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THE WHEAT FARMER TURNS MIDDLEMAN
BY HENRY J. HASKELL
HE U. S. Grain Growers, Inc., was ing he is determined to have simply as recognizing and protecting the rights of organized in Chicago the second a producer of raw material. He must the consuming public, the plan insures
week in April. Incorporated un- add to his profits as a producer the the farmer an equitable and just return der the laws of Delaware, it is to be a profits of the grain merchant as well. on his grain crops by effecting savings, non-stock, non-profit corporation, acting This is what he is trying to do through avoiding speculation, preventing needas a National sales agency for grain. the organization of the U. S. Grain less duplication of effort, and eventually Its various departments are to provide Growers, Inc., and its subsidiaries. stabilizing the market for grain crops. terminal sales agencies, warehousing Under the proposed plan, the farmer We are told that the farmer now refacilities at terminal markets, a finance joins the National co-operative organiza- ceives thirty-four cents of the dollar corporation, an export corporation, and tion by paying a ten-dollar initiation fee that the consumer pays for farm prod. a marketing news service.
and making a five-year contract to sell ucts. There is need to change that ratio. This somewhat technical and forbid. his grain exclusively through the co- With all other farmers, I resent the disding statement carries an announce- operative agencies. Four options are covery that the just and equitable share ment of immense importance through then open to him: He may sell to the of the profits from my labor and the out the grain-growing area. It means local co-operative elevator at the cur- labor of my neighbors has erected a the beginning of the largest co-operative rent market price; he may consign his brown-stone front on Lake Shore Drive movement in the history of the country. grain direct to the agency at a terminal or outfitted a palace pleasure-boat in. The U. S. Grain Growers, Inc., is the market; he may pool his crop with the stead of being returned to me wherewith fruition of years of hard experience, grain of other local growers, to be sold to purchase the new dress my wife has of thousands of experiments, futile as by the directors of the pool at an oppor. been waiting two years for or to enable well as successful. The organizations tune time; or he may pool one-third of me to give my girl some of the advan. represented on its Board of Directors his crop for export. If there is no local tages that her town girl friends enjoy." include a large share of the grain pro- co-operative elevator, the members in the Evidently there is something of the ducers of the United States. The men locality may build or lease one, which crusader's zeal to be reckoned with. and concerns involved are the most sub- will be under contract to sell only to the But zeal and a sense of grievance will stantial and influential in the grain terminal market sales agency. Where a not of themselves bring success. There country. They may fail. But they rep- local co-operative elevator is not avail- must be a real field for operation and resent the best brains and organizing able, the farmer may resort to direct there must be competent management. ability available for the purpose to-day. consignment to the terminal market Experience in the distribution of fruits,
The movement is the sudden crystal- sales agency. In this case he may sell vegetables, and dairy products has lization of many elements that were at the current price, or, if he thinks the proved the existence of wasteful praclong in solution. The jar that effected market is rising, he may store his grain tices that have been eliminated by cothe crystallizing came from the sudden to be sold later.
operation of the producers. collapse in the value of farm products Under this system the farmer or his The question is whether the same op. that began last summer. The remedy to agents will be in control of the grain portunity for increased efficiency exists which the wheat farmer naturally from the time it leaves the farm until in the distribution of the grains—which turned, largely as the result of his ex- it reaches the miller. The place of the mean predominantly wheat. Commisperience with governmental price fixing various middlemen, operating for pri- sion men and others engaged in the during the war, was the artificial con- vate profit, will be taken by the farmer's business insist that its distribution is trol of prices through monopolistic pool- agents, operating for the farmer's profit. highly organized and freely competitive, ing. This would have been futile as The organizers of the plan believe that and that the speculative market fur. well as anti-social. Fortunately, wiser the cost of distribution from the farmer nishes stability of prices and the best counsels prevailed, and out of a repre- to the local or line elevator, from the possible form of insurance. The forsentative farm conference in Chicago local elevator to the terminal elevator, tunes that have been made, they assert, July, 1920, came plans for great co-opera- from the terminal elevator to the miller are due to the same qualities of business tive organizations for marketing grains or the exporter, is unnecessarily heavy, acumen that bring success everywhere, and live stock. The grain marketing and that the co-operative agencies can and are due to large volume rather than system has been worked out in detail handle the grain more cheaply than it to excessive charges. In their opinion, and the plans approved by the farm or- is now handled through private con- the middleman does a real service which ganizations. The various branches are
will cost the farmer as much or more now taking shape. It is too vast and Every widespread movement is the re- to have done for him by a co-operative intricate an enterprise to be completed sult of a frame of mind in which the agency. in time to handle this year's crops, but emotions play a part. It is impossible The test of experience will determine the necessary preliminaries are well un- to appreciate the force behind this new which is right. But progress is always der way. The live stock corporation is co-operative movement without insight made at the cost of adventure and risk. to be developed later.
