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several additions and corrections of his own. The assertion of Timaeus (ap. Plin. H. N. xxxm. 13), that bronze without any special form or mark (yes rude) was employed as money in Italy earlier than bronze cast in a determinate mould, appears to be borne out by recent discoveries at Vulci and Falterona pp. 12—93): plain pieces of bronze, differing both in shape and weight, having been found in coffers along with determinate specimens of cast money. From these rude pieces of metal, of various weights, the next step was to cast pieces of bronze of a full pound weight, together with smaller pieces corresponding to the semis and other smaller uncial fractions. According to the specimens now existing, and capable of being identified, though there are many more which as yet cannot be referred to any known city, the heavy bronze money extended from Luna to Antium, in Italy, South of the Apennines— and from Ariminum to Venusia, in Italy, North of the Apennines: in Sicily also pieces of it have been found, and it seems to have been current—but at present there is no evidence to connect it with the more southern portions of Italy. In Greece and other non- Italic regions it is quite unknown, (pp. 56, 57). The pound weight in different parts of Italy was different, and each city in casting its money assumed its own pound weight as unity: all the changes which subsequently took place were in the way of degradation: but the position laid down by Marchi and Tessieri, that the heaviest pieces are always to be regarded as the oldest, is only true with regard to money of the same city. Dr. Gennarelli enumerates the different cities, within the limits above mentioned, in which the ass grave can be shewn to have been cast: and he annexes to his essay a voluminous but useful table, containing the weights of all the numerous specimens possessed by the Kircherian Museum.

In the second essay, the comparative ages of the bronze money in different parts of Italy is discussed. The author considers that it was first cast by the Tuscan cities, from whom it passed into Umbria and Latium at a period contemporaneous with the foundation of Rome, and was introduced into Rome itself by the Tuscan kings. All this chronological arrangement rests upon very slender evidence: though the extraordinary superiority, in the execution of the bronze money of Latium, may be reasonably taken as proof of a later date for those particular specimens.

In the third essay Dr. Gennarelli enters into a general survey of the various branches of Etrurian art, in all its known manifestations, architectural, plastic, and pictorial, as well as monetary. He maintains, with great earnestness of conviction, as well as by very powerful arguments, the nationality of Etruscan art, and controverts the opinion of those who refer the best specimens now existing to Grecian artists. The number of objects of art which have been extracted from various parts of Etruria, by the excavations of the last fifteen years, is prodigious: not less than 30,000 painted vases have been found, and an aggregate of other objects hardly less considerable. With respect to many of the vases, there is full proof that they were fabricated on the spot where they were dug up: in the neighbourhood of Vulci a species of earth is found which precisely corresponds with the material used in the numerous terra-cotta vases excavated in the necropolis of that city: and near the site of the ancient Tarquinii, a deposit of black earth has recently been detected, analagous to the material of the archaic black vases discovered thereabouts (p. 136). A great variety of marks or cyphers, in Etruscan characters, are inscribed upon these vases: Dr. Gennarelli has collected and printed nearly a hundred of these Etruscan marks, which must in most cases have been affixed before the vase was submitted to the fire. From the paintings on the walls of Chiusi and Tarquinii we see that these vases were in ordinary use in all the details of Tuscan life: nor is there any reason to dispute the testimony of Pliny, that they were extensively exported to foreign countries. The specchi graffiti, or bronze mirrors with engraved designs, are altogether peculiar to Etruria: nothing of the kind has yet been found in Greece: among these are to be seen some highly finished specimens of art, one of which is annexed to the dissertation of Dr. Gennarelli. Grecian inscriptions are sometimes found upon articles dug up in the Etrurian cities—but often upon articles of bad workmanship as well as good— and what is still more curious, they are often so unintelligible and mis-written, as to have the appearance of proceeding from authors imperfectly acquainted with the language. Not a single Grecian tomb has yet been discovered amongst the excavations in Etruria. All the assemblage of accompanying circumstances seems to countenance the belief, that the numerous relics of ancient art found in the country are the productions of indigenous skill and talent: and Dr. Gennarelli may fairly claim to have made out this part of his case. \ Dr. Gennarelli believes too implicitly the statement of Pliny {H. N. xxxv. 3.) that the pictures which he had seen and admired - the temples of Ardea, Lanuvium, and Caere, were of a date more ient than the foundation of Rome. But the great and rich sepulchre, /hich was opened in 1829 on the site of the ancient Caere, exhibits remarkable evidences as to the antiquity of Etruscan art. From the structure of the arch, which resembles in its superposed horizontal layers that of the treasury of Atreus at Mykenee, we may infer that it was anterior to the Cloaca Maxima at Rome, or to the sixth century before the Christian era. In this tomb were found a profusion of. ornaments and divers utensils, in gold, silver, bronze, and terracotta; these articles are now in the Gregorian Museum, and many of them are executed with a degree of skill and delicacy truly remarkable. We find thus an interesting proof of the art as well as of the wealth in the ancient Caere or Agylla, at a period certainly not later than 600 B.C. when Greece had hut little to boast of in any department of artistic execution. The dissertation of Dr. Gennarelli gives much curious detail about this tomb, as well as respecting recent excavations at Chiusi, which have tended greatly to illustrate the account delivered by Varro of the colossal tomb of Porsena near that spot.

Translation of Select Speeches of Demosthenes, with Notes, by Charles Rann Kennedy, Esq. London. 1841.

A Complete translation of Demosthenes is a desideratum in English literature. Mr. Kennedy has here in part supplied the want by a version of the five orations against Aphobus and Onetor. Belonging to that class of the \6yoi hxaviKoi which affords least scope for the display of eloquence, these speeches have in the original fewer attractions for the reader than many others of Demosthenes, although they contain much information respecting the early life of the great orator, as well as regarding Athenian laws and customs. Hence a translation of them is the more welcome. Mr. Kennedy has availed himself of the opportunity thus afforded to illustrate by notes many peculiarities of Attic jurisprudence. These are written in an easy, unpretending style, and convey much information without the parade of learning. A principal feature of the work is the occasional illustration of Athenian laws, by a comparison of them with those of England, which circumstance cannot but give the book an additional interest for such readers as belong to the profession of the law.

Mr. Kennedy's version of the text, though not literal, seems, so far as we have compared it with the original, to give the meaning with fidelity. We must, however, protest against the way in which he has rendered some of the technical terms. Thus we find the avtyei hucurrai converted into "Gentlemen of the Jury ;" and XetTovpylat is rendered by " burdensome offices:" which, doubtless, they frequently were, hut which conveys a meaning at variance with the etymology of the word. What makes this practice still more objectionable is, that Mr. Kennedy has not even been consistent in it; for we see no just cause why the archon should not be converted into my " Lord Mayor," just as well as the dicast into a jury-man. These, however, are but trifles; and to the student who is preparing to enter upon Demosthenes we can safely recommend Mr. Kennedy's book as a useful introduction.


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