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“Kicking against thorns will cause pain." (Tamil). This proverb deserves particular attention because

it was of heathen origin and used by Jesus after His resurrection. It is found in the Odes of Pindar (B.C. 522—448) and the Tragedies of Æschylus (B.C. 525-456) and Euripides (B.C. 480-406), and was used by the Greeks when referring to the madness of men who fought against

the gods. The phrase was current among the Romans as well

as among the Greeks, and it may be concluded that it was common also among the Jews as Paul

heard it spoken in the Hebrew tongue. Whether the original proverb was intended to

refer to the ox kicking against a goad, or a horse kicking when pricked with the rowels of a spur, is uncertain.

Love covereth a multitude of sins. (I Pet. iv :8).

See Prov. x : 12 which may have suggested the

proverb current in Peter's day and quoted by him. See also Prov. xvii : 9; I Cor. xiii : 4-7; James v :20.

No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the

one and love the other; or else he will hold to one and despise the other. (Matt. vi : 24). See Luke xvi :

13. See also Proverbs Suggested by the Bible: "He who

is not satisfied with the government of Moses will be satisfied with the government of

Pharaoh." “He who tries to serve two masters serves neither."

(Latin). “Who stands hesitating between two mosques returns without prayer.” (Turkish). “Riding two horses at the same time." "It is hard to chase and catch two hares." (Arabian). “He hunting two hares does not catch even one.' (Russian, Italian). “He who serves two masters must lie to one of them." (Italian). He who serves many masters must neglect some of them.” (Spanish). Thou canst not serve God unless thy mammon serve thee." (English). “A loyal soldier cannot serve two lords." (Japanese).

When quoting this proverb Jesus added, "Ye can

not serve God and mammon"-mammon being the Syrian word for wealth.

One soweth and another reapeth. (John iv :37).

Physician heal thyself. (Luke iv :23).

See Matt. vii : 4.
See also Proverbs Suggested by the Bible: “The

Panre would teach others, but himself stumbles,"
and Impossibilities and Absurdities in Proverbs:
He who killed a thousand people is half a

doctor." The proverb was sometimes quoted: "Physician,

heal thy lameness." “Physicians were so unpopular that Jesus the son

of Sirach exhorted the Jews to honour them.”

(See Ecclus. xxxviii : 1-15.) 'Aggrieved at His neglect of Nazareth and His

preference for Capernaum, they (His townspeople) had quoted the proverb: Physician, heal thyself,' and, capping proverb with proverb, He answered, 'Verily I tell you, No prophet is acceptable in his native place.' Had they not by their attitude toward Him since His coming amongst them proved the truth of the proverb

and justified His action?David Smith. This proverb is found in almost all parts of the

world with slight changes in form. An interesting illustration of its teaching is found in Æsop's Fable of The Quack Frog.

Strain out a gnat and swallow a camel. (Matt. xxiii : 24).

There is an ironical expression often used in Euro

pean Turkey that conveys a similar thought. It is that “A fortress cannot pass through its gate;

the hazel-nut cannot be contained in its shell." The people of Southern India have the following

two maxims closely allied to this Bible Proverb: “What, do you strain out a gnat and swallow a camel?” and “Those who strain out gnats are naturally suspected."

Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. (Matt. vi : 34).

“Sufficith to the dai, his owne malice.”—John

Wickliffe (1380). “The daye present hath ever ynough of his awne

trouble."-William Tyndale (1534). "Sufficient unto the daye, is the travayle thereof."

- Thomas Cranmer (1539). “The day present hath euer inough to do with its

owne grief.”The Genevan New Testament (1557). “Sufficient for the day is the evil thereof.”The

Renish New Testament (1582). “Sufficient for the day is its own evil."-Syriac

Peshitto Version.

The dog turning to his own vomit again. (II Pet. ii : 22).

See Prov. xxvi :11; Matt. vii : 6.
"The world is a carcass and they who seek it are

dogs.” (Arabian). “The dogs had enough and
then made presents to each other of their leav-
ings.' (Arabian). “Cheap meat, the dogs eat
it.” (Modern Greek). “They seated the dog in
the palankin; on seeing filth it jumped down and
ran after it." (Telugu). “Scornful dogs eat

dirty pudding." (Scotch). The sow that had washed to wallowing in the mire. (II

Pet. ii : 22).

