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BUSHES

REPRISALS

war

our

foundland produce, for at this time, in

(Marcus in the lewe York "Times") cluding canned fish, three out of every four fish that Bostonians eat and five out of every six that New Yorkers eat come from the Pacific Ocean.

The United States need not fear competition from so small a people as the Newfoundlanders, who are our kinsmen as well as our neighbors. In a letter to The Outlook, Dr. Wilfred Grenfell, who has long lived among them, speaks thus of them:

Here in America we have preserved to a great extent the heritage of our simple, God-fearing forebears who, with the spirit of the Norsemen and the Viking strain in their blood, crossed the Atlantic. We realize that in sea power lies the safety that now gives us that responsible pre-eminence which it has so long preserved for the Anglo-Saxon. . In 1914 we were glad of these northern hardy seamen, who from many coves and hamlets sprang to the aid of a world whose high ideals were threatened. Admirals and generals have testified as to the vital part the fishermen played in making possible the transport of troops and materials by liter

A SAIL! ally sweeping the seas in the dangerous and un romantic tasks for which tainable than to insist upon this or that many understandings and misunderwe landsmen were unfitted. We may solution of the problem.

standings that it is safe to predict that need these men again if ever clouds break upon us. ...

This is one reason why the British the task of reconciling the desires of the The Newfoundlanders share

Government through its Prime Minister two opposing sections of Irish will be ideals, joys and sorrows, our hopes has shown willingness to open the doors long and difficult. The Ulster counties and fears. They have earned the wide for conciliation, without insisting would prefer to remain just as they are right to special consideration from

that its dignity made it impossible to now, with a Parliament and Home Rule America in the field of honor both in war and peace time.

deal with confessed revolutionists and system of their own, close relations

men who have aided or prompted dis- with Great Britain as the Imperial Gov. Dr. Grenfell has earned the right to

order. Mr. Lloyd George lays more ernment, and just as little to do as posbe heard. He is one of those rare com

stress on results than upon authority; sible with their southern neighbors. binations—a practical idealist. He is

but it is better sometimes to be incon- This attitude, however, is as unwelcome speaking on behalf of American food

sistent than to be inefficient. It must to the south of Ireland as the "one Irish consumers as well as Newfoundland

be hard both for the English Prime Republic” idea is to Ulster. fishermen. An American tariff that

Minister and the Ulster Premier, Sir If forecasts from those near the Sinn would force the abandonment of a rich

James Craig, to meet in peaceable coun- Fein leaders are correct, it seems prob sea harvest would injure both.

cil with the so-called President of the able that what they may be willing to invisible Irish Republic, and with Mr. agree to would be separate parliaments

De Valera's colleagues released from for the north and south of Ireland dealHOPES FOR PEACE IN imprisonment for disloyalty, and in at ing with local matters, as the Provinces IRELAND

least one case, that of Austin Stack, of Ontario and Quebec do in Canada, but

arrested for activity in connection with with an all-Ireland Parliament which S the Irish peace conference be. Sir Roger Casement's plot to aid Ger- would deal with matters relating to Iregins its sessions in London there many against England. But bitterness land as a whole, just as does the Cana

are in all quarters fervid expres- and prejudice are evidently to have no dian Dominion Parliament. This is not sions of desire for a reasonable settle- part in the present conference.

attractive to the mind of Ulster; its ment of the vexed questions involved. The present hope for a settlement of people believe that in any such superThere is also a notable feeling of hope the Irish question seems to hinge upon government over tiem their needs and and almost confidence that pacification some phase of Dominion government. interests would go to the wall because may be gained, lawlessness and guerrilla It is almost certain that the Sinn Fein South Ireland would have overwhelming warfare ended, and a working plan for leaders are willing to abandon their authority if the basis is to be that of the future reached.

