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and 0.0829399 x 500 = 41.46995 will be equal to the surface of the whole polar circle. The reduction of absolute weights to the proposed scale is dependent merely on the rule of three, and the numbers which were found from it may be seen in the following tables.

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NORTHERN half. SOUTHERN half. Longitude. Water. Longitude. Water. o 6... 15 Africa....... 7.1391 | 1.1682 | 0... 13 Africa....... 1.3426 6.9647 15... 30 Africa....... 8.3073 15... 30 Africa....... 8.3073 30... 45 Africa....... 6.6296 0.7035 30. . . 45 Africa... . . . . 5.2567 3.0505 Asia... . . . . . . 0.0741 1 45... 60 | Africa..... ... 0.8631 7.4442 45... 60 Africa....... 0.0585 4.8459 60. .. 75 Asia......... 0.0251 8.2822 Asia... . . . . . . 2.5028 - 75 90 - - - - - - - - 8.3073

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90... 105 Asia... . . . . . . 3.720.1 4.5872 . . . . . . . . . Asia... . . . . . . 1.0453 } 6.8769 - 105... 120 Asia... . . . . . . 2.1998 6.1074 || 120... 135 | New Holland 3.1152 - 120... 135 | Asia... . . . . . . 0.7417 7.5656 . . . . . . . . . Asia.... . . . . . 0.7528 } 4.4392 135... 150 Asia... . . . . . . 0.0258 8.2815 135... 150 | New Holland 2.5260 150... 165 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3073 l . . . . . . . . . . Asia......... 1.3281 } 4.4531 165... 180 Asia......... 0.0249 8.2824 150... 165 | Asia......... 0.2929 8.014.4 180... 195 8.3073 || 165... 180 | Asia......... 0.0789 8.2284

195...210 | N. America. . 0.0548 8.2524 || 180... 195 || S. America... 0.0261 8.2812 210. . .225 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3073 l 195. . .210 ! ...................... 8.3073

225. . .240 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3073 || 210. . .225 | ................. . . . . . . 8.3073 240. . .255 | N. America. . 0.1068 8.2004 || 225. . .240 | ...................... 8.3073 255.270 N. America. 1.7969 6.5104 || 240... 255 ...................... 8.3073

270. . .285 N. America... 1.2958 6.3635 255. . .270 | S. America... 0.0274 8.2799 | S. America. 0.6179 } - 270. . .285 S. America... 1.4617 | 6.8456

t 285. . .300 N. America... 0.2314 } 4.3503 285. . .300 S. America... 7.51.14 0.7959 | S. America... 3.7255 - 300. . .315 S. America... 8.1095 0.1978 300...315 S. America... 1.3721 6.9352 || 315. . .330 S. America... 3.2528 5.0544

315. . .330 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3073 || 330. . .345 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3073 330.345 Africa....... 0.4646 || 7.8427 || 345... 360 | ...................... 8.3073 345... 360 Africa. . . . . . . 6.2240 2.0832 | 52.5582 146.8162 46.1592 || 153.2156 52.5582 - 46.1592 199.3744 199.3748 Africa. . . . . . . 29.7231 Africa. ...... 15.7697 y Asia. ... . . . . . 13.6039 Asia. . . . . . . . . 3.9743 o N. America... 3.4857 New Holland. 6.0263 S. America. .. 5.7455 S. America... 20.3889 52.5582 46.1592

TEMPERATE ZONE.

