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of treason, murder and felony, and except all executions in law awarded and granted before the beginning of parliament.

Also, every person, having voices in parliament, bath free liberty of speech to speak his mind, opinion and judgment, to any matter proposed, or of himself to propose any inatter for the commodity of the prince and of the commonwealth; but, having once spoken to any bill, he may speak no more for that time.

Also, every person once elected and chosen a knight, citizen, or burgess, and returned, cannot be dismissed out of that house; but being admitted, shall have his place and voice there, if he be a layman.

But if by error a man of the clergy is chosen, then he ought and shall be dismissed; also, if he be excommunicated, outlawed or infainous.

Also, every one of these members ought to be incore rupt, no briber, nor taker of any rewards, gifts, or money either for devising of any bill, or for speaking of his mind, but to do all things uprightly, and in such sort as is best for the king and commonwealth.

Also, every one ought to be of a quiet, honest, and gentle behaviour; none taunting, checking, or misusing another in any unseemly words or deeds, but, all affections set apart, to do and endeavour, in wisdom, sobriety, and knowledge, that which that place requireth.

Also, if any one do offend or misbehave himself, he is to be corrected and punished by the advice and order of the residue of the house.

Also, all the prisons, wards, jails within the realm, and the keepers of the same, are at the commandment of the parliainent for the custody and safe keeping, or punishment, of all and every such prisoners, as shall be sent to any of them by the said parliament houses, or any of them; how beit, most commonly the Tower of London is the prison which is most used.

Also, if any one of the parliament house be served, sued, arrested, or attacked by any writ, attachment, or ininister of the King's Bench, Common Pleas, Chan. cery, or what court soever within this realm, the party so troubled and making complaint thereof to the parliament house, then forthwith a serjeant at arms is to be sent to the said court, not only advertising that the party so molested is one of the parliament house, but also inhibiting and commanding the officers of the said

court to call in the said process, and not to deal any further against the said party; for the parliament being the highest court, all other courts are inferior, and yield and give place to the same.

Also, as every one of the parliament house is free for his own person for all manner of suits to be commenced against him, so are all his servants free, and not to be troubled or molested, but being troubled, they have the like remedy, as the inaster hath or may have.

Also, no manner of person, being not one of the pare liament house, ought to enter or come within the house, as long as the sitting is there, upon pain of imprisona ment, or such other punishment as by the house shall be ordered and adjudged.

Also, every person of the parliament ought to keep secret, and not to disclose the secrets and things done and spoken in the parliament house, to any manner of person, unless he be one of the same house, upon pain to be sequestered out of the house, or otherwise punished, as by the order of the house shall be appointed.

Also, none of the parliament house ought to depart from the parliament without special leave obtained from the speaker of the house, and the same his licence should be also recorded.

Also, no person, being not of the parliament house, ought to come into the same during the sitting of the same; so every one coining into the same, oweth a duty and reverence to be given when he entereth and cometh in.

If a baron or lord come and enter into the higher house, he ought to do his obeisance before the cloth of estate, and so take his place.

Also, when he speaketh, he ought to stand bareheaded, and speak his mind plainly, sensibly, and in decent order.

If any come in message, or be sent for to the higher house, they must stay at the inner door until they be called in, and then, being entered, must first make their obeisance; which done, they go to the lower end of the house, and there stay until they be called ; and being called, they must first make one low courtesy, and obeisance, and going forwards must, in the middle way, make one other low courtesy; and then, being come forth to the bar, must make the third courtesy, the like must be done at the departure,

· Also, when any knight, citizen, 'or burgess, doth enter or come into the lower house, he must make his dutiful and humble obeisance at his entry in, and then take his place. And you shall understand, that as every such person ought to be grave, wise, and expert, so ought he to shew himself in his apparel ; for, in times past, none of the counsellors of the parliament came otherwise than in his gown*, and not armed nor girded with a weapon. For the parliament house is a place for wise, grave, and good men, to consult, debate, and advise, how to make laws, and order for the common..wealth, and not to be armed as men ready to fight, or to try matters by the sword. And albeit the writ for the election of the knights have express words to choose such for knights as be girded with the sword, yet it is not meant thereby that they should come and sit armed, but be such as be skilful in feats of arms, and, besides their good advices, can well serve in martial affairs; and thus the Roman senators used, who, being men of great knowledge and experience, as well in martial affairs as in politic causes, sat always in the senate house and places of council in their gowns and long robes. The like also was always, and hath been the order in the parliament of this realın, as long as the ancient laws, the old customs, and good order thereof, were kept and observed.