attitude of "Irish independence or noth- population. So the real question may One thing that makes for peace is the ing,” which led them to refuse to take turn out to be w lether such a dual or de. perate condition the struggle has any part in the former Irish peace con- triple form of Dominion governme t can reached. When affairs are at their ference and was really the rock on be conceived as would fully safe zuard worst, it is human nature to insist that which that attempt to bring peace and the smaller section and yet be acce table something must and shall be done to stability was wrecked. If they should to the larger section. remedy them. There are many hun- still insist upon an Irish Republic to be The basic difficulty is the fierce anidreds of thousands of people in Ireland as independent as France is to-day, then mosity between the two sections—the who are now more anxious to see mur- the conference might as well cease its smaller, Protestant, industrial, loyal, der and destruction cease, authority of sessions at once.

practical, and attached to the idea of some kind recognized, and prosperity at- The Dominion plan is capable of so close connection with Great Britain; the

[graphic]

A

WHAT

larger, Catholic, agricultural, patriotic, ural expression of the disappointment save for those who have suffered in body imaginative, and intensely eager for and disillusionment which the ex-service or mind, the ex-service men have very Irish independence or the closest thing man felt when he returned to his home largely re-established themselves in the possible to it. Probably Ulster would and found how inadequate the sacrifice civil life of the Nation. A bonus welcome such a relation to Great Britain of the civilian population had been in granted at the time of their discharge and to the rest of Ireland as Newfound- comparison to his own. The soldiers, from the Army or Navy would have land and Labrador bear to Canada and sailors, and marines who went into the been a real help. The money given , England; that is, absolute independence war never thought for an instant of ask

upon discharge was less than enough to in local matters and full recognition of ing questions concerning the financial provide the veterans with a civilian outImperial supremacy.

But this would rewards which they would receive. fit of clothing. The time for adjusting never be agreed to by the Sinn Fein While the war was on, the fact of being that inadequate payment is past. An leaders, and it might prove in itself an able to serve was in itself the chief attempt to correct it now would, it unsatisfactory adjustment.

recompense which the service men could seems, probably do the great body of our The consent of Mr. De Valera to at- receive.

veterans more harm than good-enough tend the conference with his colleagues The first and most cogent reason indirect harm to offset the direct good. has been generally hailed as evidence against granting a bonus to all service There is another method which friends that he is no longer an irreconcilable.

of the veteran are urging, at least in Some of those Irish revolutionists who

New York State, for his partial relief, have been unreasonable to the very limit

and this is a method which is much less and who scout any mention of conces

defensible than the plea for a Federal sion or compromise are now denouncing

HAT does the

bonus. In New York State there is an De Valera as a renegade. It remains to

Nation owe to

agitation on foot, that, we are sorry to be seen whether the Sinn Fein leaders

say, is backed by many veterans' orare really working for peace or whether the veteran of the World ganizations, to secure the passage of they intend to insist upon such com

a Veterans' Preference Constitutional plete yielding to their demands that for

War ? Next week we

Amendment in the election this coming a second time the attempt to find out

fall. shall print articles on

This Constitutional amendment what Ireland really wants and what the

provides that soldiers, sailors, and maIrish people as a nation are willing to the bonus and the reha- rines who are citizens and residents of undertake shall prove futile.

New York State shall be entitled to The grave importance of the confer

bilitation of the disabled.

preference in appointment and promoence now in session can hardly be ex

tion without regard to their standing on aggerated. If its members shall act as

any list from which such appointments leaders of opinion and earnestly unite

or promotions may be made. The adoptheir efforts to dispel the hateful state men at this time lies in the fact that tion of this amendment would destroy of bloodshed and civil war that has ex- there is a particular class of service all the progress which has been made in isted in Ireland so long, then indeed we men who have a prior claim upon the the direction of establishing an efficient may see the dawn of peace and law and attention of the country, The service

