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of the professors. Prof. Ulmann after having been rector of the University for some years, resigned this post in 1841, on account of ill health. The students who entertained great esteem for their teacher, resolved to present him with a silver goblet. The curators of the University dissuaded them from doing it, because according to the Russian law no officer was allowed to accept any present from his inferiors, without the express sanction of the government. The students however were not deterred by this, and presented the goblet to Ulmann who accepted it. Prof. Bunge of the faculty of law who was requested to give his opinion as to the legality of the proceeding, justified the conduct both of the students and of Prof. Ulmann. Other professors too declared in their favour. In consequence of this an imperial edict was issued, by which Prof. Ulmann was deprived of his chair, and exiled from Dorpat; Prof. Bunge was removed to Kasan, and Prof. Volckmann, at the time rector of the University, was deposed. Some other professors, dissatisfied with these measures of the government, resigned their offices. Prof. Preller has for the same reason lately resigned his place and returned to Germany. The programs of the University for the last few years contain very valuable dissertations by Preller. The program for the first half of the year 1842, is particularly interesting for its dissertation on the Peripatetic Praxiphanes, in which he points out the great importance of this philosopher as a grammarian, and his influence upon the grammatical school of Alexandria. Prof. Preller has also collected and illustrated the few extant extracts of Praxiphanes.

Heidelberg.—During the last winter the number of Students in this University amounted to 623, whereas in the winter previous there had been no more than 572. The University has sustained a great loss through the death of Prof. Zachariae, who is known to scholars by his work on the life and political reforms of Sulla. The appointment of Dr. L. Spengel to a Professorship is, however, some compensation to the University. On entering upon his new office, he published an elaborate and ingenious dissertation, "De Aristotelis libro decimo historiae animalium et incerto auctore libri trepi Kov/uou." Heidelberg, 1842, 4to. He endeavours to show, that the substance of this book may very well have formed a part of Aristotle's Historia Animalium. The numerous barbarisms which occur in it, are explained by an ingenious conjecture respecting the origin of our Greek text. The original Greek was (according to Spengel) lost in the middle ages; and in the fourteenth or fifteenth century, it was restored by some one who translated the Latin version back into Greek. His opinion concerning the work irep\ xotrfiov, commonly ascribed to Aristotle, is that it is altogether unworthy of the great philosopher both in form and substance. He maintains that it is impossible to discover its real author, and refutes the opinion of A. Stahr (Aristot. bei den Rbmern. p. 163, &c), who considers it to be a translation of a work of Apuleius on the same subject; that of Osann (Beitriige Zur Griech. u. Rom. Literaturgeschichte, i. p. 141 foil.), who attributes the work to Chrysippus; and of Julius Ideler (Ad Aristot. Meteorolog. Vol. n. p. 286), who ascribes it to Posidonius. The opinions of Spengel are supported by strong arguments, and are developed with great acuteness and sagacity.

Marbukg.—During the last winter the number of students in this University was 271. The place of K. F. Hermann, who has succeeded K. O. Miiller, at Gbttingen, was supplied in 1842 by Th. Bergk of the Gymnasium of Cassel, the editor of Anacreon, the Poetce lyrici Graici, and joint editor of the Zeitschrift fur die Alterthumswissenschaft. The program of the lectures for the summer-season 1843, contains a dissertation by Professor Bergk, on the poet Cornificius and his grammatical studies, especially his work De etymis deorum. The author endeavours to show, that Cornificius was ridiculed by Virgil and Valgius under the name of Codrus. Weichert, on the other hand, thinks that this Codrus is the same as the Jarbitas mentioned by Horace (Epist. I. 19, 5), whom Bergk considers to be Juba, king of Numidia.


Arundines Cami, sive Musarum Cantabrigiensium lusus canori. Collegit atque edidit Henricus Drury. Editio altera. London, 1843. 8vo.

Demosthenes, Select private Orations. After the text of Dindorf; with the various readings of Reiske and Bekker. With English Notes for the use of schools. By Ch. T. Penrose. Cambridge, 1843. 8vo.

Dindorf, W., Metra ./Eschyli, Sophoclis, Euripidis et Aristophanis. Accedit Chronologia Scenica. Oxford, 1842. 8vo.

Eusebii Pamphili Evangelicae Praeparationis, libri xv. Ad codd. manuscriptos recensuit Thomas Gaisford. Accedunt Francisci Vigeri Versio Latina et Notae, et L. C. Valckenaerii Diatribe de Aristobulo. Oxford, 1843. 4 vols. 8vo.

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A Greek-English Lexicon, based on the German work of Francis Passow. By Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott. Oxford. 1 vol. 4to.

A Greek Lexicon, chiefly for the use of schools. Abridged from the Greek-English Lexicon of H. G. Liddell and R. Scott. Oxford, 1843. 12mo.

Yates, J., Textrinum Antiquorum: An account of the art of Weaving among the ancients. Part I. On the raw materials used for weaving. London, 1843. 8vo.


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seinen Denkmalen dargestellt. 8vo. Stuttg. Ahrens H. L. de Graecae linguae dialectis. 2 vols. 8vo. Gotting. Anecdota Delphica. Edidit Ernestus Curtius. Acced. Tabulae II. Del

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Of all the plays of iEschylus that remain to us, none surpasses the Eumenides in respect of the gloomy grandeur of its conceptions. Between two and three thousand years have elapsed since they were embodied; yet notwithstanding the changes in manners, and more particularly in religion, which those centuries have brought in their train, it is still scarcely possible to peruse the songs of the o-epvai deai without some feeling of supernatural awe. What, then, must have been their effect upon an audience that regarded those dread goddesses as the most awful and mysterious in their mythology, and the part they acted in the drama as representing, not only the occasion and manner of their reception among the deities of Athens, but also the solemn erection and first judicial act of the purest and most sacred of Attic tribunals, .the timehonoured Areopagus? In this respect the Furies of ^Eschylus possessed an advantage over Shakespeare's witches, as to their hold upon the spectator's mind. The latter belonged, indeed, to the popular superstitions of the time, and were even recognized by the statutes; yet they formed no part of the religion of the state, nor were they identified with any of its institutions. Even the vulgar belief in them was of a mixed nature, half jest, half earnest. He who shuddered at the thoughts of them whilst crossing a barren heath or tangled wood at night, could muster courage enough to ridicule them in the open face of day. The weird sisters, at once terrible and grotesque, represent exactly this motley feeling. But the Furies, yet unappeased, were environed with an unmixed horror. Notwithstanding this difference, however, there are several points of resemblance between the witches of Macbeth and the Furies of the Athenian tragedy. Their number is the same; they are both invested with power over human

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