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nient quarto edition published by Bekker at Berlin. The study of Aristotle had so much ceased in the 18th century (in consequence of the unjust depreciation of the scholastic philosophy,) that no complete edition of Aristotle's works was published between 1654, the date of the last of Duval's editions, and 1831, the date of Bekker's edition. An edition, commenced by Buhle in 1791, as a part of the Bipont classics, and of which five volumes appeared, was stopped by the disturbed state of the continent at that period, and was never resumed. After the peace the celebrated Immanuel Bekker was employed by the University of Berlin to collate the principal manuscripts of Aristotle scattered over the various public libraries of Europe, and to found upon them a new edition of the text. This laborious work was executed by him, and the entire works of Aristotle, with a new text based upon the manuscript readings, were published by him in 1831, in two quarto volumes, the text being printed in a small type, arranged in double columns, and the various readings subjoined to the page. A list of the manuscripts collated is prefixed to the first volume, and a description of them has been promised, but has never appeared. Mr. Bekker's main purpose in this edition seems to have been to adhere faithfully to the manuscripts, without being very solicitous about the meaning. Hence his text will admit, in many places, of improvement by editors of separate treatises, looking to the sense of the words, and combining explanation of the text with its emendation. He has preserved the divisions of chapters in the old editions, which are sometimes of great length, and has neither numbered the sections, nor even preserved such divisions where they had been previously introduced by others. Thus he has not even numbered the paragraphs in the second book of the Aristotelian Economic. The facility of reference to Aristotle has therefore, unfortunately, not been facilitated by Bekker's edition.

In the Oxford edition the sections have been numbered throughout, as had been previously done for the treatises included in Buhle's edition, in Schneider's edition of the History of Animals and the Politics, in Zell's edition of the Ethics, &c. We trust that these numbers will be preserved in the editions of single treatises which may be published hereafter, and we commend this matter to the consideration of our German readers, in case we should be so fortunate as to obtain any.

Sylburg's indexes, one an index verborum, the other an index rerum, are adapted to the paragraphs of the Oxford edition, and the latter index is very full and useful.

At the end of the Politics, Neumann's collection of the fragments of Aristotle's woXireTcu is reprinted in the Oxford edition. Perhaps Neumann's collection is hardly good enough to deserve the honour of being embalmed in the excellent typography of the Oxford press.

Besides Bekker's edition of Aristotle, and the Oxford reprint, two other editions of the complete works have lately appeared. One is among the small Tauchnitz classics, the other in one large volume published at Leipzig in 1843, by Weise. The text is taken from the old editions.

Lexilogus, or a Critical Examination of the Meaning and Etymology of numerous Greek Words and Paraphrases, intended principally for Homer and Hesiod. By Philip Buttmann, LL.D. Translated and edited by the Rev. J. R. Fishlake, late Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. Second Edition, revised. 1840. 1 vol. Svo.

We notice this translation, although not of very recent date, because we are not sure that the Lexilogus of Buttmann is as well known in this country as it deserves to be. It is unfortunately an unfinished work, although it is complete as far as it goes. The author's intention was to proceed regularly through Homer, explaining the etymology and signification of all the more difficult words in succession. This work comprises explanations of such words up to the second book: but his further progress was stopped by ill health. In the original, the words are arranged, (as in Bp. Blomfield's glossary to ^Eschylus), in the order in which they occur in Homer. This order would perhaps have been convenient, if the original design had been completed; but Mr. Fishlake has augmented the facility of reference by arranging the words in an alphabetical order. He has likewise consulted the convenience of his English readers, by subjoining to the text, translations of the passages in Schneider's Lexicon which Buttmann refers to.

Nobody is infallible in etymology, and the discovery of the successive meanings of words: the greatest philologists sometimes err in these matters. But (without meaning to affirm that Buttmann is never wrong) we consider his Lexilogus as a model of etymological and linguistical exposition both as to method and matter; and we believe that no student of the Homeric language can fail to derive important assistance and instruction from it. The articles are however tolerably complete dissertations on the words treated of, and they generally illustrate passages of later writers as well as of Homer.

The translation is carefully and accurately executed; and, as far as. we have examined it, leaves nothing to be desired.

XXII.
LITERARY INTELLIGENCE AND UNIVERSITIES.

Philological Society Of London.—We have much satisfaction in recording the successful progress of this Society, which, was established (under the presidency of the Bishop of St. David's) in the summer of 1842, and commenced the printing of its proceedings at the end of that year. The 12th number (the last which has been distributed amongst the members) bears the date of June 23. Amongst the papers read before the Society, and abstracted in the proceedings, the following appear to be peculiarly deserving of attention. A notice of European Grammars, and Lexicons of the Sanskrit Language, by Prof. Wilson, in No. 3, and papers on certain inflexions of the old English adjective, and on English Gentile nouns, by Edwin Guest, Esq., in Nos. 6 and 10. Mr. F. W. Newman's paper on the geography of Scythia according to Herodotus, No 7, and Mr. Garnett's papers on the languages and dialects of the British islands, and on the relations of the Picts and Gael with the other tribes of Great Britain, in Nos. 9 and 11, are likewise instructive. Mr. Donaldson has also an elaborate dissertation on the number in Plato's Republic (p. 546) in No. 8.

