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few instances small staircases leading down to the sands, probably intended for the convenience of bathing.
Antium was forty miles distant from Rome, and was a favourite resort of the wealthy Romans during the imperial times. We examined what had been the lower story of a villa situated inland behind the harbour; the remains consist of two sides of a square court, which had been surrounded by a corridor or cloister communicating with a number of small apartments of different sizes, some of which had evidently been baths, for there were traces of the pipes and apertures for admitting hot air. In all these chambers the stucco was well preserved; but although there was a variety of ornamental patterns, there were no paintings of any consequence. About half a mile from the coast there are substructions, which, in consequence of being nearly covered with earth and shrubs, hardly repay the trouble of investigation. The site of the famous Temple of Fortune is undetermined; and the ancient port with its adjacent storehouses, and the long line of ruins covering the coast, form the principal objects of interest to the antiquary at Porto d' Anzo.
In passing along the coast to Nettuno, we observed brick-work, which led us to suppose that there also had been villas abutting upon the sea. The road from Nettuno to Albano lies for the first ten miles through a wood, and then gradually ascends: we turned off from it a few miles short of Albano, in order to pass through the basin of what was the Lacus Aricinus, from which the view of Lariccia and the woods above it is very imposing. On reaching the line of the Via Appia we soon found the magnificent viaduct which conducts that "Regina Viarum" up the hill adjoining Lariccia: this viaduct is on one side 70 or 80 feet in height, and built of enormous stones in regular courses; on the other side it may be half that height. The traveller from Rome to Naples does not pass along the Via Appia in this place, in consequence of the modern road being made to wind through Lariccia. It is worthy of observation, that the present Lariccia was only the citadel of the ancient Aricia, which lay -at the foot of the hill between it and the Via Appia. The cella of a temple, degraded into a habitation, and a few fragments, are all that remain to mark the first resting-place of Horace on his well-known journey from Rome to Brundusium:
"Egreasum magna me accepit Aricia Roma."
Albano is too well known to require any particular description here; but we cannot omit to mention that Monte Cavi, exclusive of the magnificent ponorama which it affords, is highly interesting to the antiquary and the classical scholar, as having been the mountain whereon the Feriae Latinae were celebrated. For the last half mile before reaching the summit, we traversed the ancient paved road, which is quite perfect, but so narrow that two cars could not pass each other upon it: the pavement might no doubt be traced for a much greater distance if the earth and shrubs were cleared off it, but unfortunately the modern path takes a different direction, and thus the original road is neglected. A few stones belonging to the temple of Jupiter Latialis are still in their primitive position, but the rest were displaced when the present convent of the Padri Passionisti was built, and are now to be seen heaped up, and forming part of the fence of the monks' garden. No other spot could have been chosen so admirably adapted for the temple which the inhabitants of all the Latin cities were to regard with common veneration, since it was visible from every part of Latium. Virgil in the iEneid makes the same use of this hill as Homer does of Ida in the Iliad, viz. as a resting-place for the gods, wherefrom they may witness the events of the campaign which is taking place in the plains below:
"At Juno e summo, qui nunc Albanus habetur,
Mneid xn. 134.
On our return from Albano to Rome we visited the site of Bovillae, situated a quarter of a mile to the west of the Via Appia, about a mile from Albano. We examined a small theatre which has been excavated of late years, and an cedicula near it of a square form with a vaulted roof, and conjectured by Nibby to have been the chapel of the Julian family, in which the body of Augustus rested for one night before it was conveyed with becoming pomp to the mausoleum which he had erected for his family in Rome.
