صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

little way. On Friday again they got him out, and thither he went, but would needs return on Saturday betimes. His nephew following to attend him to Cambridge, he leapt out of the coach, sat on the ground, and said he would not stir thence till he was gone. Mr. Sterne, going several times to visit him, once had speech with him, who said that the day of mercy was past: God had deserted him,' etc.; but would not hear him reply. He was another time as it were poising his body on the top of the stairs, as if he was devising how to pitch so as to break his neck; but was prevented.

"On that happy morning of exaltation to others, but his downfall, he lay in bed till church-time; said he was well and cheerful; bade his wife go to church; when she was gone charged his servants to go down for half an hour, he would take his rest, etc. Then arose in his shirt, bolted the door, took the kercher about his head and tied it about his neck with the knot under his chin; then put an handkerchief under it, and tied the handkerchief about the superliminare of the portal (the next panel to it being a little broken), which was so low that a man could not go through without stooping; and so wilfully with the weight of his body strangled himself, his knees almost touching the floor. By his servants coming up by another way he was found too late. Quis talia fando temperet a lacrymis?

"April the 4th, 1632." 1

[ocr errors]

The successor of Dr. Butts in the Vice-Chancellorship was his rival, Dr. Comber, of Trinity; and it was during his first term of office the Easter or Midsummer Term of 1632 - that Milton completed his career at the University. Having fulfilled his studies and his exercises during that term, he was one of 207 Bachelors, from all the Colleges, who graduated as Masters of Arts at the Commencement held on July 3, 1632. On that occasion only two were admitted to the degree of D. D. The Respondent in the first Divinity Act was Dr. Gilbert, whose topics were as follows: "1. Sola Scriptura est regula fidei; 2. Reliquiæ peccati manent in renatis etiam post baptismum. ("1. Scripture alone is the rule of faith; 2. The dregs of sin remain in the regenerate even after baptism.") The Respondent in the second Divinity Act was Mr. Breton, of Emanuel College and his questions were: “1. In optimis renatorum operibus datur culpabilis defectus; 2. Nudus assensus divinitùs revelatis non est fides justificans." ("1. In the best works of the regenerate there is a culpable defect; 2. Bare assent

1 There are in the State Paper Office several letters of Butts's own, while Vice-Chancellor, on University business, written in a large, hurried hand. So far as I know, the only literary relic of him is a curious little 12mo volume, published in 1599, with the following title: "Dyet's Dry Dinner, consisting of eight severall courses,-1. Fruites; 2. Hearbes; 3. Flesh; 4. Fish; 5. Whitmeats; 6. Spice; 7.

Sauce, 8. Tobacco: by Henry Butts, M. A., and Fellow of C. C. College in Cambridge: printed in London, by Thomas Creede, for William Warde." It is a kind of culinary manual, with medical notes and anecdotes for table talk. The author advertises a companion volume on Drinks; but it never appeared.

to what is divinely revealed is not justifying faith.") The subjects of the Philosophy Act, and the name of the Respondent are unknown.

In taking his M. A. degree, Milton had again to subscribe to the three articles mentioned in the 36th of the ecclesiastical canons of 1603-4, or, in other words, to acknowledge the royal supremacy, the Church Liturgy, and the authorized doctrines of the Church of England. The subscription, like that on taking the B. A. degree, was formally entered in the graduation-book in the presence of the Registrar. The following is the list of the names from Christ's College, in the exact form and order in which they are still to be seen in the graduation-book:

Joannes Milton.
Robertus Pory.
John Hieron.
Samuel Viccars.
Daniel Proctor.
William Dun.
Robert Seppens.
John Boutflower.
Thomas Baldwyne.
John Browne.
Rycard. Garthe.
Edmund Barwell.

Richard Buckenham.

Johannes Newmann.

John Welbye.
Petrus Pury.
Samuel Boulton.

Thomas Carre.

Robert Cooper.
William Finch.
Philip Smith.
Roger Rutley.
Bernard Smith.
William Wildman.

John Cragge.

Gulielmus Shotton.
Richard Pegge.1

Milton, therefore, took his M. A. degree along with twenty-six others from his College, one-and-twenty of whom had taken the prior degree of B. A. along with him three years before. Among the oaths in taking the Master's degree, was that of continued Regency in the University for five years more; but in practice, as we have seen, this oath was now next to meaningless; and in July, 1632, Milton's effective connection with the University ceased.

In the main, what has preceded has been an external history of Milton's life, as connected with the annals of the seven years which

1 Copied from the original by the permission of Mr. Romilly, the University Registrar. Is the circumstance that Milton's name stands first purely accidental; or are we to suppose that, when the twenty-seven gradu

ates from Christ's appeared before the Registrar, Milton was, by common consent, called on to sign first? Pory, it will be noted, comes next. Pory seems to stick to Milton like a burr or a Boswell.

he passed at the University. In his letters and in his poems during this period, we have had glimpses also of the history of his mind during the same period-information respecting the manner in which the circumstances of the time and the place affected him, and respecting the nature of his contemporary musings and occupations. To complete the view thus obtained, it is necessary now to make some farther inquiries, and to use some materials which have been kept in reserve.

The system of study at Cambridge in Milton's time was very different from what it is at present. The avatar of Mathematics had not begun. Newton was not born till ten years after Milton had left Cambridge; nor was there then, nor for thirty years afterwards, any public chair of Mathematics in the University. Milton's connection with Cambridge, therefore, belongs to the closing age of an older system of education, the aim of which was to turn out scholars, according to the meaning of that term once general over Europe. This system had been founded very much on the mediaval notion of what constituted the totum scibile. According to this notion there were "Seven Liberal Arts," apart from and subordinate to Philosophy proper and Theology—to wit, Grammar, Logic, and Rhetoric, forming together what was called the Trivium; and Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy, and Music, forming together what was called the Quadrivium. Assuming some rudiments of these arts as having been acquired in school, the Universities undertook the rest; paying most attention, however, to the studies of the Trivium, and to Philosophy as their sequel.

