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Ohatorum Romanorum Fragmenta Ab Appio Inde Craco ET M. Porcio Catone Usque Ad Q. Aurelium Symmachum. Collegit atque illustr. Henricus Meyerus. Turici, 1842. 8vo. Editio auctior et emendatior.
A New edition of this work, which first appeared in 1832, and was reprinted with a few additions by Diibner at Paris in 1837, must be hailed by all scholars as a most welcome aid in the study of Roman oratory from the beginning of the art down to the latest times of the empire. The rapid succession of three editions is a sufficient acknowledgement of the value of the work, and the author, by his continued study of his subject, has been enabled to make this last edition an almost entirely new work. No less than thirty orators who had been omitted in the former edition, are treated of in the new one; while a few others have been omitted whose claims to a place among the orators were not founded on satisfactory authority. To give our readers a notion of the great improvements and additions in this new edition, it will be sufficient to mention that the article M. Porcius Cato, which in the first edition occupied 84 pages, fills 140 pages of the new edition. M. Meyer's object has been to give his work the highest possible degree of completeness in regard to the persons who distinguished themselves as orators, as well as to the fragments of their orations; and this object is attained in the most satisfactory manner. The way in which the subjects are treated is briefly this. The author first gives a chronological outline of the most important events in the life of the orator, with the references necessary to establish the clironology, which is greatly improved in this edition; and he then proceeds to give the fragments of the orations. They are always accompanied by an account of the occasion on which the speeches to which they belonged, were delivered, mostly in the words of the ancient authorities themselves, and by brief notes to illustrate difficult or remarkable passages. The whole work is one of sound scholarship and free from the airy speculations and conjectures, in consequence of which German works are frequently specimens of their author's ingenuity rather than sound and faithful representations of the subjects they treat of. To place a subject in a new light, which the Germans call advancing the science of it, is of no value whatever, if this new light be not the true one, or at least, has not a high degree of probability derived from a careful and conscientious examination of the sources extant, or drawn from analogy, and without any preconceived theory which the ancient testimonies are made to fit by force and distortion.
Democriti Abderitve Operum Fkaomenta. Collegit, recensuit, vertit, explicuit, ac de Philosophi vita, scriptis et placitis commentatus est, F. G. A. Mullachius. Berolini, 1843. 8vo. (London, Williams and Norgate.) This is the first collection of all the fragments of Democritus that has ever been made, and Dr. Mullach deserves great credit for the number of years he has devoted to his task as well as for the manner in which he has accomplished it. He classifies the numerous works of Democritus in the following manner:—1. Scripta Moralia.— 2. Scripta Physica.—3. Scripla dcvvraKra.—4. Scripta Mathematica. —5. Scripta Musica, and 6. Scripta Technica, each of which classes comprises a number of separate works. He has added a new Latin translation, as those which had appeared before were partly incorrect and partly based upon a corrupt text of the original. Dr. Mullach's object, therefore, has been first of all to constitute a correct text of the fragments. Democritus wrote in the Ionic dialect, but the writers who have preserved fragments of his works, have sometimes changed his words altogether into the forms of the Attic or common Greek dialect; while, in other cases they have left the Ionic forms untouched, or at least, have retained sufficient traces of the dialect in which Democritus wrote, to enable a careful critic to restore the genuine form of the fragments. Wherever this has been possible, Dr. Mullach has endeavoured to give us the fragments in their genuine Ionic forms; but in cases where the philosopher's fragments are preserved in the Attic or common dialect, he has wisely left them as they are, since the attempt at restoration would in many cases involve extensive and arbitrary alterations. An account of his proceedings in this respect is given by Dr. Mullach in his notes upon the fragments, from p. 255 to p. 373. The Latin version is written with great ease, fluency and elegance. The whole work is divided into four books: the first contains a critical account of the life of Democritus, and a list of other personages who bore the same name; the second consists of a general dissertation on the works of Democritus; the third contains the fragments, which are followed by the commentary; and the fourth gives a delineation of the philosophy of Democritus, which we have found more complete and accurate than any that is to be found even in the best histories of ancient philosophy.