If any other person or persons, either in message or being sent for, do come, he ought to be brought in by the serjeaut, and at the first entering must (following the serjeant) make one low obeisance, and being part in the middle way, must make one other; and when he is come before the speaker, he must make the third, and then do his message: the like order he must keep in his return. But if he do come alone, or with his learned counsel to plead any matter, oranswer to any objections, he shall enter, and go no farther than to the bar within the door, and there do his three obeisances.

When any bill is committed, the committees have not authority to conclude, but only to order, reform, examine and amend the thing committed unto them ; and of their doings they must give report to the house again, by whom the bill is to be considered. · Every bill, which is brought into the house, must be read three several times, and upon three several days. And a bill, which upon any reading is comınitted and returned again, ought to have its three readings, unless the committees have not altered the bill in any substance or form, but only in certain words. Also, when any bill upon any reading is altogether by one consent rejected, or by voices after the third reading overthrown, it ought not to be brought any more to be read during that session of parliament.

* From a motion that was made in the House of Commons in the year 1613, it appears, that the members in the last parliaments of Elizabeth wore gowns. »

If any man do speak unto a bill, and be out of his matter, he ought to be put in remembrance of the mat. ter by the speaker only, and by none other, and be wile ling to come to the matter.

Whensoever any person doth speak to any bill, he ought to stand up, and to be bare-headed, and then with all reverence, gravity, and seemly speech, to declare his mind. But whensoever any bill shall be tried, either for allowances or to be rejected, then every one ought to sit, because he is then as a judge.

Also, every knight, citizen, and burgess, before he do enter into the parliament, and take his place there, ought to be sworn and to take his oath, acknowledging the king to be the supreme and only governor of all the estates within the realm, as also to renounce all foreign potentates.

[From a Paper written in the Reign of Queen Elisabeth.]

THE ARTS.

No. VI.

AN APOLOGY FOR THE CHALK MANNER OF ENGRAVING.

« Tbetimes have been,
That, when the brains were out, the man would die,
And there an end ; but now they rise again,
With twenty mortal murders on their crowns,

And push us from our stools."
Mr. CONDUCTOR,

Every man that has made the most trilling apo proaches towards refinement, must observe with pieasure, that for some time past the Fine Arts in this country have, more than at any former period, engaged the public attention; many of the first characters in the united kingdom, fully aware of the advantages which the arts conferon mankind, and on commercial nations in particular, have with an equal spirit of liberality and patriotism, nobly stepped forward to encourage those arts, and to rescue British genius from the bonds with which it has hitherto been shackled. While these enlightened men are munificently fostering the fine arts, that our manufacturers may reap that benefit from them which they can derive from no other source, some interested and ignorant individuals, have been busily employed in degrading one branch of them, in order to raise another upon its ruins. Mr. Landseer, Mr. Josiah Boydell, and the Rev. Mr. Forster, have particularly distinguished themselves in their attacks on the chalk, or dottiny manner of engraving; those gentlemen have assumed that most perilous situation, the throne of criticism, have become arbiters of taste, and, to the extent of their power, directors of public opinion. If their criticisms are founded in judgment and real knowledge, they will, if properly appreciated, be of great benefit to mankind; but, if they originate in error, in undigested principles hastily adopted, and unwittingly propagated, and if above all, the propagators of those opinions are placed in such situations as are likely to give them a credit and currency, and if, to add to those evils, they are swayed by interest, or warped by prejudice, the mischief done to true art may be incalculable; then not only their opinions, but their pretensions to give them, become fair matter of public investigation.

The chalk manner of engraving has for near fifty years been a candidate for public favor and patronage, equally with the other methods of engraving, and has most certainly received as great a share of encouragement. Whilst those different modes of art rested on their own merits; whilst they came before the world with neither more nor less than the value the talents of their different professors could give them, they were in their natural and proper state; the highest and last tribunal, the judgment of the public, was to decide on their respective merits; thus engaged in a fair competition the chalk manner of engraving has maintained a firmness of footing that has offended the jealous disposition of some,

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