By the Elizabethan Statutes of 1561, the following was the seven years' course of study prescribed at Cambridge prior to the degree of Master of Arts:

"1. The Quadriennium of the Undergraduateship: First year, Rhetoric; second and third, Logic; fourth, Philosophy; - these studies to be carried on both in College and by attendance on the University lectures (domi forisque); and the proficiency of the student to be tested by two disputations in the public schools and two respondents in his own College.1

"2. The Triennium of Bachelorship: Attendance during the whole time on the public lectures in Philosophy as before, and also on those in Astronomy, Perspective, and Greek; together with a continuance of the private or Collegestudies, so as to complete what had been begun; moreover, a regular attendance at all the disputations of the Masters of Arts for the purpose of general improvement; three personal responsions in the public schools to a Master of

1 Statutes, Cap. VI. "Dyer's Privileges," I. 164.

Arts opposing, two College exercises of the same kind, and one College declamation." 1

There had, of course, been modifications in this scheme of studies before Milton's time. Studies formerly reserved for the Triennium were now included in the business of the Quadriennium. Thus, Greek was now regularly taught from the first year of a student's course. So also with arithmetic and such a smattering of geometry and physical science as had formerly been comprehended under the heads of Astronomy and Perspective. But, besides these modifications, there had been a further modification arising from the changed relations of the Colleges to the University. In the scheme of the statutes, it is presumed that the instruction in the various studies enumerated is to be received domi forisque- that is, almost equally in the Colleges of the students under their tutors, and in the public schools under the University lecturers or professors. Since then, however, the process had been going on which has raised the power of the Colleges at the expense of the University, and all but entirely superseded the teaching function of the public professors. The professors still lectured; and their lectures were in certain cases attended. In the main, however, the work of instruction was now carried on in the separate Colleges, both by the private tutors among whom the students were distributed, and by those persons selected from among the tutors, who, under the name of College lecturers, were appointed, annually or otherwise, to hold classes on particular subjects. Save in so far as the students thus trained in the several Colleges met to grapple with each other in the disputations in the public schools, there was no means of ascertaining their relative proficiency as members of the entire University. That system of examinations had not yet been devised, which, by annually comparing the best men of all the Colleges and classifying them rigorously into Wranglers, etc., has in some degree revived the prerogative, if not the teaching function, of the University, and knit the Colleges together.

In Trinity College, the arrangements for the collegiate education of the pupils seem to have been very complete. Under one head lecturer, or general superintendent, there were eight special lecturers or teachers, each of whom taught and examined an hour or an hour and a half daily-the lector Humanitatis, sive lingua Latina, who also gave weekly lectures on Rhetoric; the lector Græcæ grammatica; the lector linguæ Græca; the lector mathematicus;

1 Statutes, Cap. VII. Dyer, I. 164.

and four sublectores, under whom the students advanced gradually from elementary Logic to the higher parts of Logic and to Metaphysics. In St. John's College, the next in magnitude after Trinity, the instruction if we may judge from the accounts given by Sir Simonds D'Ewes of his studies there in 1618 and 1619 - does not seem to have been so systematic. For this reason it may be taken as the standard of what was usual in other colleges, such as Christ's.

D'Ewes, being a pious youth, was in the habit, of his own accord, and while yet but a freshman, of attending at the Divinity professor's lectures, and also at the Divinity Acts in the schools. He also attended the public lectures of old Downes in Greek (Demosthenes's De Corona being the subject), and of Herbert the poet in Rhetoric. This was voluntary work, however, undertaken all the more readily that the lectures were gratis, and when Downes, who was a fellow of St. John's, offered to form a private Greek class for the benefit of D'Ewes and a few others, D'Ewes was alarmed, and sheered off "My small stipend my father allowed me," he says, "affording me no sufficient remuneration to bestow on him, I excused myself from it, telling him," etc., and keeping out of his way afterwards as much as possible. All the education which D'Ewes received in his College during the two years he was there, consisted-first, in attendance on the problems, sophisms, disputations, declamations, catechisings, and other exercises which were regularly held in the College chapel; secondly, in the daily lessons he received in Logic, Latin, and everything else, from his tutor, Mr. Holdsworth; and, thirdly, in his additional readings in his own room, suggested by his tutor or undertaken by himself. Here, in his own words, under each of these heads, is an exact inventory of his two years' work:

(1.) Public Exercises in the Chapel, etc. "Mine own exercises, performed during my stay here, were very few— replying only twice in two philosophical Acts; the one upon Mr. Richard Salstonstall in the public schools, it being his Bachelor's Act, the other upon Mr. Nevill, a fellow-commoner and prime student of St. John's College in the Chapel. My declamations, also, were very rarely performed-the first in my tutor's chamber, and the other in the College-chapel." (2.) Readings with his Tutor. "Mr. Richard Holdsworth, my tutor, read with me but one year and a half of that time [i. e. of the whole two years]; in which he went over all Seton's Logic1 exactly, and part of Kecker

1 Dean Peacock's Observations on the Cambridge Statutes.

2" Dialectica Joannis Setoni, Cantabrigiensis, annotationibus Petri Carteri, ut clarissimis, ita brevissimis explicata. Huic accessit, ob artium ingenuarum inter se cogna

tionem, Gulielmi Buclei arithmetica: Londoni, 1611." There were editions of this work, with exactly the same title, as early as 1572, from which time it seems to have been the favorite elementary text-book in logic at Cambridge. The appended "Arithmetic" of

« السابقةمتابعة »