into the farmer's sense of grievance. It is quite possible that the psychic facTo understand the farmer's attitude This phase of the question is illumined tor might prove more important than it must be borne in mind that he is by some of the remarks made by Mr. the ordinary business man supposes. pretty generally convinced that he is C. H. Gustafson, of Lincoln, Nebraska, The idea that the farmer through his the victim of market manipulation and President of the U. S. Grain Growers, co-operative would be able to purchase that the middleman takes profits that Inc., and former head of the Farmers' that new dress for his wife and provide ought to go to the producer. Believing Union of Nebraska, which did a one- advantages for his daughter might dethis, rightly or wrongly, he is deeply hundred-million-dollar co-operative busi- velop an unexpected incentive to suckpneerned in attempting to keep the ness last year.
Whether one agrees cess. Even if the whole elaborate plan rain in his own hands until it reaches with the views expressed or not, they should not prove workable, certain feaat least the miller, and possibly the are an interesting exposition of a mental tures of it might result in providing baker. In any event, the leaders say, attitude.
better facilities for the marketing of the farmer cannot make the sort of liv. "We believe,” he said, "that, while grain. The agitation so far has invited
the attention of able men in the grain business and on the outside, and constructive suggestions for betterments have come from such men as Mr. Julius H. Barnes, former President of the United States Grain Corporation, and
Mr. Bernard M. Baruch, former Chair-
should fail, the grain grower would have less reason to feel that he was the victim of an unfair system. He would have learned by experience the cost and difficulties of distributing his product. This in itself would be wholesome.
A HARDTACK ATTACK; OR, THE VERACITY OF
A TALE OF THE CLIPPER SHIPS
BY BILL ADAMS
But devil a sail was there going to be LLOW me to state that you make WILL ADAMS, the nautical corre
taken off that packet with the Muskoka an error. I do not throw hard
spondent of The Outlook, cast upon the weather beam and the wind tack at a any one. Not I. For a few gentle aspersions upon the
coming up from a point on the quarter. why? I'll tell you.
sea knowledge of Meade Minni- The mate spoke to the hands; and Years ago, a long time ago, oh, ever gerode, whose tales of the clipper
forward away they went upon the same so long ago, there were two clippers ships have been appearing in The
swift run, and the apprentices with abeam of each other when dawn broke Outlook these past few months. We
them. All hands and the cook ran. upon the weedy Sargasso Sea. They published Bill's letter, and it called
Every last man Jack upon that old were rivals. Ancient rivals. And it forth from its author a special de
four-master ran to his sea chest, and had been some years since last they had livery plea to Mr. Minnigerode for
back to the decks they came, running met upon the sea roads. Upon that forgiveness. We hastened to assure
still, with their arms full of shirts, occasion it had been a blizzard accom. the critic that there was nothing in
jumpers, jackets, and shore-going pants. panied with snow that had separated his letter to cause offense to even
Then, from boom to break of the clip. them. But now the sea and sky were the most sensitive of authors, and
per's poop, there were lines strung fore clear and a stiff S. W. breeze was blow- we wrote him that he had not hit
and aft and thwart ships. Then there ing upon their starboard quarters.