Anecdota Delphica. Edidit Ernestus Curtius. Accedunt tabula
duae Delphicae. Berolini, 1843. 4to. (London, Williams and
Among the memorable-places of ancient Greece, there is scarcely
one that was so long neglected as Delphi, the religious centre of the ancient world, and none again that has been so thoroughly searched in tnodern times. After the labours of our own numerous travellers, who furnished the world with more or less accurate and interesting particulars, but none of whom had made Delphi and its vicinity the special object of his researches, it was reserved for a few illustrious German scholars to lift the veil which hung over that sanctuary of Hellas. The first who produced a topography of Delphi worthy of the name, was Professor Ulrichs of Athens, in his well-known work, Reisen und Forschungen in Griechenland. Bremen, 1840. Vol. I. About the same time the Greek government formed the plan of removing, if possible, the village of Castritae, and of thus laying open the remains of the temple of Apollo, which is buried under it. This plan was indeed given up, but the architect, M. Laurent, who had been commissioned to take an accurate measurement of the district, produced a very excellent topographical map of Delphi, which is added to Professor Ulrichs' work. And thus it has happened, that within the last few years we have obtained a more perfect knowledge of Delphi than of any other town of ancient Greece, with the exception, perhaps, of Athens. The present work of Dr. Curtius, who accompanied the lamented K. O. Miiller in his researches at Delphi, contains the results of his own and Mailer's labours, as far as the inscriptions are concerned: the portion relating more particularly to ancient art has just been published by Adolf Scholl in his Archaeologische Mittheilungen aus Griechenland, nach C. O. Mutter's hinterlassenen Papieren. Erstes Heft. Next to Athens there is no place in Greece where so many inscriptions, partly of a religious and partly of a profane nature, have been discovered as at Delphi. A great many are contained in Boeckh's Corpus Inscriptionum, and their number has been increased by Ross, Colonel Leake, Thiersch, and Ulrichs. The Anecdota Delphica of Dr. Curtius contain sixty-eight new and hitherto unpublished inscriptions of great importance. In the prolegomena to his work, he gives a brief outline of the topography of Delphi, and an account of the spot where the new inscriptions were found and of their condition. They are all written upon a wall which forms a substruction of the temple of Apollo, and was laid open by Miiller and Curtius. It is said to have subsequently disappeared, but it is most probable that it was covered over again by the people of Castritae. The age of the majority of the inscriptions is fixed by Curtius as being the third century B. C. The subjects which they commemorate are manumissions of slaves, and decrees of the Delphic Amphictyons and of the city of Delphi; and Dr. Curtius is thus led to give an elaborate account of these subjects, his information being chiefly derived from the inscriptions themselves. The most interesting part is the dissertation upon the various modes of manumission among the Greeks, and the forms in which they were effected, pp. 10—47. After these dissertations the author gives the inscriptions themselves in the ordinary Greek characters, with short critical notes. Then follow several appendixes: 1. On an Egyptian Papyrus containing an act of manumission in Greek. 2. On the Delphic dialect 3. A list of proper names occurring in the inscriptions, and, 4. Explanation of the plates, and a catalogue of the inscriptions in capital letters. Dr. Curtius has made the best use of the materials furnished him by his inscriptions, and his disquisitions have brought to light many things which give us a clearer insight into the life of the ancient Greeks (and more especially the Delphians) than it was possible to obtain previous to the discovery of these inscriptions.
Delectus Poetarum Anthologi.zb Gumcje; cum adnotatione critica Augusti Meinekii, accedunt conjectanea critica de Anthologiae Graecee locis controversis. Berolini, 1842. 1 vol. 8vo.
Analbcta Alexandrina, sive Commentationes de Euphorione Chalcidensi, Rhiano Cretensi, Alexandre iEtolo, Parthenio Nicaeno, scripsit Augustus Meineke. Berolini, 1843. 1 vol. 8vo.
The first of these two volumes contains an amended edition of the epigrams of the best poets of the Greek Anthology who lived about the Alexandrine period: their number is twenty-four. They are arranged in the order of Brunck's Analecta, with references at the bottom of the pages to the edition of the Palatine Anthology by Jacobs. A critical annotation is subjoined. After these notes, Dr. Meineke has appended some emendations of other epigrams, selected indiscriminately from the Anthology. The comprehensive knowledge of Greek literature, the accurate perception of the language, and the ingenuity in conjectural emendation, combined with the rarer quality of sobriety in using it, for which Dr. Meineke is distinguished, are apparent in this little volume. He publishes it as a specimen of an edition of the entire Anthology, which he meditates, and which we sincerely hope that he may execute. To say nothing of the philological value which it would possess, there is now no complete edition of the Anthology, except the very expensive work of Jacobs, and the very inaccurate reprint in the Tauchnitz Collection,
The second volume contains a reprint of the substance of his former edition of Euphorion, with improvements, together with the remains of Rhianus, Alexander iKtolus, and Parthenius. Amongst the latter are included the extant stories wept epieriKwv iradriftaTiav; which are likewise contained in the recent edition of the Greek mythographers by Westermann.
La Moneta e i Monumenti Primitivi dell' Italia Antica, messi in rapporto cronologico con quelli delle altre Nazioni civili dell Antichita. Dissertazione del Dr. Achille Gennarelli Coronata dalla Ponteficia Accademia Romana di Archeologia, 21 Aprile, 1842. Roma, 1843. The volume here published by Dr. Gennarelli contains three Dissertations on three separate subjects, publicly announced for discussion by the Archaeological Academy at Rome; the prize was adjudged to them by that learned body.
The work published in 1839 by fathers Marchi and Tessieri, on the primitive bronze money of ancient Italy, excited a strong interest among Archaeological inquirers: many of the specimens of aes grave produced and illustrated by them from the Kircherian Museum, had been either unknown or unnoticed before, and it was found that we still possessed so many series, either complete or nearly complete, of the As with its fractions and multiples, as to throw an unexpected light both upon the original starting-point and the gradual debasement of antient Italian money.
It was chiefly from the various points left untouched or doubtful in this work, that the Archaeological Academy at Rome was induced in 1841 to propose the three following questions for examination:
1. Was the heavy money, not Roman and not bearing any inscription, issued exclusively by Italian cities? and by which Italian cities?
2. Was it issued prior to the fourth century of Rome?
3. What inferences may be drawn from the comparison of that money with the monuments of art among the other cities both in and out of Italy, as to the quarters from whence the arts themselves derived their origin and their improvement?
Upon these three questions Dr. Gennarelli has brought to bear considerable learning, much ingenious inference, and above all, a complete and critical acquaintance with the remnants of Italian art treasured up in the various Museums, multiplied as they have been to so prodigious an extent by the discoveries of the last twenty years. Of these discoveries a large portion has gone to enrich the Gregorian Museum in the Vatican: in the great work now in course of publication representing the contents of that Museum, Dr. Gennarelli is the author of the expository portion. Italian dissertations upon subjects of this kind form as it were the complement of German: inferior to the Germans in erudition, Italian authors usually manifest a more extensive personal knowledge of works of art and greater power of comparing and criticising them. It is rarely given to one man to unite the two in his own person, like K. 0. Miiller.
The first of Dr. Gennarelli's three essays embodies the chief results presented in the previous work of Marchi and Tessieri, together with