Civil Service in New York State. It is order in Ireland. If not, the British men themselves are the first to demand to the real interest of a veteran, as of Government has apparently no alterna- that the Government bend its every every other citizen, that the Governtive except to establish authority by effort to giving adequate care to the ment of the State shall be in the highest force, but with the utmost care that the wounded, disabled, and incapacitated possible degree efficient. The jobs which methods of its representatives in Ireland veterans. The status of the disabled individual veterans may secure under shall be free from the slightest tinge of veterans has left no doubt that the Gov. such a law will be an inadequate return lawlessness or cruelty.

ernment has been remiss in the pay. for the consequent lowering of the standment of its debt to those broken in ards of appointment throughout the health and mind by the war.

The ques

State. The destruction of the Civil SerTHE BONUS AND THE tion of a general bonus should be at vice is bad coin in which to pay any

least put off until the disabled have been debt. VETERAN

That the proposed amendment is cared for.

not without precedent constitutes no ONGRESS has been under severe A statement by Secretary Mellon argument in its favor. pressure to pass a bonus law pro- makes clear another reason why the

viding what has been called "an present is no fit occasion for the grantadjusted compensation" for veterans of ing of a general bonus.

AN INTELLECTUAL the World War. This pressure has been The payment of the huge sum of

SHORTHAND the result in part of Congressional de- money required, running, it is estimated, sire to placate a large body of voters into the billions, would, it is believed, ECENTLY the Young-Old Philoso. and in part from the very human desire wipe out the advantages which are ex

pher has been traveling. We have of our Congressmen-ongressmen are pected to accrue to the whole Nation

heard from him only through an humar you know-tu do everything from the reduction of Governmental occasional message on a postcard, after which they could for the men who bore expenses by the planned economies of the manner of tourists; but now he is the ch ef burden of the war.

the present Administration.

The pay

home again, and to-day he called upon The Outlook has never classed the de- ment of this sum to our ex-service men us. mand for the bonus as an indefensible would probably serve to upset business "I was struck, all along my journey," attempt to raid the National Treasury. to such an extent that any cash which he began, "by the fact that, while almost It has not considered the demand for the ex-service man might receive would every person I saw did a good deal of the bonus as an attempt of the ex-service be offset by the portion of the general reading, few read books. It was mostly men to put a cash value upon their con- loss which he would be called upon to newspapers and magazines I observed; tribution to the war. The demand for meet. The third reason against the and heads were buried in them. Only the bonus has seemed to us a very nat- granting of a bonus lies in the fact that, occasionally would I see man or

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471 woman engrossed in a volume. When I others to be lost in the clash and roar variety. The unity must be, to use the did, and, through an old habit of mine, of these demon days? Are they to be words of my correspondent, "the outrefused to pass until I had got the title superseded by the tale of 'Somebody's speaking of the human heart;" it must of the book, I was struck by the light- Terrible Vengeance' or 'Anybody's Amaz- be a unity of emotion and purpose, not ness of the story. People nowadays ing Murder'?

a unity of intellectual opinion; it must seem to prefer an evanescent fiction to “I think things will readjust them- be found in the prayers and hymns of solid biography and history. It may be selves. I am not one to deplore every the Church, not in the sermons of the a reaction of the war-surely, it can be new movement, every fresh enterprise, ministers nor in creeds ancient or modexplained in some way. Or it may be that comes along. Instead, I look for due to the inroads of the movies, which the good in each young development, If there had been uniformity of belief make little or no demands upon the in- and pray that that, and that alone, will in pure science, we should still believe tellect, and owe their tremendous and last, and the evil accompanying it may that the world is flat and that the sun appalling popularity to that very fact. perish to make way for other crusaders." revolves around it and we should still Give people something that amuses

be studying stars in order to discover them, and does not make them think

the destiny of man. When astronomy deeply, and you have won them, in- NOT WHAT BUT WHOM

was born astrology died. evitably, to your cause. The success of

Dear Dr. Abbott:

If there had been uniformity of belief the baby's rattle is based on a complete I am deeply impressed with the

in applied science, we should have no understanding of the infant mind; and

thought that out of the fullness of

steamboats, no railways, no telegraphs,

your experience and faith you could the picture houses, with their perpetual

(and should) prepare a formula of

no telephones, no airplanes. Each of grinding out of nothing at all, are belief for the incurably religious, for

these inventions has had to make its packed by audiences who are seeking an whom the Apostles' Creed has become way by the enthusiasm of its advocates escape from all but the most primitive

meaningless, to say the least.

in spite of hostile criticism and often emotions. They are not necessarily dull

Something as concise as the Ten
Commandments, or the Lord's Prayer,

of bitter opposition. people; but mostly they are people with- which could be the outspeaking of If there had been uniformity of belief out imagination. The movies rather the human heart and bind men (i. e., and of teaching in medicine, we should glorify life for them, and the onlookers

believers) in a brotherhood hitherto

not believe in the circulation of the unattained.

Α. Α. Τ. are released from opaque and drab sur

blood; nor in the germ theory of disroundings through the magic of ani

DITORIAL reports in The Outlook

ease; nor in the use of anæsthetics; and mated pictures that tell some sort of

have informed our readers that

we should still be subject to annual visitale, no matter how trivial.

recent attempts have been made

tations of cholera and yellow fever. "We read and write nowadays a sort in two Protestant denominations to

If there had been uniformity of belief of shorthand. We are too busy, most of frame some brief formulas of faith,

in religion, there would never have been us, for the delicate and beautiful things though these efforts were apparently in

Wesleyanism; nor Puritanism; nor of life. We are anxious to reach any spired by a desire not to provide some

Protestantism; nor even Christianity. intellectual destination, as any physical new formula expressive of the results of

Nero believed in uniformity of teaching. destination, at the highest possible modern thinking, but to restate in new

Paul, Peter, James, and John believed in speed; and we take short cuts whenever formulas old opinions to check the prop

liberty and variety of teaching. Their The swiftness of modern life agation of new opinions. In this respect

motto was, “Prove all things, hold fast has swept us all on in a sort of blind they differed widely from the proposal of

that which is good.” The only way to frenzy, until leisure is now only a word my correspondent; in two respects they

prove all things is to subject everything and a moment's idleness an undreamed- differed from each other. In the Presby

to free and fearless discussion. of event. We forget those little side- terian Assembly the proposal for a new

Dogmatism and agnosticism are of trails off the main highway that are creed was allowed to die in committee;

kin. The one declares that we can know perhaps more crowded with glamour in the Baptist National Convention the

nothing about the invisible world beand delight; and we lose, through our proposed creed, apparently a compromise

yond what the Church tells us; the other, vain wish for momentary money-making, between two wings, was carried by a

that we can know nothing about the the very essence and sweetness of the large majority. The Presbyterian As

invisible world. In fact, the invisible rushing days. We spend what leisure sembly is a legislative body, and any

world is an infinite and unknown contiwe accidentally have in a dark cavern creed adopted by that body would have

nent. The more there are to explore it looking at a picture which has little re- had something of the moral force of law

and bring back the results of their exlation to life as it is, forgetting the and might in time, by proper constitu

plorations, the more rapid will be the books on our shelves which came out of tional methods, become a law; if the

progress in the higher life of the human the hearts and souls of men and women Baptists still retain, as we presume they

race. The unity of the Christian Church who studied humanity and crystallized do, their historic spirit of independence,

must be secured by loyalty to a Person, it enduringly on paper. any eed which the National Conven

not by loyalty to what others have “There is a curious delusion that the tion adopts has no force, moral or

thought about that person. classics are dull. They contain, as a ecclesiastical, on the Baptists. It is

This is well said by John Oxenham matter of fact, more movement and gen- simply an expression of the opinion of

in his volume of verse entitled “Bees in uine thrills than the most lurid movie. those who voted for it.

