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there was no redress; the more he amphitheatre erected for that purfretted, he became only the more pose, and great numbers of the noridiculous. An action of his, bility and gentry are present upon however, foon made him more

the occasion, This examination truly ridiculous than before : cu he passed with the utmost applause, riosity leading him one day to see and was made a fellow, the only an execution, he returned home reward of learning that kingdom pensive and melancholy, and could has to bestow. not forbear reflecting on what he

Metaphysical studies are genehad seen.

He desired to know rally the amusement of the indolent what were the pains and symptoms and the inquisitive; his business as a malefactor felt upon such an oc a fellow, allowed him sufficient casion, and communicated to his leisure, and his genius prompted chum the cause of his strange cu

him to scrutinize into every abriofity; in fhort, he resolved to ftrufe subject. He soon, therefore, tuck himself up for a trial ; at the was regarded as one of the best same time defiring his companion metaphysicians in Europe ; his loto take him down at a signal agreed gic was looked upon rather as the upon.

work of a man killed in metaphyThe companion, whose name fics, than in the dialect of the was Contarine, was to try the schools ; his treatise upon matter, same experiment himself imme was also thought to be the most diately after. Berkeley was accord- ingenious paradox that ever amused ingly tied up to the cieling, and learned leisure; and many were the the chair taken from under his answers made to it by the literati feet; but foon losing the use of of Europe. his senses, his companion, it seems,

His fame as a scholar, but more waited a little too long for the fig- his conversation as a man of wit nal agreed upon, and our enquirer and good-nature, foon procured had like to have been hanged in him the friendship and eleem of good earneft ; for as soon as he every person of fortune and underwas taken down, he fell, senseless ftanding; among the reft, Swift, and motionless, upon the floor. that lover, yet derider, of human After some trouble, however, he nature, became one of the most was brought to himself; and ob- intimate, and it was by his recomferving his band, “ Bless my heart, mendation that he was introduced Contarine, says he, you have quite to the earl of Peterborough, who rumpled my band.” When it made him his chaplain, and took came to Contarine's turn to go up, him, as his companion, on a tour he quickly evaded the proposal; through Europe. the other's danger had quite abated

Some time after his return, he

was promoted to a deanery, in Still, however, Berkeley pro- which situation he wrote his Minute ceeded in his ftudies with unabated Philosopher, one of the most eleardoar. A fellowship in that col- gant and genteel defences of that lege is attained by superior learning religion which he was born to vinonly; the candidates are examined dicate; both by his virtues and his in the most public manner, in an ingenuity, It was at this time

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his curiosity.


also, that he attempted to establish Metaphysical studies were ftill an university for our American co- his amusement, and the difpenfalonies, in Bermudas, one of the tions of charity he looked upon Summer islands. Doctor Depusch, his duty. But the opinions of an excellent musician, and some metaphysicians he, at last, began to others of great abilities, were en contemn, and to doubt of the cergaged in this design, and actually tainty, not only of every argument embarked in order to put it in exe upon this subject, but even of the cution ; but the ship being cart fcience. He therefore turned his away, Berkeley was left to con thoughts to more beneficial studies, trive fomething else to the advan- to politics and medicine, and gave tage of his country.

instances in both, of what he could He interefted himself deeply in have done, had he made either his a scheme for improving the Eng- particular study. lish language, by a fociety of wits In politics, a pamphlet publishana men of genius, established for ed by him, intituled,'The Querit, that purpose, in imitation of the is a fine instance of his skill, aid academy of France; in this design was attended with some beneficial Swift, Bolingbroke, and others, circumstances to his native country. were united ; but the whole dropt His treatise on tar-water renby the death of queen Anne, and dered him more popular than any the removal of Harley from the of his preceding productions, at office of prime minister.