105... 120 | New Holland 1.3656 9.4326 45... 60 | Europe...... 2.1596 1.4748 120... 135 | New Holland 3.1005 7.6977 Asia......... 7.1636 - 135... 150 | New Holland 4.5622 6.2359 60. .. 75 | Asia. ........ 10.3594 0.4388 || 150... 165 | New Holland 0.6780 | 10.1201 75... 90 | Asia. ........ 10.6468 0.1514 l 165... 180 | Asia. . . . . . . . 0.5081 | 10.2900 90... 105 | Asia. ........ 10.7214 0.0768 l 180... 195 | ..................... 10.7981 105. . . 120 | Asia. ........ 10.4398 0.3583 l 195. . .210 | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7981 120... 135 | Asia......... 6.0740 4.7242 210. . .225 | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7981 135... 150 | Asia. ........ 2.9054 7.8927 225. . .240 | ........... - - - - - - - - - - 10.7981 150... 165 | Asia......... 1.3755 9.4226 l 240... 255 | ..................... 10.7981 165... 180 | Asia......... 0.7510 || 10.0472 || 255. . .270 | ..................... 10.7981 180... 195 | Asia. ........ 0.1616 } 10,5555 || 270. . .285 S. America... 0.0283 || 10.7698 N. America... 0.0808 - 285... 300 S. America... 5.8762 4.92.19 195...210 | N. America. 1.2305 9.5677 || 300. . .315 S. America... 2.5996 8.1986 210. . .225 | N. America. 1.1998 9.5984 315... 330 .............. . . . . . . . 10.7981 225, . .240 | N. America ... 3.5994 7, 1988 || 330. . .345 ............. . . . . . . . . 10.7981 240. . .255 | N. America... 9.1017 1.6965 l 345... 360 ..................... 10.7981 255. . .270 | N. America. . 9.1432 1.6550 270. . .285 | N. America... 6.0535 4.7446 285. . .300 | N. America... 3.5424 7.2558 300. . .315 N. America. . 0.7422 || 10.0559 315... 330 | N. America. . 0.3723 10.4258 330. . .345 | Europe...... 0.1670 } 10.6033

Africa....... 0.6278

NORTH. SOUTH. Longitude. Water. Longitude. Water. o o 0 o 0... 15 | Europe...... 3.3066 } 3.5391 0. . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7981 Africa....... 3.9524 - 15... 30 Africa....... 3.1713 7.6268 15... 30 Europe...... 4.5097 30... 45 Africa....... 0.5386 || 10.2595 Africa....... 2.7303 } 3.1976 || 45... 60 | Africa....... 0.0977 | 10.7004 Asia......... 0.2706 60. .. 75 | Asia. ....... O.0227 10.7755 30... 45 | Europe...... 3.6663 75. . . 90 | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . 10.7981 Asia......... 4.7210 } 1.7829 || 90... 105 - 10.7981

Africa....... 0.0278 345... 360 | Europe...... 1.7997 } Africa....... 2.9377 6.0607 126,6308 || 132.5247 22.5488 236.6060 - 126.6308 - 22.5488 259.1555 259.1548 Europe . . . . . . . 15.6989 Africa. . . . . . . . . . 3.8076 Africa. . . . . . . . 10.2760 Asia............ 0.5308 Asia........ . . . . 65.5901 New Holland... 9.7063 N. America... 35.0658 S. America...... 8.5041 126.63O8 22.5488

NORTH POLAR CIRCLE.

Longitude. Water.
6. - - 15 Europe. ... 0.9524 Europe. ... 0.9524
- 8.1634 -
Asia. . . . . . . 1.2517 Asia. . . . . . . 5.0329
90... 180 | Asia. ... ... 3.6724 6.6951 | N. America. 12.0410
180. . .270 | Asia. . . . . . . 0.1088

N. America. 5.1293 5.1294 18.0263 270. . .360 | N. America. 6.9117 3.4558

18.0263 23.4437
18.0263

41.4700

From these numbers we have the following conclusions:—

Land. Water. For the north polar circle............ 18.0263... 23.4437 or a ratio of 100 to 139 the north temperate zone ...... 126.6308... 132.5247 ............ 100 to 105

the north half of the torrid zone 52.5582... 146.8162 ............ 100 to 279 the south half of the torrid zone 46.1592... 153.2156 ............ 100 to 332 the south temperate zone ....... 22.5488...236.6060 ............ 100 to 1049 the south polar circle ............ ...... ... 41.4700

the whole sphere ................ 265.9233...734.0762 ............ 100 to 276 the northern hemisphere......... 197.2153... 302.7846 ............ 100 to 154 the southern hemisphere......... 68.7080...431.2916 ............ 100 to 628 the whole torrid zone............ 98.7171... 300.0318 ............ 100 to 304.