Amber,” published by the American But the thrills are an integral part of There is, however, in all three pro

Tract Society: any legend of ancient Greece or Rome, posals one common element: all express

Not what, but Whom, I do believe, or even of latter-day London and Paris; a common but, in my judgment, a mis

That, in my darkest hour of need, and there they lie in our libraries for taken opinion that uniformity of belief Hath comfort that no mortal creed all to get acquainted with who will. Is and teaching is desirable. I think that To mortal man may give;the coming generation to miss the rich uniformity of belief and of teaching

Not what, but Whom!

For Christ is more than all the opportunities which you and I enjoyed? is very undesirable. What humanity

creeds, Are the glorious stories of Ulysses and needs, what is necessary to human And His full life of gentle deeds the Iliad and Penelope and Nero and progress and real intellectual spiritual Shall all the creeds outlive. Alexander the Great and a thousand life, is not uniformity, but liberty and

LYMAN ABBOTT.

we can.

A STUDY OF THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY

BY RICHARD BARRY

[graphic]

Knox had been made Secretary of State, as it was one time thought he would be, Mr. Mellon would not have been Secretary of the Treasury, for both come from Pennsylvania. The old Keystone State, being the richest jewel in the Republican diadem, always rates at least one member in a Republican Cabinet—but no more than one.

So Providence seems to have been looking after the United States when the President asked a man from New York, Mr. Hughes, to be Secretary of State, thus displacing the obvious Cabinet possibility from Pennsylvania, Mr. Knox, and making the inevitable place for a simon-pure business man, a practically successful financier of the first grade, Mr. Mellon.

Do I anticipate events and the verdict of time in asserting that Mr. Mellon is the proper Secretary of the Treasury? Not entirely. The point is that he is the kind of man for the job, and nearly everybody in Washington knows it.

A little incident of a recent Cabinet meeting will explain just why he is the right kind of man. The President brought up one of the many new problems that had been thrust at him for solution. It concerned the possible scrapping or further operation of one of the Government's war plants. The President asked one after another of the men about the table their opinion in the matter, The opinions were this and

that, but all were theoretical. No one (C) Keystone

had positive data to go on until the ANDREW W. MELLON, SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY

question was passed to the shyest, quiet

est, most retiring of the group of twelve. HICH is the biggest job in the cier in America ? Then he should be "And what is your opinion, Mr. Mel

Cabinet, that of the Secretary commandeered. But it has never been lon?" asked the President.

of State or of the Treasury? done that way. Even now, having a “I haven't looked into it thoroughly Tradition and the Constitution accord it practical financier in the Treasury is yet," replied the new Secretary of the to the Secretary of State, but it would only an accident—a sort of happy Treasury, with his accustomed modbe easy to make out a good case for the chance.

esty, “but I had a similar case recently Treasury.

One might think that Mr. Harding in one of my own plants to deal with. Especially now. Without going too said to himself: "Because I have prom- The amount involved was the samemuch into details, which would fill a ised to make mine a sound business $12,000,000. I scrapped mine." large volume, here are a few of his Administration I'll ask the most success- That was all. Except that for an induties: To find five billions a year ful financier in America to take the stant a sort of shocked silence descended with which to run the Government, to Treasury. Who is he? John D. Rocke over the Board. handle a public debt of twenty billions, feller of course, but Mr. Rockefeller is Certainly this is the kind of man we to look after ten billions of foreign loans too old. Who next? Mr. Morgan or Mr. have not had in that job, but which we on which there is due half a billion in- Baker. Well, Mr. Baker is also very do need now. It should be said here terest with no pay in sight, to enforce old, and Mr. Morgan is too thoroughly that Mr. McAdoo was the kind of man the Prohibition Act, collect the income identified with Wall Street both actually we needed in war time as Secretary of tax, administer the War Risk Insurance, and in public consciousness to establish the Treasury—a beau sabreur of finance, oversee the Secret Service, and look the proper confidence, for confidence is a dashing leader of unconquerable auafter half the Federal buildings in the about half the battle, and capable ad- dacity, who, when Congress said it United States.