Having reached Corneto early in the morning of the 8th of June, we proceeded, under the guidance of the custode who shews the painted tombs, to a distance of two miles from the town, and then commenced examining them. They vary with respect to the depth of the entrance below the surface of the ground, but in all cases the narrow passage, which is open to the sky and has been cut in the rock and afterwards filled with earth, is extremely steep; the door-case, which also is cut in the living rock, is always in a slightly sloping position, so that the stone door partly rested against the sides of the aperture. The hill upon which these tombs are found is called Monte-rozzi, and was the necropolis of Tarquinii; it is divided from that upon which the city stood by a very broad valley. The cemetery extends over the space of five or six miles in length, and about half a mile in width. Hillocks are continually seen at various distances: these had formerly a case of stone round the base, and were finished in a conical shape, but the outer coating is now gone in every instance except one, which was specially pointed out to us: in this, the circuit round the base was fifty paces, and the stone-work was visible to the height of four feet, from which point the sloping sides of the cone would commence. All the hillocks which we visited had, on one side or the other, a small aperture low down; but in the tombs where no paintings have been found, the earth has been suffered to fall in, and the chamber has become inaccessible. In several instances the caves which we visited containing paintings have no hillock or tumulus over them; but whether it had been levelled by time, or had never existed, we could not decide. The appearance of the whole hill is extremely uneven, there being numberless holes which are the result of abortive attempts at discovering caves, or places where, when the cave has been rifled, the earth has been suffered to fall in and accumulate. We visited one cave very difficult of access, and which Mrs. Hamilton Gray, who has published a work entitled A Tour to the Sepulchres qf ancient Etruria in 1839, could not possibly have entered. On looking into a hole in the ground, we saw that, about a third of the stone door had been broken with an axe; through this aperture we let ourselves down one by one, and on reaching the floor of the tomb, and obtaining a light, we found that in form it resembled most of those described by Mrs. Gray, being.rectangular, about twelve feet in length, and six feet broad; the roof was inclined towards what resembles a beam running length-wise, and this beam was painted with a draft-board pattern; the side opposite to the door was adorned with a somewhat indecent representation of a man killing a sow, which has occasioned the name of "Grotta della scrofa" being given to it. The chief interest connected with this tomb
arises from the circumstance of the larger part of the stone door being in its original position, so that when inside, you see how neatly the door was fitted, and how completely it excluded air and damp from the chamber within. The cave had of course been rifled, and its moveables carried off by means of the above-mentioned aperture; and it has not been deemed worth while to furnish it with an iron door, as has been the case with the others. We entered ten or twelve more tombs, all of which are painted, but contain, the greater part of them, nothing which could be carried away. There was, however, one large one with a central column left in the rock, and three shelves for the arrangement of recumbent figures of the size of life, some of which remain. The usual position is that of leaning upon the elbow as if in the attitude generally assumed at feasts. These rude figures are sculptured upon the cover of a sarcophagus; and if there be any inscription, it is carved upon the edge where the lid closes the stone coffin. We particularly noticed a tomb entitled by the guides "Grotta delle false porte," and it happens to be the only one where the real door is entire; but the name has been given, because on the three sides, right and left, and facing the aperture, a door-case and door are painted on the walls, thus interrupting the series of figures which occupy the intervening spaces. The stone door displaced at the opening of this grotto is adorned with twenty-five small square compartments, containing rudely carved monsters and animals, the ornamented side having been placed inwards.
We understood from the guides that not above one in ten of the caves which are opened have the walls painted, but those which are plain immediately after their spoliation are filled up; and as the earth falls in, and the grass grows over it, future excavators are liable to waste their pains in re-opening sepulchres which have been long ago despoiled. There are in all about twelve sepulchres which are furnished with modern doors, and thereby preserved for the benefit of the curious; these have each a name given at the time of the original excavation. We entered them all, and observed with regret that in many the colours are fast fading away; but as the principal ones have been accurately copied by Roman artists, whose works are in the Etruscan Museum of the Vatican, these invaluable representations of Etruscan manners are not likely to be lost to the world.
Upon quitting the necropolis, we descended into the valley which divides it from the site of Tarquinii, and enquiring of a shepherd the name of the hill before us, he informed us it was called "Monte della citta;" which name is usually given to sites formerly occupied by cities; but it is also called Turchino—a corruption of Tarquinii. The whole slope of the hill was strewn with fragments of hewn stones, which were the more visible owing to the circumstance of the ground having been lately laid open by the plough. In a few places on the brow of the hill fragments of the wall which had surrounded the citadel were discoverable, and on the highest point four or five rows of steps led to a pavement in the shape of a parallelogram, which had every appearance of having been the floor of a temple; this, with the fragments of town-wall, was all that we found to mark the site of Tarquinii. As far as we could judge from the shape of the ground, there had been a gate leading to a road across to the necropolis: portions of the gateposts were visible, and immediately outside the gate there was a deep well. The circuit of the city, if the walls followed the brow of. the hill, as was doubtless the case, could not be less than six miles. The pieces of wall which remain are composed of moderatesized stones in regular courses, resembling those of Fiesole.
After traversing the whole length of the hill whereon Tarquinii stood, we crossed the valley and ascended to Corneto, which, however interesting for its palace, cathedral, and square towers, contains no monuments of classical antiquity. From Corneto we travelled to Toscanella, the ancient Tuscania, of which there are no remains above ground, but the town is celebrated for the tombs in its environs, which furnish the museums of Europe with vases and curiosities. We visited Signor Campanari, who resides there, and who formerly exhibited a vast collection of Etruscan curiosities in Pall Mall; he is constantly employed in opening sepulchres, selling the portable objects, and reserving the more weighty to adorn his own garden. He has fitted up a large cave with vases, sarcophagi, and ornaments, arranged precisely in the same manner as they had been in an Etruscan tomb. The cave is square, and surrounded by a ledge upon which are sarcophagi with recumbent figures resting upon them with their backs to the wall: upon the legs and bodies of the figures vases of different sizes are placed standing upright, and attached to nails in the wall immediately above the heads of the figures are bronze utensils of various forms, known to virtuosi under the titles of speech/ mistici, prcpfincula, ■strigils, &c. The effect of this cave, containing the genuine objects of ancient art arranged in a place and style so closely resembling