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the return of peace. By moderating the passions of men, and setting up boundaries which were respected by common consent, and which even an hostile state was rarely provoked to disregard, it imparted to the efforts of an antagonist. a character of justice and clemency, which divested him of the violence of ferocious hatred, and assuaged the fierce animosity of national contention. By tempering the malignant spirit of enmity, its fatal effects were diminished, and its resentments more easily appeased. Even amidst the most melancholy ravages with which wars were occasionally attended, individuals of adverse communities regarded each other with sentiments of humanity. They fomented no feeling of rancorous revenge; and the moment peace was restored, the wounds which had been inflicted were at once healed, and even the memory of them was obliterated.
But an enemy has now started up, who is evidently determined to bring back mankind to the barbarous doctrines of savage and untutored life, and completely to expunge from the code of public law every maxim by which man, in his civilized state, has been hitherto controuled. The ravages of this cruel spoiler are only to be resisted by the weapons which he himself employs. And the sooner he is repelled, the better for suffering humanity ; for not till then can mankind hope to be restored to the enjoyment of those privileges, or the protection of those laws, under which they have been accustomed to live, and from which their most valuable blessings have been indisputably derived.
Thus, with whatever reluctance and grief, we absolutely must, in our own defence, and as the last resource left to force our antagonist back to some state of reasonable subordination, suspend the operation of public law. We must impede the irregularity of his incursions, by letting him feel the extent of the penalty which he is striving to inflict on us, and thus compel him to abandon the profligacy of his career.
What in him is the basest and most wanton depravity, is reduced in us to nothing more than justifiable retaliation. It is, in fact, the only mode by which we can rescue ourselves and others from impending evils of no light complexion. It is only by a prompt and bold interference, that what has been lost can be retrieved, If we continue to yield much longer, recovery may be placed beyond the boundary of hope. When we have driven him back within the prescriptive
confines of justice, we, who only overleaped them in his pursuit, shall voluntarily return, satisfied with the proud distinction of having restored to the practice of christian nations the doctrines of civilized and social existence.
It is very evident that if we vigorously enforce that extended right of search, which is consonant to our political welfare, and put a complete stop to all neutral intercourse with France and her allies, by absolutely prohibiting vessels, navigating under a neutral flag, from conveying thither their colonial produce, we shall cut off the only channel through which they have been accustomed to receive every foreign commodity. In that case the underhand cominerce, from which they at present derive innumerable benefits, will be at once annihilated, and Great Britain, becoming the only emporium, whatever France requires from the stock of foreign lands, to feed her wants, or to adıninister to her luxuries, she must apply for to us. We should then be totally indea pendent of others, and most of the advantages which we enjoyed would be exclusively our own. We could then, without hazard, fix an arbitrary price on every article of exportation, and in proportion as France opposed obstacles, would the expence of procuring her necessities be increased. She being the chief sufferer would soon find it her interest to repeal her non-importation laws, and diminish her restraining duties. Instead of endeavouring any longer to thwart our trade, she would court its con veniencies, and the different markets of Europe would again become eager competitors for a commercial cons nexion with this country.
Such are some of the ineasures which in this writer's opinion the country ought to adopt at this alarming crisis. With respect to the raising a suflicient military force for our defence, he prefers the plan proposed by Lord Selkirk, and recommends the minister to carry it into effect in spite of the murmurings of the people. Here again we think our author premature. There perhaps never was a crisis when it was more necessary that the sense of the people should be concurrent with the operations of government.
The author alludes in very respectful terms to the publication entitled the Frauds of Neutral Flags, and it is very evident that he owes many obligations to that work, as well as to the Dangers of the Country, from the same admirable pen.
Upon the whole the Crisis is a very seasonable pamphlet; the intention of it is highly laudable, the arguinents are worthy of serious attention, and some of the ineasures he recommends, absolutely essential to the safety of the country.
Letters addressed to the Daughter of a Nobleman, on the
Formation of Religious and Moral Principle. By Elizabeth Hamilton ; large 8vo. 10s. 2 vols. Cadell and Davies.
Miss Hamilton has already done much for the rising generation. Her letters from an Indian Rajah abound with ingenious remarks and wholesome admonition ; and the present work will form an excellent companion to it. Some of her tenets are questionable, particularly those which apply to Religious Principle ; but we can recommend the work altogether, as exceedingly fit to be placed in the hands of every young lady who has any desire for useful knowledge. Thoughts upon Domestic or Private Education, 12mo.