ministration the other half. Who, then? needed one billion, replied, “I'll get you Quite a job. One would say, offhand, I'll ask the boys who is the next best five billion." it required a business man. Yet Mr. financier. Ah, Mr. Andrew W. Mellon, The opposite type is required for the Harding is the first President who has of Pittsburgh. Never heard of him. present era of reconstruction, and Mr. ever conceived and put into execution But he is the third or fourth richest Mellon looks like the proper person. I the novel idea of having a business man man in America, is self-made, is in. asked him not long ago if he had read in it.

dependent of Wall Street—and a wiz- Alexander Hamilton's notes the Finding a Secretary of the Treasury ard, a genius in finance. I'll appoint founding of the Bank of the United ought to be a simple matter. The Presi. him."

States, or if he knew the history of the dent ought to have to ask only one ques- But it didn't happen that way, or at Treasury Department. He replied no to tion-Who is the most successful finan- least only partially that way. If Mr. both questions. I then asked him what

W

on

theories he held for the administration finely chiseled lips are as sensitive as ment solely in arriving at decisions inof his new office. He had none.

those of a high-born woman. Thus is volving many millions. For twenty-five He approached Washington, as it produced an impression not so much of years his was a one-man bank, without were, with a blank mind. He hadn't a dynamic as of static imperial force. a board of directors among whom to apthing with which to grapple with the You feel that here is a born ruler, but portion responsibility. problems of the Treasury except an in- of an ancient line in which breeding has Carnegie came to him for help as comparable practical experience in big developed finesse with power.

Frick had come to his father. Scores business and an uncanny financial in- Mr. Mellon himself is the last to ad- of lesser men did likewise. With none stinct. He was extremely wary of politics mit that he is a practical business man. of them was it ever a case of consulting and politicians. It was his first public He permits himself as little credit as the directors. Mr. Mellon himself said office. Sixty-nine years old, his active possible for the many startling successes yes or no, and it was usually said with constructive career practically finished, which have risen under the ægis of the great promptness. he had nothing to win and peace of mind capital he has advanced. The mere Thus the self-effacing Pittsburgh man as well as a good reputation to lose. The names of these many enterprises have quietly built up a chain of successful law had required him to resign the filled the column of a newspaper and businesses, challenging the United States presidency of his banks and the direc- extend through coke, coal, steel, bank- Steel Company, on the one hand, and the torates of corporations, so that his per- ing, oil, real estate, and transportation Standard Oil Company, on the other, sonal money loss per annum would run to chemical research. Yet he always afraid of neither and respected by both. into six figures.

points to the other man-to the promo- It is the engineer of such a structure Yet his equipment was really unique ter, the executive, or the deft salesman- that Uncle Sam has called to superinfor governmental office. You see it par- as the one entitled to the glory of the tend a more extended field at a moment tially in his countenance. The profile, achievement.

when there is required a constructive in bony structure, is not unlike that of Previous to the 4th of last March Mr. genius with an exquisite instinct for C. J. Cæsar as depicted on Roman coins. Mellon's position in the financial world values and a dauntless courage in conThe fleshy contour, however, is melting, was different from that of any other fronting billions. the eyes are soft, and a drooping mus- banker of the present day. He was the We have now only to observe if the tache conceals the firmness of the survival of an era of individualists. For right kind of a man can proceed unhammouth, while his delicate nostrils and many years he relied on his own judg. pered in the biggest kind of a public job.