It has been mentioned that Dr Long, omitting the polar circles, found the ratio of land to water as 124 to 349, or 100 to 281; in the present case it comes out, under the same circumstances, as 100 to 270. This is not a greater difference than might be expected from the advance in geographical knowledge since the time of Senex; and it seems to relieve Dr Long from any suspicion of having neglected to take proper precautions in trying the experiment; but it must be acknowledged that the numbers just stated differ much from those which M. Malte Brun" has assigned to the same portions of * Geography (Eng. Trans. Edinb. 1822) Vol. 1. p. 159. His words are, “We have found, by a pretty exact computation, that the land in each hemisphere and the zone bears to the

whole the following proportions: “ In the Earth's surface. Whether his results are more to be depended upon than those which have been now obtained, must be left for others to decide; but there is a circumstance which seems to corroborate very strongly the dependence which may be placed on the present method, since there is a remarkable coincidence between the numbers, which were found from Mr Carey's globe-plates in 1823, and Mr Addison's in the more recent examination.

The proportionate quantity of land in the southern hemisphere was found in 1823 to be 69.58, which exceeds that which is now given by only 0.87. The extents of the continents, likewise, with the islands respectively belonging to them, came out as follows:

- 1823. 1836.

Europe............... 16.80 16.65

Asia..................89.31 8.73

104.48 104.46

New Holland. ...... 15.27 73

Africa................ 59. 14 59.58

North America......46.99 50.59

South America...... 35.36 34.64. “In the icy zone of the north ......... 0.400" (or the ratio of the land to the water 100 to 150) “In the temperate zone of the north ... 0.559" ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 to 79) “In the northern part of the torrid zone 0.297" ( ............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 100 to 287) “In the northern hemisphere . . . . . . . . . 0.419" “In the icy zone of the south......... 0.000” “In the temperate zone of the south ... 0.075" ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 to 1233) “In the southern part of the torrid zone 0.313" ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 100 to 219) “In the southern hemisphere . . . . . . . . . 0.129”

As M. Malte Brun does not explain his method of computation for the several zones, no more can at present be said, in that respect, than is pointed out in the text: but it may be remarked that he is not correct in the quantity of land, which he has deduced from his own data 0.400+ 0.559 + 0.297 - 1.256 = 0.419 and 0.075 + 0.313 _0.388 3 3 3 3 but the fundamental decimals are parts of three different integers, and consequently the third of their sum will not give the true proportion of them when taken together, to the whole.

for the two hemispheres, = 0.129;

When it is recollected that these calculations were made from the works of two distinct geographers, the agreement is possibly as near as could be hoped for; but it is really closer than, at first sight, can appear; for some little variations were accidentally introduced by the first determinations not having been referred to, until the second had been completed. It was then found that Van Dieman's land had been weighed with New Holland in 1836, but that it had been taken with the other Asiatic islands in 1823. The interior of Africa is so imperfectly known, that in the last instance it was thought best to omit all attention to the inland lakes that were drawn upon this part of the plates, although they were cut out from the other quarters of the globe. This exception was not made in 1823, which will account for the somewhat smaller quantity which was then found for this continent. The difference in North America is to be attributed to the discoveries which have been made of late years, and the larger allowance which was in consequence assigned to the land within the North Polar Circle. The deficiency for South America is not great, but it was sufficient to make it desirable to ascertain, if possible, a cause by which it might be occasioned. The larger dimension of Mr Addison's plates afforded the means of cutting more deeply into the great rivers of this continent: and Mr Carey, having been consulted, pointed out another probable source of variation in the outline of the eastern coast, which, in consequence of recent surveys, is not now laid down exactly as it was in 1823. It certainly is remarkable that the deficiency, which in this case amounts to 0.72, is very nearly the same as occurs for the whole southern hemisphere; and it may also be stated, that the land of the northern hemisphere came out in 1823 as 193.19, which is 4.02 less than is now assigned for it, while the quantity (as may be seen above) which was then found for North America was also less by 4.60.

As the force of the present argument depends upon the two trials being not only distant in time, but in every other respect independent of each other, it may not be superfluous to mention that the numbers were also deduced from them in two different ways. On Mr Carey's globe the gores are 20' wide, and they extend each from the aequator

Wol. VI. PART II. Q Q

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