the same time that it was the most His friendship and connections, whimfical of them all. Here he however, did not, as was the case pretends to prove, a priori, the with Swift and some others, pre effects of this, - sometimes, valuvent his promotion ; he was made able medicine; but then he extendş bithop of Cloyne; and fure no them to every, and even opposite clergyman ever had juster preten disorders. The public were long fions to the mitre! No man was undeceived before his lordship, who more afliduous or punctual in his was the inventor, could be lo. He duty, none exacted it more strict had built an hospital at his own ly from his inferior clergy, yet no expence, near his gate, and to it bishop was ever more beloved by all the poor were welcome; he atthem. He spent his time with the tended them himself as physician; utmost chearfulness, innocence, and dosed them with tar-water, of the hunanity ; the meanest peasant virtues of which he was entirely within ten miles of his feat, was confident.-His intention in this familiar with him ; those of them particular cannot be sufficiently that wanted, shared his bounty; applauded, though, perhaps, the and those that did not, : had his success i might not have answered friendship and advice. The coun his expectations. Perhaps he cartry which was desolate and unim- ried his veneration for tar. water proved, he took the utmost pains to an excess : he drank it in abunto improve, and attempted to set dance himself, and attempted to an example of the proper methods mend the conftitutions of his chilof agriculture to the farmer, as he dren by the same regimen : this,

had before of piety and benevo- however, he could never effect * lence to the whole kingdom.


and, perhaps, his desire of im- pect of enjoying two or three years proving their health, and their un among the literati of that famous derstanding, at which he laboured seminary, most affiduously, might have im After a short pasiage, and a paired both. But his faults, if we very pleasant journey, he arrived know of any, all proceeded from at that famous feat of Icarning, motives of humanity, benevolence, where he was visited by many of and good-nature.

his former friends and admirers : He preserved the closest intimacy but the certainty there was of speewith the gentlemen of the neigh- dily losing him, greatly damped bourhood; and while he cultivated the pleasure they would otherwise the duties of his station, he was have had in his company. In a not averse to the innocent amuse- short time after his arrival he exments of life : music he was par- pired, on the 14th of January, ticularly fond of, and always kept 1753, greatly regretted,' by the one or two exquifite performers to poor, whom he loved, and the amuse his leisure hours.

learned, whom he had improved. His income he was entirely contented with; and when offered by the earl of Chesterfield, then lord Having in a former volume given a lieutenant of Ireland, a bishopric

picture of Rousseau by Voltaire much more beneficial than that he

we here present the reader with a posseffed, he declined it, with

character of that great philosopher, these words, “ I love the neigh drawn by himself in bis expofiulabours, and they love me; why then tory letter to the archbishop of fhould I begin, in my old days, to Paris. form new connections, and tear myself from those friends whose Character of Monsieur ROUSSEAU. kindness to me is the greatest hap By himself. piness I enjoy ?" acting, in this instance, like Plutarch, who being BEfore I proceed to my defence, I aked, why he resided in his native cannot forbear reflecting a little city, so obscure and so little ? “I on the peculiarity of my destiny: Hay, said he, left it should grow peculiar, indeed, to myself alone! lels.” But,'at length, finding his I was born with some share of natuhealth and constitution impaired ral genius, the public hath authobeyond the power of medicine, rised me to make this boait. I spent even of his own tar-water, he re my youth, nevertheless, in an happy moved, towards the end of the obscurity, out of which I never atyear

, 1752, to Oxford, an univer- tempted to emerge. Had I made ity he always loved, and at which such an attempt, indeed, it would the received a great part of his edu- have been as great a peculiarity, cation, in hopes of receiving some that, during the vivacity of youth, benefit from the change of air. His I should not have succeeded, as that principal motive, however, was I should fucceed but too well in the that he might himself fuperintend fequel, when that vivacity should bethe education of his son, whom he gin to decay. In this obfcurity, my took along with him; and the prof- lord, inflead of a fortune I always


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'despised, and a name I have fince price; and for hardly two days tobought too dear, I possessed the only gether was I looked upon in the bleflings my heart was desirous of, same light. Sometimes I was a those of tranquillity and friendship. dark and gloomy being; at others Thus, easy in my mind, and happy an angel of light. I have seen myin my friends, I drew near my for- felf, within the space of one year, tieth year, when unluckily an aca- applauded, courted, entertained, demical question engaged my atten and sought for, even at court; and tion, and drew me into a profeflion speedily after, infulted, threatened, for which natore never intended me. hated, and abufed. Over night, The unexpected succels of my first affafins lay in wait for me in the essay proved seductive. A numerous streets ; and in the morning I was party of opposers ftarted up against threatened with a lettre de cacbet. me, and, without understanding my The good and the evil came from arguments, answered them with a almost the fame source; and both petulance that piqued me, and a de- of them were the effect of a song. gree of vanity, that, perhaps, ex I have written, it is true, on se. cited mine. I stood up, of course, veral subjects, but always on the in my own defence; and, being fame principles; I had always the urged from one dispute to another, fame fyftem of morals, the fame found myself engaged in a career of faith, the fame maxims, and, if controversy, almost before I was you will, the fame opinions. Very aware. Thus I became an author different, however, have been the at a time of life when authors usually opinions that have pasfed on my throw up their profession, and a man books, or rather on the author of of letters even from my contempt thoie books; because I have been for that character. From this time, judged rather from the subject I I have been a writer of some little have treated of, than from my fenconsequence with the public : but at timents on those subjects. After the this time, alas ! my friends, and publication of my first discourse, my repose, forsook me. My labour was faid to be a writer fond of pawas all I


