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(Libissa), or at Malsum, according to Colonel Leake; the identity of Pompeiopolis with the present town of Tash Kupri, which the author endeavours to prove by an ancient Greek inscription, of which, however he gives only a translation; Arka, the ancient Areas; the Roman roads in the Taurus; tombs of the kings of Pontus near Amasia; Samsun, the ancient Amisus; Chertesh, the ancient Antoniopolis; Boli, the ancient Hadrianopolis; Misis, the ancient Mopsuestia; ruins of Nineveh; part of the course of the Kizil Jrmak, the ancient Halys, &c. All these sketches are of considerable interest.
That part of the author's investigation which has not been communicated to the Royal Geographical Society, relates to the country between Mosul and Trebizond, where Mr. Ainsworth found a German student (?), who was residing there solely for the purpose of illustrating the history of that ancient and interesting town; the passes of Xenophon across the Carduchian Mountains; the discussion regarding the eastern tributaries of the Tigris; and the site of Tigranocerta. The author thinks that this town was on the place of the present Diyarbekr, and not at Seert. However, as he only gives some general considerations, we cannot enter here into this difficult but highly important and interesting subject, nor can we tell whether Mr. Ainsworth has succeeded in deciding the question. He has promised to treat on these different historical and geographical questions in a separate work, which would certainly be of great interest and value if it should give us the scientific developement of the author's sketches. A great part of Asia Minor is still a virgin country; and we wish most sincerely that many a traveller may succeed in winning a bride there as brilliant in classical beauty as the Lycian bride of Mr. Fellows.
A Lexicon To Mbcoylvb, containing a critical explanation of the more difficult passages in the seven tragedies. By the Rev. William Linwood, M.A., M.R.A.S., Student of Christ Church, Oxford, London: Taylor and Walton, 1843. pp. 364. The advantage of separate Lexicons to Greek authors is so great to the student, that we are glad to have another accession to our present stock. The Lexicons of Sturz to Xenophon, of Schweighauser to Herodotus and Polybius, of Ellendt to Sophocles, of Ast to Plato, and of Damm to Homer, though of different degrees of merit, have been found to be so useful, that we are surprised we have not had, before now, a Lexicon to jEschylus. The Lexicon of Wellauer is hardly any thing more than an index, and rarely gives an explanation of passages. The very recent publication of Mr. Linwood's Lexicon has not enabled us to examine it with that attention we could have wished; but we have
referred to it in several cases, and have found his remarks characterised by good sense and sound scholarship. In one or two instances which we have looked at we are disposed to give a different interpretation from Mr. Linwood, .which we may, perhaps, have an opportunity of stating in a future number of the Museum; but meantime we have much pleasure in recommending the work to the notice of students, who will derive very great assistance from it in the study of .flSschylus. We very much regret that Mr. Linwood has not given the etymology of the words of less frequent occurrence, more especially as much progress has been made in linguistic science since the publication of Bp. Bloomfield's glossaries, and many of his etymologies require correction.
Three indexes are given at the end of the work; one, of the most important various readings; a second, of the more difficult passages of which a full explanation is given in the Lexicon; and a third, of some of the words and syntactical usages explained in the work.
Dictionary Op Greek And Roman Biography And Mythology. Edited by William Smith, LL.D., Ph. D. Part I., from Abacus to Alexis; Part II., from-Alexis to Arborius. London: Taylor and Walton, 1843. 8vo.
The work which we have here the pleasure of announcing to our readers, is the second of a series which, when completed, will form an Encyclopaedia of classical antiquity, such as no nation yet possesses: it will be as useful to the student as it will be welcome to the advanced scholar as a book of reference. So far as we can judge from the first two parts of this volume—will one volume contain the almost endless mass of materials ?—the work differs in several points from all similar ones; first, by carrying the history and literature of Greece down to the taking of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453; secondly, by giving greater prominence to the literature and the writers of antiquity than is usually done in works of this kind; and thirdly, by incorporating the early ecclesiastical writers also, which must render the book a valuable help to theological students. The political characters of Greece and Rome are judiciously treated with comparative brevity; while the discussions on authors and their works—though without transgressing the bounds of necessary conciseness—bring forth every point of any importance, and thus fill a great deficiency in English literature, which, to this day, does not yet possess a complete history either of Greek or Roman literature. The mythology, to which in other works of a similar kind an undue prominence is given, either by repeating all the unmeaning stories found in later writers, or by indulging in speculations and fanciful explanations of the ancient legends, is treated here with the greatest possible brevity, without any thing of importance being omitted. The illustrations too deserve a word of commendation: they consist of coins; and the editor has selected chiefly such as give the portrait of the person treated of in the article to which they are annexed, and all the engravings are taken from coins in the British Museum. We questioned above the possibility of getting all the endless materials which the work must embrace into one volume; and we may be pardoned in conclusion for entreating both the editor and the publishers not to sacrifice the character or completeness of the work in any way for the mere purpose of not going beyond the limits of one volume. The reward which the editor and publishers deserve for their great undertaking are sure to follow, if the work is completed in the same spirit in which it has been begun.