Mr. Minnigerode with a belaying
were shirts, and jackets, and jumpers, It happened that a breeze one point pin, but that he had merely shied
and shore-going pants, strung up to upon the quarter of one of them was a playful piece of hardtack at his gather in the little caps full of wind lier best sailing point. She could foot head. We have now received from that went piping along the decks under it then. Three skysails, moonsails this veteran of the seas a letter pro
the courses-doing the ship no good above them, royal staysails, bull- testing against our suggestion that whatever, but blowing idly away over whanger and bonnets, monkey gaff- he had thrown hardtack at any
the seas ahead. and all sheets and halyards and braces one's head. The letter is not only
Then it was that that fast four-mast sweated home—then she could foot it! a protest against our statement, but
bark held her own with the full-rigged She did. She was the three-mast an absolute verification (that would Londoner that was thinking to leave her full-rigger Muskoka, and she had her be accepted in a court of law) of
far astern by the falling of night over holds chock-a-block with Sydney wool. Bill's claim that seamen confine
the weedy Sargasso Sea. Alongside her at the first faint streak- themselves strictly to the truth.
Ah, then it was that the old skipper ing of the Sargasso dawn was a four- Since we have recently had some
of that long, low-in-the-water, lofty, slipmast bark. A long, low-in-the-water, romantic fiction in The Outlook, we
along clipper twinkled his gray eyes lofty packet, with her upper sides are publishing Bill's uncolored nar
and winked across five miles of weedy painted black, a white beading around rative as a bit of relief. Any one
Sargasso Sea at the bridge where stood the center of the black, and gray-painted who reads this tale will never doubt
the bald-headed, peak-nosed, bow-legged under the black to the edge of the a sailorman's word again.
fellow called Bijah-Bijah Thompson, water; below the water-line pink show
skipper of the high-flying Londoner. ing as her fore foot lifted to the heave
Then it was that the shark's tail, of the swells.
was a fat man and hadn't a stray hair spiked for luck (as was the custom of She was the Silberhorn. She was a 1 pon bis system save upon the head of the sailing clippers), upon the boom queen on the sea. She was a fast-footed him. No one called him Egg except the end of the Muskoka remained just exflyer; but her best point was with the apprentices, of whom I was one. And actly level with the shark's tail spiked wind one point before the beam and her you can bet that he never knew we upon the boom end of the Silberhorn. yards close up. Then she could foot called him so!
So they sailed till eight bells went at it. Then she did.
He called Egg Martin, and he whis- noon. Aboard the two ships every last So there they lay; slipping through pered to his weather ear. Egg left the man of all the crowd was kept handy the furrows with everything set, and poop deck with the jumpy swing in his on deck, lest anything blow away. The the bellies of the big courses high lifted stride that he was peculiar for. He let hands chewed at their salt-horse with by the following wind.
out a yell. The hands came on the hop, the salt sprays driving down on them The old skipper of the four-master thinking the skipper had taken cold and sipped at their lime juice while knew well enough where the best sail. feet with the clipper dipping her rail they dipped their heads to escape the ing point of each ship was.
so deep in the sea, and the big salt slap of the salt water flying past them. may be sure that with the wind on his sprays all driving clear over her. They As eight bells went upon the big forquarter he had every rope sweated as figured that it was to be a case of taking ward bell of the long four-master her tight as sweating could make it go. But in sail, and they made straight for the old shark-eyed skipper blew down the that was not enough.
halyards and downhauls—on the quick taffrail telephone to where his wife was He called the mate- Egg Martin, the run that Ege had long ago had them sitting in their cabin. mate, Egg was so called because he trained to,
Up came the old lady. She was a short, hard-handed woman, with the sea forward of the shark tail upon the boom Now if that piece of hardtack had hit toil written all over her face and fea. end of the London clipper.
young Cassidy upon the head nothing tures. Her hair was trimmed down The afternoon watches wore away would have been the worse. The hardshort, like the hair on an Airedale dog. with the long four-master galloping tack would have splintered up to a lot Her hair was dull gray, and her eyes down the salt furrows like a mare that of little chips and have dropped upon were like the eyes of a shark's shark runs to her master when the wolves the sea-swept decks, and gone overside wife. She came out upon the poop deck whine on a moonlight night. The dog- to feed the hungry little fishes. and she took a long look at the towering watch came and the dog-watch went. But—that hardtack missed the head London clipper five miles to windward. The second dog-watch came. The shark of Cassidy. It flew past his ducked pate
She took a short, disdainful look at tail on the Muskoka was level with the and struck endways upon the main the skipper. Said she:
main braces of the Silberhorn now. moonsail halyard block-just over the “G-r-r-r-r, why the
Old skipper Shark Eyes and his top of the sheave pin. The halyard call me, heh?"