35. Longman. If the
age does not grow wiser and better, it is not for want of instruction, nor of guides to point out the mode in which it can best be communicated. abounds with tracts and volumes on the important subject of Education; and it is but giving this little work the praise it merits, to say that it contains some very just observations on the present practice of our schools, and suggests many evident improvements, particularly with regard to private tuition. The following are the qualifications which the author thinks should be looked for in a private instructor. He supposes him to have the care of two youths, between the ages of ten and twelve, to be trained in the paths of learning, virtue and honour, before they depart to either of those seats of the sciences, Oxe ford or Cambridge--" That he should be a most sincere believer of the Christian religion, and of the most unblemished character, are two such essential requisites, that wanting these, he would want every thing for the office of tutor. Great and sincere however as his respect and veneration for the established religion of his country, yet ought his orthodoxy to be tempered with charity; since when it cannot overlook the slightest offences or casual
temerities, it may be said to resemble those odoriferous flowers which may become insupportable and offensive when their perfumes are too strong. It is indeed a profanation of the name of Christianity, which enjoins its disciples to the undeviating practice of candour, benevolence, humility, and forgiveness, to “ conceive we love pot God except we hate our brother, and we have not the virtue of religion unless we persecute all religions but our own*.” For any one so to think, and so to act, does not more shock our reason, and provoke our disgust, than that instance of the ridiculous and incurable malignity of the papists to Calvin, which in their Spanish expargatory index would not suffer even his name to appear, but substituted in its room that of Studiosus quidam 7.
Should his classical learning be deeply imbued with the spirit of a liberal and enlightened criticism, we can pardon in him the enthusiastic love of the ancients, which inade Scaliger prefer the glory of composing an ode of Horace to the crown of Arrayon. His knowledge of ano · cient and modern history should flow like the crystal stream, clear, full, and strong; for it is the peculiar excellence of history ever to be subservient to the great ends of virtue and wisdom. Like the chemist, who can extract wholesome properties from poisons, the scenes of the most complicated vice and oppression, which are unrolled in her inighty volume, only serve more closely to attach us to those sentiments which cherish and cultivate in our breasts a warm love of truth, an abhorrence of tyranny under whatever form it may appear, and a deep and grateful sense of all the blessings inherent to rational liberty. In his politics he should resemble, if I may be allowed the expression, the constitution of his country : which equally shews a reverence for the dignity and independence of the crown, and a tender reyard for the rights and privileges of the people. The vigour of his imagination, the delicacy of his sentiments, and the accuracy of his judgment, should mark his real taste for the belles lettres, or polite literature. With the chissel and the pencil, he should be sufficiently conversant to feel and acknowledge in the works of Michael Angelo, as far as the human powers can
See Dr. Jeremy Taylor's Liberty of Prophecyinge p. 4. + Chetwýnd's Historical Collections, cent. lii, p. 90.
attain the perfection of both these arts. And as young people, both in writing, as well as in speaking, are more apt to catch the defects than the beauties of him who is proposed for their model, therefore, in the most familiar discourse his pronunciation should always be correct, and his words selected with the greatest care : at the same time, after the hour of study is over, he should often lead them to converse upon gay and pleasing subjects, in order to divest them of that common prejudice, that in proportion as the understanding increases in the knowledge of science and learning, it becomes more grave
and consequently less agreeable. I am the person whom you wish to see, said the amiable Plato, when he was desired by his foreign guests to introduce them to his graver namesake, the pliilosopher; a speech which some tutors would do well occasionally to recollect. Nor ought he to be less careful in any friendly debate, which may arise between his pupils, to warn them against the substitution of noisy declamation for sound argument; as that is something like one of Apelles's scholars, who not being able to paint his Helen beautiful, was determined to make her fine.
In his manners he should aim to be easy, impressive, and even graceful; and to be respected and beloved by his pupils, his temper ought to be firm without being austere; for a servile compliance with their humours, how
may please them for the moment, must unavoidably, in the end, expose him to their ridicule, for the meanness of his spirit, and the weakness of his understanding. No saying ought therefore to be esteemed by hin more unworthy of a well-constituted mind, than that of the Marquis of Winchester, who being asked how he kept his employment during the reign of four princes, answered, “ Ortus sum e salice, non e quercu
With these foregoing qualifications, and possessed of a rich fund of miscellaneous knowledge acquired from an extensive intercourse with books and the world t, and
* See Robert Nauton's Fragmenta Regalia, p. 77.
† Some modern philosophers have contended, that to educate a youth of rank and fortune, a layman is preferable to an ecclesiastic; for although the character of the former may be not quite so regular, nor his manners so sober as the latter, yet from having mixed so much more in public life, he will possess, say they, a greater acute