for my pains; and a radoxes, who amused himself in little reputation was to make up for proving things he did not believe. every thing else. If this be in- After


letter on the French music, demnification to those who are ever I was called a professed enemy to absent from themselves, it never was that nation, and was very near be: any to me.

ing treated as a conspirator and Had I placed, even for a moment, traitor: one would have thought, any hopes on fo frivolous a gratifi- , by the zeal fhewn on that occafion, cation, I should have been soon un that the fate of the French mo. deceived. In what a fluctuation - 'narchy was attached to the reputahath the public opinion constantly' tion of their opera. After my disbeen, with regard to my abilities or course on the inequality of mankind, character! Being at a difiance, I I was deemed an atheist and misanwas judged only by interett or ca thrope :


letter to Mr. d'A.



* In anfwer to the question, Whether the cultivation of the arts and sciences had contributed to the purity of manners?

lembert, on the theatres, I was ce. vifitants, who overbarthened with : lebrated as the defender of christian their own time, were prodigal of

morals: after Eloisa, I was fup- mine; and sighing after that necefposed to be passionate and tender : fary repose of which my heart is so at present I am a monster of im- fond, I had joyfully laid down my piety; and shall, probably, by and pen. Satisfied with the reflection by, be a miracle of devotion. that I had never taken it up but for

Tbus fluctuating is the public the good of my fellow-creatures, I opinion concerning me; those who required only, as the reward of my adopt it being as ignorant why they zeal, that I might be permitted to detest me now, as why they once live unmolefted in my retreat, and respected me. As to myself, how- to die in peace. In this, however, ever, I have always remained the I was mistaken; the officers were sent same ; more zealous, perhaps, than to apprehend me; and just at the enlightened in my researches, but moment when I Aattered myself the fincere in all, even against myfelf; troubles of my life were at an end, fimple and well-meaning, but fen- my greatest misfortune begun. There fible and weak; often doing wrong, is something fingular in all this ; yet always respecting what was yet this is nothing. right; connected by friend thip, ne A citizen of Geneva hath a book ver by circumstances, and ever more printed in Holland, and, by an arret ftrongly influenced by sentiment of the parliament of Paris, this book than interest; requiring nothing is burnt by the common hangman, from others; unwilling to render without any respect thewn to the myself dependent on any ; submit- fovereign, whose privilege it had ing to their prejudices as little as obtained. A protestant proposes, to their will, and preserving my in a protestant country, certain obown as free as my reason: fearing jections to the church of Rome, God, without being afraid of hell; and he is sentenced by the parliareasoning on matters of religion ment of Paris. republican makes withouc licentiousness, approving objections, in a republican governing neither impiety nor fanati- ment, against monarchy, and he is cism; but hating persecutors ftill condemned by the parliament of worse than infidels; without dis- Paris. The parliament of Paris gaising my fentiments from any mast furely have strange notions of one ; without affectation, without their own jurisdiction, to imagine artifice, without deceit ; telling my themselves the legal judges of all faults to my friends, my sentiments mankind. to all the world, and to the public The fame parliament, ever fo rethofe truths which concern it, with- markably ftri&t in the order of their out flattery, and without pride, proceedings, when individuals of equally careless whether I thould their own nation are concerned, please or offend it. Such are my break through them all in passing crimes, and fuch my merits.. fentence on a poor ftranger. With

At length, totally disgusted with out knowing whether he was really that intoxicating vapour of reputa- author of the book attributed to tion, which inflates the imagination him, whether he acknowledged it, without satisfying the mind; wearied or caused it to be printed, without with the importunities of indolent any regard to the unhappiness of

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