Shark Eye wife stood side by side blocks, and the sheet blocks, and the The old wife of the old shark-eye watching that Kearney Street hat with tack blocks, and all other blocks upon skipper took two jumps back to the door the daffodils, and the blue chrysanthe- that bark were made of the finest Jara of the chart-house; and down the ac- mums, and the ferns, and the violets, teak, and were naturally good solid commodation ladder to her cabin she gather up the little capfuls of stray hardwood. went, nimble as a Madagascar cat reach- wind, and the two of them smiled. Egg But just above the sheave pin that ing for ripe bananas.
Martin stood upon the bridge staring at teakwood halyard block split and In less than three shakes of a young the full-rigger, wondering how it hap- cracked up, and gave. lamb's tail she was back upon the poop. pened that old red-whiskered Pete, Pete Far aloft there was a soft flap heard
She held in her hands the swell hat- Llewellyn, the hairy mate of the Mus- as the main moonsail dropped to the the swellest hat-that she had bought koka, came to be such a hairy-chested skysail yard. The damage was done. up at the White House, on Kearney old cuss as he was. The hands stood Then it was that that Londoner with Street, before sailing, meaning to put about the decks hiding as well as they her sidelights beginning to twinkle one over on the wives of the Liverpool could from the driving salt sprays. across the cold weedy Sargasso Sea, and skippers when the old bark pulled into Pat O'Brien and Pat Cassidy, two with all her hands crowding in her lee the Mersey. She went to the weather heaven-forgotten sea apprentices, two shrouds cheering, started to crawl up quarter of the taffrail and there she unloved and sinful young first-voyage upon the long, low-in-the-water clipper strung it up, with its inside turned to sea apprentices, came out of the half- from 'Frisco. the wind.
deck, the one chasing the other; fooling Night fell. The moonsail was set There were violets, and blue chrysan- with each other, making a horse-play, again in quick time. The race contin. themums, and a daffodil or two, and a acting like a couple of good-for-nothing ued. The stars blinked. The mermaids couple of ferns, on that hat, and every young larrikins.
whispered under that hat with the last mermaid that lives under the pretty Sunset had faded over the weedy sea, daffodils, and violets, and blue chrysweeds of the green Sargasso Sea turned and the stars were beginning to blink. anthemums, and ferns, upon it. green and pink and liver color with The clippers were driving with their lee There is no need to tell of the race. plain envy at the very sight of it. rails deep under the salt sea.
nor of who won it, or how she won. Ah, then it was-then it was that the Pat Cassidy came on the run around But I have explained to you why I do fly-away bark with four tall masts and the weather after corner of the midship not throw hardtack, even playfully, at a dainty pink fore foot lifted her long house. Pat O'Brien behind him, with fellow-mariners. nose up to scent the weeds of the Sar- one hand up and a Liverpool Pantile And that is what I started out to do. gasso Sea, as a wild mare of the lost held tight in it. He took a quick aim Adios, señor. uplands scenting a hungry wolf might at the head of Pat Cassidy. From the
BILL ADAMS. do. Then it was that the shark tail lee of his lee eye Cassidy saw that aim, spiked for luck upon the boom end of and down went his heaven-forgotten P.S.-Some landsmen think sailors the old Silberhorn crept slowly, slowly young head.
are all liars. Why?
