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Here is a scene in ancient Delhi, India, near the Kutub Minar. The men jump from the top of the tower, a distance of ninety-five feet, into about ten feet of water in the basin below. They do this for the sum of twenty-five cents (American money) and will do it over and over again. "We took them," says our informant, “ 'on the jump.' They claim to be father and son. The father (just below the top) was on his way up from another jump; the son is standing at the top of the tower. The boy at the left-standing on the ruined wall—is taking lessons to be a jumper"

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From Mrs. L. K. Walsh, San Anselmo, California



Each vender brings his products in a square cloth, which he spreads for a display table and counter upon the ground, even though

the merchandise may consist of sugar or rice and gathers dust and grit. It is difficult to obtain clean sugar in India, our informant states

From G. M. Hawkins, Madison, Wisconsin



State arose loud cries of a violent factional disturbance. Canny politicians, wise and disinterested strategists, hastened to the candidate, urging him to avoid the hot bed of Republican schism.

All argument was wasted, all protest futile. Mr. Hughes was proceeding on the theory of the German army—that the general staff had plotted and planned everything and that he had to act only according to schedule to be in Paris (or Washington) at the appointed time. They had taken everything into consideration except the imponderables, and the imponderables whipped him. California, by little over a thousand votes, kept him out of the White House.

That was Mr. Hughes. But not in 1921.

The Secretary of State to-day is not the same individual, except in name and pedigree and record, as he who was once Governor of the State of New York, later Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, and later defeated as the Republican candidate for the Presidency of the United States.

Washington, to-day, is enjoying a new Mr. Hughes. The old austerity is gone. Was defeat the humanizing process which has added to this distinguished individuality the one element it required to be well rounded?

The fact remains that the Secretary of State is fast becoming one of the most popular men in public life. One meets him on the streets, in the clubs, proceeding briskly from the State Department to the White House across the street, but always smiling and always radiating an abundant energy. It seems as

though a second youth had come to him, (C) Harris & Ewing

one of vivacity and good feeling. CHARLES EVANS HUGHES (A RECENT PHOTOGRAPH)

Health is doubtless at the bottom of "The Secretary of State is fast becoming one of the most popular men in public life"

this, for the Secretary appears to be in

as good trim as a pugilist about to enCERTAIN professor once told me he might unbend to his own advantage ter a championship contest, and evi. that if he ever were asked to in this instance, for his words of wis- dently he knows how to maintain his

write an article on “Why Hughes dom, if used in part, could be widely physical condition and is doing so, but Lost the Presidency” he merely would spread, but if they must be used only without any visible effort. relate an incident that occurred to him with technical subjects malapropos to Other things also are at work. There when he desired to utilize in his class- the professor's purpose they could not be can be no doubt that Mr. Hughes is very room part of an address Mr. Hughes had used at all. However, Mr. Hughes had happy in his appointment, happy to be previously delivered. spoken, and there was no appeal.

back in official Washington. It may be He properly made written application That, said the professor, illustrates that there is some balm in the reflection to Mr. Hughes for permission to use the how he lost the Presidency. The Medes that four years of practice of the law in address. It was granted, but with the and the Persians had their laws and so New York has placed him in an inde express proviso that it should be repro- had Charles E. Hughes. He crossed pendent position financially. If he has duced only in its entirety.

The pro

every “t” and he dotted every “I” and any ambitions for the future, naturally fessor wanted only the half which was he departed not one jot or tittle from a he keeps them to himself, although a applicable to his work, and he pointed prearranged plan as conceived originally man just entering his sixtieth year out that the newspapers had already by himself in the seclusion of his own need not resign all hopes of the Presi. printed parts of it, and that some of study.

dency. them had garbled the address. Mr. This was only too true-mark, how- All that the observer can see is that Hughes admitted this, but replied that ever, the was. Well is remembered the he is playing good ball, a snappy, fast the newspapers had done it without his

California incident of 1916. In his game, but with a courtesy and geniality. permission, and that with his permis- swing around the circle the National that endear him to every one. He is sion the address could not be used ex- Committee had planned for Mr. Hughes rapidly chucking needless formality out cept in toto. Vainly the professor strove to visit California and speak there. of the windows of the State Department. to convince the eminent statesman that However, as he approached the Golden In most of his notes to Germany and in



most of those to Japan he didn't avail himself of the customary time which diplomatic usage allowed him for the proper answer. He just tossed the answers off hastily, like any business man in the course of the day's work.

