickened the friendly feelings between England and America, and there is, as you say, a broad and human basis for further association. While I have no suggestion to offer as to future commercial relations, I am sure they will be frank and fair and trust that they will also be cordial.
Mr. Schwab is a modest man. But his letter-in a concluding sentence confirms the fact that he refused during the period of American neutrality in the war a large sum of German moneymany millions of dollars—money offered on condition that he desist from fulfilling certain verbal pledges to supply munitions which he had made to Lord Kitchener.
Of the Young Men's Christian Association, originated by Sir George Williams in England and especially developed in recent years by Dr. John R. Mott in America, and of many similar partnerships in the kingdom of progress and human well-being, I might write at length. The fact that an American, Mr. Gordon Selfridge, has revolutionized the department stores of London and now reigns as his reward in Lansdowne House; that the first woman to take her seat in the House of Commons was an American woman, Lady Astor (sister of the lady made famous by her husband the delightful "Gibson Girl"); the fact that Americans and