See Matt. vii : 6.
The Arabians and Bengalese have the proverb:

The thief and the hog have one path. While
one delights in evil practices, the other seeks

physical uncleanness. “The inhabitants of this warm country well know

the benefit arising from the constant washing of those sheep which they are fattening for winter food; and certainly the flesh of swine would be equally improved by frequent ablutions. At present we do not witness this, for the people do not raise hogs. We may be quite sure, however, that swine washed in the purest of fountains would turn again to their wallowing in the first mud hole they could find with all the eagerness of their swinish instincts."—W. M. Thomson in The Land and the Book.

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The tree is known by its fruit. (Matt. xii : 33).

See Matt. vii : 15-20; Luke vi : 44; James iii : 12.
See also proverb: "Whatsoever a man soweth that

shall he also reap," and Proverbs Suggested by
the Bible: Good fruit never comes from a bad

"The kind of fruit and its form depend on the tree.”

(Latin). “As a tree is known by its fruit, so a
knave by his deeds." (Latin). “Thorn trees
produce gum." (Arabian). “From the jack
do you get the mango juice?" (Bengalese);
"He that plants thorns shall not gather roses.
(Persian). "One knows the horse by his ears;
the generous by his gifts; a man by laughing; and
a jewel by its brilliancy.' (Bengalese). "As the
tree so its fruit." (Marathi). "A tree is judged

by its fruit." (Marathi).
“Though the water of life from the clouds fell in

billows, And the ground was strewn over with paradise

loam; Yet in vain would you seek, from a garden of

willows, To collect any fruit as beneath them you roam."

The Persian Poet, Shaikh Muslihu-'d-Din.

They that are whole have no need of a physician, but they that are sick. (Matt. ix : 12).

See Mark ii : 17; Luke v:31.
There is some question as to whether this was a

common proverb in Jesus' day, but, as it has a
usual proverbial form and was possibly a well-
known saying quoted by Christ, it is given here.
It has certainly found a place among the proverbs
of the people since Jesus used it in justification of
Himself when he sat at meat with publicans and


Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the

(I Cor. ix :9). See Deut. xxv :4; Luke x:7; I Tim. v : 18. "The ox that ploughs is not to be muzzled,” is an

Arabian saying current in Cairo. The muzzle is

made of rope that is tied to the mouth of oxen to prevent them from grazing on the land of

strangers as they pass along the road. “The command not to put a muzzle upon the ox

when threshing is no doubt proverbial in its nature and even in the context before us is not intended to apply merely literally to an ox employed in threshing, but to be understood in the general sense in which the Apostle Paul used it in I Cor. ix : 9 and I Tim. v : 18—that a labourer was not to be deprived of his wages. Keil and Delitzsch: (Commentary Deut. XXV :

4). Vengeance belongeth unto me: I will recompense, saith the Lord. (Rom. xii : 19). See Deut. xxxii : 35; Ps. xciv : 1; Isa. xxxv : 4;

Nah. i : 2; Heb. x : 30. “The only hypothesis which we can form without

arbitrariness is, that the form of the saying as it is found in Paul and in Heb. x : 30, had at that time acquired currency in the manner of a formula of warning which had become proverbial and had influenced the rendering in the paraphrase of Onkelos.H. A. W. Meyer: (Commentary

Rom. xii : 19).
Whatsoever a man soweth that shall he also reap. (Gal.

vi :7).
See Job iv : 8; Prov. xxii : 8; xxvi : 27; Hos. viii : 7;

II Cor. ix : 6; Gal. vi : 8.
See also proverb, "The tree is known by its fruit,"

and Proverbs Suggested by the Bible: “Good

fruit never comes from a bad tree."
“He who sows thorns will not gather grapes from

them.” (Arabian). “As you do your sowing, so
shall you reap.” (Latin). “As you make your bed,
so you must lie on it,” “He that sows thistles
shall reap prickles,' “Sow good work and thou
shalt reap gladness.” (English). "He who sows
hatred shall gather rue," "He who sows iniquity
shall reap shame." (Danish). “If you sow
thorns you will reap pricks.” (Turkish). . "If
you sow thorns you cannot cut out jasmine,"
“Everyone will at last reap what he has sown.'

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