RUSSIA'S NEXT GENERATION
BY SIR PAUL DUKES
EW people yet grasp the fact that turn their minds to the conversion of are becoming completely demoralized. the central tragedy of the Bolsh- the children. (As is well known, it has Moral training was ever one of the
evist régime in Russia is an or' always been a Bolshevist principle to weakest sides of Russian life, and the ganized effort to subvert and corrupt fight the institution of the family. elimination of whatever moral instructhe minds of the children. With official Madame Kolontai's writings can leave tion there was is bound to have disaschannels of information monopolized by no doubt on that score even in the trous effects. This pernicious system is the Communist Government, most sur- minds of the skeptical. The idea is to combated by the Church and by parents prising rumors are afloat as to the remove children at an early age from as far as they can and' dare, but open Bolshevist attitude towards the growing parental care and bring them up in protest is impossible. children, while the difficulty of compre- colonies where they will be free from The Bolsheviks realize as keenly as do hending the situation is complicated by the evil influence of all non-Bolshevist their manifold but disrupted opponents the literal accuracy of the bald state- currents of thought.)
that the secret of the future of Russia ment that “the Bolsheviks are doing all Hopes for the future are founded on lies in education. It is said that not they can for children."
an institution known as the Union of long before the revolution a foreign visiThe question which so few proceed to Youthful Communists, which all school- tor indignantly told the Czar that a sys investigate is, however, this: What is it children join. The juvenile members tem of universal compulsory education the Bolsheviks are trying so hard to do are denied access to any but Bolshevist ought to be established in Russia, to for Russian children?
literature, are exempt from all moral which he replied: "That is what I have It was after the Communists had been training, allowed unbridled license, and been telling my Ministers for twenty in the saddle for about a year that their so encouraged in a spirit of rebellion years, but they won't listen to me." fears that this generation would not see against parental authority and the in- Small wonder that one of the first conCommunism established led them to fluence of former preceptors that they cerns of the Provisional Government was to introduce compulsory free educa- propaganda begins not in the head, but “Children in the big cities," says tion, and small wonder also that the in the stomach. You cannot convince “Trud,” February, 1921,"dragged into Bolsheviks exerted themselves to the even ignorant and credulous Russian the maelstrom of street speculation, are utmost to exploit to their own advantage children of the benefits of a system that becoming social calamity. In the mathe wave of thirst for knowledge that keeps their “tummies" empty or makes jority of cases they are the children of spread over Russia at the outbreak of them go barefoot and in rags in winter- workers. They support themselves and the Great War, receiving an additional time. So the children of those bourgeois earn for the family an additional inimpetus from the Revolution.
parents who can be persuaded to part come." To communize the teaching profes- with their little ones and such prole- "Beginning with the year 1918," says sion the Soviet Government resorted to tarian children as promise to make good the report of the League for the Protecabolition of all standards of education Communists are gathered together in tion of Children, "juvenile destitution for teachers. The first qualification for homes and colonies where they are fed began to assume catastrophic proporappointment, especially to posts in ele. on preferential rations at the expense of tions. The percentage of uncared-for mentary schools, became not an ade- the general populace and are clothed children in Moscow, which in 1917 quate education nor any moral qualifi- mainly with clothing seized from chil- amounted to no more than one or two cations, but the possession of a ticket of dren whose parents refuse to part with per cent, in the summer of 1920 reached membership of the Communist Party. them. Some of these homes and colo- twenty-five to thirty per cent. In reThe teachers of course protested, but nies, despite endeavors, are in a deplora- ality, however, the number of uncaredwere denounced as "counter-revolution- ble condition and fail hopelessly in their for children is much higher even than ary." Pronounced opposition also was object, but a desperate effort has been this, for the Soviet departments dealing shown by them to the abolition of ex- made to bring a few as nearly as pos- with children's welfare possess no adeaminations and rewards for diligence, a sible up to Western standards, in order quate apparatus for registration." measure which enabled the idlest to that there may be at least something to A Special Conference on Children held leave school on the same footing as the exhibit to distinguished foreign visitors. in 1920 revealed the fact that juvenile most assiduous. The evils resulting In pursuance of the theory that all prostitution has increased tenfold, or from the system of compulsory mixed independent philanthropy is a blemish one thousand per cent, since 1917. The living in boarding-schools suddenly "in- to the state, the numerous successful interpellation of 5,300 girls of or about troduced in a land of weak morals children's welfare institutions that grew fifteen years of age showed that no brought education in some cases com- up in the last years prior to the Revolu- fewer than 4,100—that is, eighty-eight pletely to a standstill. The desirability tion were subjected to gross molestation. per cent-indulge in prostitution. Sailor undesirability of the suppression of The well-known League for the Protec- ors, Red soldiers, and a vast class of religion in Russian schools may be open tion of Children, a society which in- profiteering speculators to which the to discussion, but there is nothing now cluded several philanthropic institutions, Communist régime has given birth proto replace it, for the teachers are de- became the object of particular persecu- vide the custom for these girls' earnings. liberately hampered in any attempt to tion. Even now, when at the eleventh The Bolshevist Commissariat of Public exert moral influence over their pupils, hour the bourgeoisie are being invited Health admits that, while in 1917 in lest their admonitions should have a to serve the Soviet Government, the ex- hospitals for venereal diseases there “counter-revolutionary" tendency. The istence of this League is but grudgingly were twelve per cent of children to figure of Lunacharsky, People's Com- tolerated.