Alien Aeologisciii: Zeitung.—Under this title a Journal devoted to the illustration of the remains of ancient art, was founded at the beginning of this year at Berlin. It is edited by the distinguished archaeologist Edward Gerhard. This Journal, which was indeed a desideratum in the periodical literature of Germany, resembles in its plan the archaeological Journals of Rome and Naples, but its usefulness is enhanced by the elegant lithographs of the most important works of ancient art, which are discussed in its pages. The Archaeologkche Zeitung appears in quarterly parts, and the two which have already been published, contain among others the following interesting articles.

1. Ueber einen Marmorkopf des Fursten Talleyrand, by Th. Panof ka.

2. Das Monumentum Ancyranum; Herstellung desselben aus Griechischem Text, by J. Franz. 3. Das sogenannte Monument des Sesostris bei Smyrna, by H. Kiepert. 4. Das Harpyienmonument von Xanthus, gegenwdrtig im Brittischen Museum, by Th. Panofka. 5. Pompeianische Wandgem'dlde, by the Editor. 6. Ueber das Theseion zu Allien, by E. Curtius. 7. Griechische Inschriften, by L. Ross.

Athens.—In consequence of the financial embarrassments of the kingdom of Greece, the public expenditure has been reduced in various ways, and also by doing away with several offices. We are sorry to see, that L. Ross, and H. N. Ulrichs, two of the most distinguished professors in the University of Athens, are among those who have lost their appointments.—The sepulchral monument of K. 0. Miiller, consisting of a lofty pillar of Pentelic marble, with an inscription by Philippos Joannu, has now been finished for the last few months. It stands on the hill of Colonus, and is surrounded by newly planted trees. The expences of the monument have been defrayed, by contributions from the members of the University of Athens.

Abkken Wiihelji.—This distinguished archaeologist, a native of Osnabriick in Westphalia, died at Munich on the 28th of January, 1843, at the early age of twenty-nine. He was one of the secretaries of the Archaeological Institute at Rome, whither he had gone after the completion of his studies at Berlin, in 1836. While in Italy, he devoted himself with unremitting zeal to the study of ancient art, mythology, history and topography, and his extensive knowledge and great talent made him soon fee] himself at home in the illustrious circle of artists, antiquaries and scholars assembled at Rome. After the publication of several essays and papers in the Memoirs of the Archaeological Institute, he resolved to publish the results of his labours in a systematic work on the History and Antiquities of Middle Italy, previous to the dominion of the Romans. In the spring of 1842 Abeken had made sufficient progress in his undertaking to return to Germany, and begin printing his work. But when the MS. was finished, and the printing commenced, his career was cut short by his untimely death, partly in consequence of his great mental exertions, and partly of the change of climate. His work however, has just appeared at Stuttgard and Tubingen under the title, MUlelitalien von den Zeiten Romischer Herrschaft, nach seinen Denkmalen dargestellt. 1 vol. 8vo ; the care of seeing it through the press having been undertaken by his friend Sulpiz Boisseree. Abeken was one of the most promising and indefatigable investigators of antiquity, and his death is to be lamented as a severe loss to the cause of learning.

Berlin Academy.—The Transactions of the Berlin Academy for the year 1840, published in 1842, contain the following philological and historical memoirs. 1. Zumpt upon the state and increase of population in antiquity, p. 1—93, an elaborate paper, of which the first 17 pages relate to Greece, and the rest to Italy and the Roman Empire. In the former part of this dissertation, the author combats Mr. Clinton's conclusions, in the appendix to his second volume of the Fasti Hellenici, and maintains that the population of Greece was at its maximum during the Persian war, that it began from this period to decline in consequence of the frequent wars, the increase of luxury, and the prevalence of the practice of iraiiepaa-ria; and that the desolation of Greece was quite independent of the effects of the Roman conquest. With regard to Italy, Mr. Zumpt in like manner thinks that the period of its greatest population is to be fixed before the Punic wars; and that the second Punic war was a turning point to Italy, as the Peloponnesian war was to Greece, with respect to the number of the people, (p. 23). 2. Hoffmann on the relation of the sovereign power to the political notions of its subjects, p. 93. 3. V. Raumer. Lord Bolingbroke and his philosophical, theological, and political works, p. 123. 4. The theogony of John Tzetzes,

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Antichita Della Sicilia.—The fifth volume of this great and important work, edited by Dominico lo Faso Pietrasanta, Duca di Serradifalco, appeared a few months ago, and completes the work.

Rome.—M. C. G. Cobet of Leiden has made some of the most happy discoveries in the MSS. of the Vatican library, for amending the texts of Simplicius, Diogenes Laertius and Dion Cassius. His collection of unedited scholia on Euripides, and of numerous fragments of ancient writers, whose works were hitherto believed to be entirely lost, will create, it is said, a great sensation among scholars.

Dobpat.—The University of this place has lately been the scene of great agitation, in consequence of the rigour with which the Russian government has enforced the law of the country against some

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