This unwonted celerity has given a slight wedge to unkind critics, and it has been asserted, even in print, that Mr. Hughes has taken the bit of foreign affairs in his teeth and is running away with it. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Aside from his personal esteem for the President, Mr. Hughes has

most delicate appreciation of the exact limitations of his office, both in law and in custom. He has not stepped a hair's breadth over the line of propriety, and, even if he disagreed with the President, which has not yet oc

curred, it is practically certain that he need it and brotherly when they deserve would not bring that disagreement to an it. In his daily talks with the Washissue.

ington correspondents one feels that he The change in the Hughes psychology appreciates their responsibilities, reis most readily observed in his contacts spects their intelligence, recognizes their with newspaper men. Some wag has function, and is willing patiently to besaid that now when he sees a news- come their teacher. paper man in the White House with a Which is as it should be, but which lawyer in his proper place as adviser is not what it always has been. he at last perceives the true merit of The result is that on every hand one the press. It is more likely that politi. hears: “Nobody like him in the State cal defeat, combined with reflection and Department since John Hay." He does financial independence, has broadened not delay, he does not evade, he does not his view-point.

condescend, he does not orate, and, so In any event, his old manner toward far as one can see, he does not play polithe press is gone. In those days he tics, certainly not in the old-fashioned, looked upon newspaper men as a cross petty sense. He found a terrific mess; between public nuisances and unappre- he is grappling with it like a strong man hended criminals. Now his attitude unafraid, and he is in mighty good toward them is patriarchal when they humor about it.






CITY missionary found a lone woman in a little room in a nar

row, ill-smelling street, took pity on her condition, and with great difficulty found a place for her in the outskirts of a village where was abundant employment for skillful washerwoman. Two weeks later, making his rounds, he found Bridget back in her solitary chamber. "How is this?" he asked her, and received for reply, “Folks is better than shtoomps." She was right. Folks is better than shtoomps. Ever since man and woman discovered that simple truth they have gathered in villages, towns, and cities. So long as they believe that truth they will continue to gather in villages, towns, and cities. The boys will leave the farms for the towns. The mothers and sisters will want to follow them. For every Thoreau who wishes to live in the woods there are, and always will be, thousands who, like Charles Lamb, will wish to live in the city. The call is equally irresistible to the ignorant and to the scholar, to the sinner and to the saint.

Responding to this call we always have found and always will find the best and the worst of men flocking to the cities; the bigger and more bustling the city, the more it attracts. Here are the great criminals and the men of wealth on whom they prey; the selfindulgent idlers and the great captains of industry; seductive invitations to vice and open doors of opportunity for service; the great libraries, the great concert halls, the great schools and universities, the great lecture halls, the great churches, the great preachers, and here the dance halls, the saloons, the gambling hells, the houses of vice; and here is the drama at its best and its worst.

The city is always a type of the community in which it is situated. London reflects England, Paris reflects France, Berlin reflects Germany, Rome reflects

the two Italys, the ecclesiastical and the have precedence on the highway. The political. So, in this country, Boston, police, if I remember aright, were not despite its Irish population, reflects New uniformed; and the police protection England; New York, the Atlantic coast; was so inadequate that for a time the Chicago, the Middle West; Los Angeles control of the police was transferred and San Francisco, the two Californias. from the City Hall to the Capitol at If we could imagine New York and Albany. The simplest sanitary regulaChicago changing places, in a decade, tions which herding of a great miscelcertainly in a generation, each would be laneous population always makes neces. a changed city.

sary had not yet been discovered. Dogs Therefore the city records the dom- roamed the streets as freely as they did inating tendencies in the community till recently in Constantinople, though both for good and for evil. Decaying not, as there, in herds; cows were stabled cities mean a decaying state. Develop- in the city and fed on swill from the ing cities mean a developing state. The houses or refuse from the distilleries; city is a barometer and registers the cli- none of the streets were kept very clean mate. Catholic Rome bore witness to and some of them were hardly cleaned the emergence of Italy from the pagan- at all; cases of cholera occurred every ism of the Cæsars. The city is set upon summer and an epidemic of cholera was a hill and cannot be hid. By its prom- expected every two or three years. The inence it proclaims to all mankind the cleaning out of the squatters from the virtues and the vices of the community. region now devoted to Central Park was For the community makes it what it is, accomplished with difficulty; the spendand it in turn makes the community. ing of money in the construction of the

When I came to New York City nearly park was bitterly resented as a waste of three-quarters of a century ago, the the city's funds, since only the rich growing residential region was from would ever use it; and the organization Houston to Fourteenth Street. When of a paid fire department, the uniformabout that time my uncle Gorham ing of the police, the banishing of loose Abbott left his brother's school in Hous. dogs from the streets, the removal of ton Street and established the Spingler the cows and their sheds from the city Institute in Union Square, he was criti- limits, and the sanitary regulations recised for going so far uptown by con- quired for the city's health were all servatives, who were quite sure that his accomplished by resolute reformers only pupils would never follow him to these after fierce battle in each case with northern limits of good society. Even the defenders of so-called vested rights. some years later what is now Central Leave a great public wrong undisturbed Park was a rocky wild given over to the long enough and it becomes a vested huts of squatters, whose hordes of dogs right. made crossing that region after dark a The climax of this corruption of the disagreeable and even a somewhat per- city government was reached under the ilous enterprise.