Many of our readers are doubtless aware that Mr. Frere, whose literary celebrity dates from the time of the Antijacobin, has recently printed at Malta translations of certain plays of Aristophanes, and of portions of the gnomic poetry of Theognis. We propose to give in our next number an account of these excellent and highly successful versions, which, in our opinion, are quite worthy of Mr. Frere's reputation.
We are sorry that our space does not permit us, in this number of the Museum, to give some account of Mr. Macauley's Lays of Ancient Rome, but we hope to have an opportunity of discussing in our next number those interesting and masterly productions at some length.
We are happy to inform our readers that the excellent Journal Zeitschrift fur die Altherthumswusenschaft, which had been conducted for many years with great ability by Drs. Zimmermann and Fuhr, and was discontinued by them at the close of last year, has been resumed at the commencement of this year by Dr. Theodor Bergk and Dr. Julius Caesar, professors in the university of Marburg, whose great attainments as scholars are well known. The parts published under the management of the new editors sufficiently justify the expectation, that the Journal will continue to render the same services to philology as under its former editors. The alterations which have been introduced in regard to the arrangement of the subjects, and the increased literary information in the new numbers, are well calculated to increase the circulation of the Journal. The Rheinisc/ies Museum fur Philologie, which had been suspended for a time, is now continued by the united efforts of Professors Welcker and Ritschl of Bonn, and the parts which have already appeared under their management contain many papers of the highest importance and interest to scholars.
The excavations in the neighbourhood of Tusculum under the direction of M. Campanella, have brought to light very valuable sculptures and inscriptions. Among the works of art there is a statue of Minerva of very beautiful workmanship, which is particularly remarkable for the peculiar form of the aegis. The head of the statue is unfortunately broken off, and as yet wanting. (Preuss. Staatszeitung, 1843. No. 21.)
M. Maynas, a learned Greek, who has lately been travelling in Greece and Asia Minor on a commission of the French ministry for public instruction, has sent to Paris some important manuscripts which he had collected during his expedition. Among them are,
a work of Theodorus Lascaris, a commentary on the Metaphysics
of Aristotle, two Greek Lexica, and three plays of Aristophanes with important Scholia. All these works had hitherto been unknown, with the exception of the three comedies of Aristophanes. (Blatter fur Literarische Unterhaitung, 1843. No. 13.)
Dr. Scharff of Weimar published in 1842 a dissertation Commentatio de veterum re telegraphica, in which he points out the passages of ancient poets and historians respecting the use of telegraphs in antiquity. He comments especially on the passage of Polybius (x. 39) where a more complete and perfect system of telegraphic communications is proposed, and on the chapter of S. Julius Africanus wepi irvpowv. (Th. Bergk and Caesar's Zeitschrift fur die Alterthwnswiss. 1843. No. 19.)
The Preussische Staatszeitung (1843. No. 9) contains an article on the recent excavations in Greece, of which the following abstract is given in the Zeitschrift furdie Alterumswissenschaft (1843. No. 10). The restoration of the Parthenon at Athens and of a temple of Nike was conducted from 1834 to 1836 by Professor Ross. After the place of Ross was taken by Pittakis, the works in the temple of Nike were stopped, but the results of his labours on the Acropolis and other parts of the city are as follows. In 1837 several parts of the Acropolis were cleared; a fifth Caryatid and an Ionic capital of a column was found which belonged to the inner portico of the Propylaea. In 1838 discoveries were made respecting the construction of the Parthenon and the Propylaea. In 1839 sculptures were found which probably belonged to the frieze of the outer wall of the Erechtheum. In 1840 the northern part of the Parthenon was perfectly cleared; metopes were found containing a group of centaurs, and fragments of three pieces of the frieze with groups of the sacrificial procession. In the same year was found the pedestal of Athena Hygiea, and remnants of an ante-Periclean gate of the Acropolis; and the plateau of the temple of the Brauronian Artemis was laid open. The basis of the Trojan horse also was discovered, &c. &c. The year 1841 produced nothing of great importance. In the lower part of the city antiquarian researches are greatly impeded by the building of new houses: the excavations here were of small extent and gave few results. But the collections of inscriptions and sculptures have nevertheless been so much enriched, especially from the necropolis of the port town, that the temple of Theseus is no longer sufficiently large to contain all, and other buildings have been taken into use for the preservation of those relics. Among the excavations in the demi that of Velanideza is the most important, for among other things discovered, there has been found in that place the tomb-stone (a pillar) of Aristion, the work of Aristocles. On it is represented a warrior in a standing position in the archaic style, and the figure is scarcely injured at all. In northern Greece Delphi has attracted the principal attention: in 1839 ruins were discovered there of the temple of Apollo and of a Doric round