THE LIQUOR PROBLEM IN GREAT BRITAIN

BY P. W. WILSON

I

HAVE here the figures—I am sorry much of the drink bill goes to the state. 33 gallons of beer were drunk every to add, the disquieting figures—of The actual figures are:

year per head. But the present allowthe increased consumption of al- Year Drink Bill Taxation Net Drink Bill ance of 20.61 gallons is serious. It coholic liquors in the United Kingdom

1914.... f164,500,000 £39,900,000 £124.600,000 means 103.05 gallons per household, or

1920.... 469,700,000 197,000,000 272,700,000 since the armistice, as collected from

(includes excess

fully 2 gallons per week, in addition to official sources by Mr. George B. Wilson,

profits tax)

wine and spirits as diluted. the leading statistician of the temper- It will thus be seen that, even after I should here make it plain that these ance parties in London. No friend of allowing for the excess profits tax, the barrels are "standard"—that is, of a England, studying these figures, can be

net expenditure, accruing to the trade, certain legal strength of alcohol-and other than anxious for her social wel. has risen from £124,600,000 to £272,700,- the standard barrel is usually diluted fare, and no friend of the United States, 000, or has more than doubled. And before it reaches the consumer. This estimating the success or failure of pro- even of the taxation, it must be said explains why, with a reduced "standhibition, should ignore comparisons that practically the whole of this rev- ard" barrelage, the brewers are receivwith the British alternative.

enue is drawn from wages and small ing more money for themselves. They In 1914-seven years ago the drink salaries.

have sold weaker or lighter beers at a bill for the United Kingdom was £164,- I shall next be asked what actual con- higher price per glass, and have so 500,000, or, at $5 to the pound sterling, sumption of alcohol this expenditure reaped a rare harvest. It may be well $822,500,000. In 1920 that drink bill was

represents. First, take beer. The from one standpoint to have lighter £469,700,000, or nearly three times as United Kingdom drank in recent years beer, but from another standpoint it great, amounting to $2,348,500,000. Apas follows:

means that the trade has become more proximately, a sum of £10 a head was

Gallons powerful financially and able to demand Barrels

Per Head spent on drink for every man, woman,

a higher price as compensation for dis1914.

34,130,000

26.66 and child in the country, or for the

12,790,000

9.99

turbance. It is no longer a dying indusaverage family of five persons £50. 1920,

26,917,000

20.61 try, but an industry resurrected, with Such a household thus pays £1 a week These figures show that in the year large reserves, debentures paid off, and for drink, or, at a normal rate of ex- 1918 Britain had reduced her consump- a handsome surplus for propaganda. change, nearly $5, which is more than tion of beer from over 26 gallons per Experience has shown that immensely the total average wage of the agricul- head to under 10 gallons. This result increased taxation is no remedy for the tural laborer in many English counties was achieved, not by shutting public drink evil and that restricted hours of before the war. In certain areas even houses or saloons, but by stopping sale in saloons may only mean brisker to-day the miners lately on strike manufacture at the source. All the beer business while sale is permitted. were only offered £258. a week, or brewed was drunk, but there was only For spirits the figures are similar. $11.

about one-third the brewing allowed. Consumption fell from 31,790,000 galIn the main, this huge drink bill is Since then there has been a "let up" on lons in 1914 to 15,110 gallons in 1918, paid by the poor. Out of £469,713,000, brewing, and in two years consumption but have since risen again to 22,147,000 which is the total, only £30,318,000, or has doubled. This is despite the fact gallons. As for wines, they have so one-fifteenth, was spent on wine, the that the war boom in trade had become fluctuated that whereas 10,630,000 galbeverage of the rich; and of drink taxes in 1920 a slump, now so serious that lons were drunk in 1914, no less than amounting to £133,500,000, wine only more than ten per cent of wage-earners 15 uovernmemo“ were drunk last year, furnished a revenue of £2,235,000, or one- are to-day, apart from the strike, out heir currency, and manerage of the rich sixtieth.

work. England is not so intemperOn the other hand, it is true that she used to be when, a genera'

2 the above

1.918.

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