eighty-eight per cent adults, there are missar for Education and Art, is one of At the close of 1920 the League for the now sixty per cent children to forty per the least unsympathetic (perhaps one Protection of Children prepared a report cent adults. should say, one of the most pathetic) on the conditions of children in Russian Such are the appalling results of the of the Revolution, but such measures as cities, portions of which, with other system of children's upbringing estabthe above have completely nullified frank admissions, were published in the lished under Bolshevist Communism. whatever good intentions he ever had. official Bolshevist press early this year. Fortunately, there are those who recog.
The primary object, therefore, of the The statistics presented form a tragic nize the supreme gravity of this probBolshevist educational system, while contrast to the propagandist concoctions lem and have taken it into their hands conferring the benefits of elementary designed for consumption abroad.
to save as many as possible of those literacy, is so to benumb the juvenile "We are powerless,” says the District Russian children whose good fortune it mind as to render it impervious in its Pedagogic Report for Petrograd, Decem- has been to be thrown, even destitute later stages of development to every in- ber, 1920, quoted in “Volia Rosii,” “in and orphaned, outside the pale of all fluence that leads to spontaneous initia- face of a condition of things formerly vitiating Bolshevist influence. The Rustive, independence of thought, or (above unnoticeable in Russia, namely, the in- sian Relief and Reconstruction Society all) moral uplift. The attitude of the crease of juvenile immorality and pros- of London is devoting its entire energy Communist Party towards the Russian titution. The former is the result of and resources to this end and is estabChurch is that of a snarling dog. As a universal demoralization and experi- lishing schools and homes in those cenMoscow workman whom I met in White ments of the Soviet Government (such ters on the outskirts of Russia where Russia last November observed to me: as combining boys' and girls' boarding refugees are most congested. The chil. "There is only one man in all Russia schools); the latter is consequent upon dren of these schools are destined to whom Bolsheviks fear from the bottom the privations of present economic con- form a leaven wherewith to purify of their hearts, and that is the Patri- ditions. Immorality has become juvenile Russia the moment the present arch, Tihon." Every variety of persecu- prevalent in our schools that drastic system in Russia comes to an end. The tion having failed, the Communists have measures will be needed to combat it. call for funds should appeal to all, retreated to their present attitude of Yet we do not see how this is possible wherever they may be, who fear the malicious tolerance, contenting them in view of the suppression of public world revolution or the canker of Bolshselves with employing the monopolized philanthropy in matters concerning the evism, and I cannot but think that my press to defame, abuse, and vilify care of children.”
many friends on this side of the water Christianity on every conceivable occa- "It is essential once again," says will be willing to assist this association. sion, but seeking especially to protect "Izvestia," March 3, 1921, “to point out Those who will aid may send checks to children from what they call “demoraliz- the ever-increasing lack of care of chil- J. P. Morgan & Co., Wall Street, New ing religious influence."
dren, with consequent infantile trading, York, payable to the Russian Relief and This is what the Bolsheviks are trying theft, deceit, and more serious vices. Reconstruction Fund. What the need is so hard to do for Russian children, and There have been cases when in a may be seen from the fact that it is this is the method of procedure. But brothel on the Hitrov market-place as stated that the sum of $150 will keep a there is a preliminary-an essential pre- many as fifty children have been seized boy or girl for a year and mean one liminary. Astute propagandists as they in a single day. ... The number of chil- more child to help restore the world to are, they realize clearly that effective dren now leading street life is colossal.” sanity and one less for world revolution.