Tweed Ring some years later. The city At that time the fire companies government and the courts were corwere volunteer organizations which bit rupted by it, and the foul and fatal conterly resented and vigorously resisted trol was extending to Albany. Happily, the organization of a paid fire depart- there were brave men who dared hazard ment to be always ready for a call. Oc- their peace and their good name, if not casionally these rival companies stopped their lives, in furnishing an answer to on their way to a fire and fought a Tweed's question, What are you going street battle to determine which should to do about it? They finally put him

behind prison bars and made impossi. prey. Whether there was more gam- outside of Germany and perhaps one or ble the repetition of so gross and auda- bling then than now I do not know, a3 two of the Scandinavian states. In the cious a robbery by any future ring. I have no means of knowing how much United States it existed in only half of

There is a great deal of not unjust there was then or is now. But saloons the country. Slavery and public educacomplaint of our city governments, and of every description, from the highest tion do not go well together. I do not the municipal experience of our great class of bar to the lowest-class dive, think there were either normal schools cities justifies the statement that the were run without any regulation that or high schools in the city. There was city government is the most difficult was apparent to the inexpert observer. no industrial education. My impression problem which to-day confronts democ- Drunken women were practically never is that the school for girls established racy. But if the test of government is seen upon the streets, as they still are by my father and his brothers in 1844 or a contented and prosperous population in parts of London, Glasgow, and Edin. '45 was the first school in the city for under its control, it cannot be said with burgh, but gentlemen the worse for the higher and broader education of justice that New York City is the worst- liquor, though unusual, were not un- girls, though there were perhaps one or governed city in the world. At least known in our public vehicles or on the more Roman Catholic convent schools. there is no present indication that Ger- sidewalks in our best streets. On New There were in the city the three colman critics, have any great desire to Year's Day, which in accordance with leges—the New York University, Columreturn to Berlin, or Irish critics to Cork an ancient Dutch custom was devoted bia College, and the City College. or Dublin; and when our Government to social calls by the gentlemen, tipsy But these institutions, which had hunprovides free passage across the ocean men were so frequently to be met with, dreds of pupils then, have thousands for Russian assailants of the Govern- not only on the streets but in the now. The public school was still in ment of this their adopted land to re- hospitable parlors of the best society, the experimental stage. The question turn to the land of their nativity, there that the festival use of the day was whether education should be furnished to are not heard from them those expres. finally abandoned by common consent. all free by the State, or by the churches sions of gratitude which might reason- Whether National prohibition is the and by private enterprise to such as were ably be expected from them. Our city best method of meeting the evils of the able to pay for it, was still a hotly degovernment is in our own hands. It is drink traffic I am myself not clear. But bated question, and Archbishop Hughes as good as we deserve, for it is as good that it has been adopted by so large a earned a deserved unpopularity in most as we care to make it. It is an old vote and accepted with so little opposi- Protestant circles by his vigorous attack saying that eternal vigilance is the price tion at least indicates that a very large upon the Public School System. of liberty, and if we do not care to pay number of persons who think it quite Then the schools largely and colleges the price we have no reason to complain harmless to drink a glass of beer or almost exclusively existed to prepare if we do not get the coveted article. wine with their meals have without re- men for the three learned professions

Law may measurably protect the luctance given up that pleasure in order law, medicine, and the ministry. I do prudent from criminals, but it is never to give the experiment of National total not think there was in either of the an adequate protection of the ignorant, abstinence a fair trial. It is quite cer- colleges a gymnasium or a laboratory the innocent, and the weak from the tain that drunkenness is no longer the for the students, either physical or enticements of vice. Whether there is common American vice it was a hun- chemical. I know there was none in less or more vice in New York City than dred, or even fifty, years ago. And a

my college, the New York University. there was three-quarters of a century hundred years ago it was not as bad in Now every vocation is a learned proago I cannot say, but it is certainly less New York as it was in the eighteenth fession; men are as well educated for ostentatiously offensive. Then it was century in London, where, the historian banking or commerce as for the bar or not safe for any woman to go out un- tells us, signs might be seen on some of the pulpit. Barnard College furnishes attended in the streets of the city after the liquor shops: “Drunk for a penny: to women an equipment and a faculty nightfall. Women were generally not with straw to lie on, twopence.”

not inferior to that furnished by Columadmitted to the theaters without a male New York in the last seventy years bia to men. The training schools for escort, except that in many, I believe has shared in the general enlargement teachers of the city are supplemented most, of the theaters the upper gallery of popular education which has charac- by the Teachers College of Columbia and was reserved as a hunting-ground where terized the Republic. In 1850 there was the School of Pedagogy of the New York women of the town might look for their in all Europe no public school systemUniversity. The high schools give ap


Courtesy of Valentine's Manual


Bowling Green in 1848. The iron railing, still in use, came from England in 1771

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