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either sex, is as handsome, as good ration; whence he concludes, that in its kind, if not better; as famp-the eastern porcelain confits of two .£gous, rich and elegant, and what substances, one of which only is would render it still more acceps vitrifiable, and the European of a able to many, may be made as ex- vitrifable substance heated only to penfive as any France, &c. can a certain degree short of vitrifica produce? Would the court set the tion. To this it has been object. example, nothing but the produceed, that all substances are vitrifiof English manutactories would be able in a certain degree of heat, worn in the kingdom.
long continued ; but though it Mucha is due to the successful may be true, that a degree of heat endeavours of the society to which is physically posible, in which all you belong; the acting members fubftances will become glass, and have all along discovered a spirit that we can produce such heat, yet of patriotism that is truly laudable, Reaumur's distinction will ftill be and will doubtless be of the greatest good ; for porcelain may confift benefit, as well to the present race either of two sub'tances which of our counèrymen as to our pofte- vitrify with degrees of heat widely rity.
different ; or of one substance, all the parts of which vitrify toge
ther. What degree of heat, or Refiections on the European porcelain whether any degree of heat, promanufactory.
duceable in our furnaces will vin
trify Oriental porcelain we do not IN N the account of the life of the know, but there is great reason to
celebrated French academi M. believe that those particulars in de Reaumur, ffee p. 26.) there are in which it excels European porfome observations upon the art of celain are essentially connected with making porcelain, and a campa- its specific difference from them, rison of the Oriental and European viz. its enduring, without vitri, porcelain with each other. M. fication, that degree of heat, in Reaumur says, that all porcelain which the European porcelain is is an imperfect vitrification, pro
found to vitrify. duced either by giving a vitrifiable
It is well known that porcelain fubtance such a degree of heat as wars, as well as pottery, confifts will not perfectly vitrify it, or by of two substances, the body and mixing two substances together, the glazing; and upon the adapone of which will vitrify and the tion of these two substances 80 other will not, in which case any each other, the excellence of this degree of heat may be given that manufacture greatly depends, with is found best to incorporate its respe&t to its usefulness and perparts, and strengthen its texture :
manency. he adds, that bringing the Eastern
All metals and metallic fub. and European porcelain to the test Itances are known to expand with of fire, he found that all the vad: heat, and contract with cold; fubrious kinds of porcelain made in Itances therefore that are highly Europe, came out glass, and the elastic, frequently crack when heatEastern porcelain suffered no alte ed uddenly and pucially, because
'he parts expanding unequally, the And if its glazing is of a fubcontinuity is furmounted by the stance that has a similar texture effort of one particle to difengage and properties, it will neither itself from another, in consequence crack nor scale off. of the parts in contact pofleffing I have seen porcelain of all the unequal spaces: for this reason manufactures in Europe. Those vessels of glass, and other sub- of Dresden in Poland, and Chaftances a-kin to glass, frequently tillon in France, are well known break when hot water is poured for their elegance and beauty into them.
with these I may class our own of It is also known, that though all Chelsea, which is scarce inferior metallic fubftancés expand with to any of the others; but these heat, yet they do not expand in are calculated rather for ornament the same degree ; for this reason it than use, and if they were equally 'is that the glazing of many kinds useful with the Oriental china, they of pottery, and of some ware, could yet be used but by few, becalled china, frequently cracks cause they are sold at high prices. upon receiving hot water, though we have, indeed, here, many the vessel itself continues whole; other manufactories of porcelain for the vessel and the glazing being which are sold at a cheaper rate of fubftances widely different, than any that is imported; but, expand unequally, which also pro- except the Worcester, they all duces a farther inconveniency; for wear brown, and are subject to the fame 'cause that makes the crack, especially the glazing, by glazing crack, makes it also fcale boiling water : the Worcester has off after it is cracked, which is a good body,, scarce inferior to universally the case with all earthen that of Eastern china, it is equally ware, particularly that called tough, and its glazing never cracks delft.
or scales. off. The desiderata, therefore, in But this is confined, comparamaking china are these :
tively, to few articles; the tea* To have a body fine and white. table, indeed, it compleatly fur
To be tough enough to resist the nishes, and some of it is so well force of expansion unequally ex enamelled as to resemble the finest cited by partial heat, and foreign china; so that it makes up
To be glazed with a substance costly sets that are broken, withthat will expand and contract in out a perceptible difference: yet the same degree, and that has also some how or another this manuthe same degree of tenuity. facture has never yet found its . If the body is fine and white, way to the dining table, except the ware will never grow brown, perhaps in fauce-boats, and toys for the porcelain ware becomes for pickles, and hors di'cuvres ; brown by the wearing away of the but by communicating this defect glazing to which it owes its white- to the public, some remedy may, neis,
perhaps, be found for it. Perhaps If it has the requisite degree of the fociety for encouraging arts, toughness, it will never ; break by &c, might think it an interesting receiving boiling water.
abject of their attention, as the
nanufacture is now, as far as it fecret would not be difficult to extends, greatly superior to all come at ; yet, after various trials, others of the kind, and might, as I was convinced to the contrary, a writer in the pablic papers ob- and gave up this method; for the ferves, not only keep very large pickle glued the feathers close, alsums in the kingdom, which are ways took away more or less of ftill paid for a foreign commodity, their glosiy hue, and beauty of but may also be improved into a their plumage, so as to appear dir . valuable branch of exportation. agreeable to the eye; this was a
point I was a long time at a loss I am, Co. to account for, as I well remém
bered that in all the preparations
of ftill life, in the above gentleNero method of preserving birds, man's collection, the feathers were with their elegant plumes unhurt. remarkably free, fine in colour,
and equal in every respect to life A Pew years ago I had frequent itself. In water fowls i fucceeded
opportunities of viewing the much better, their feathers being curious museum of Mons. Reau- of a more oily nature, and confemur in Paris : his collections of quently not so easily disturbed by natural and artificial productions the pickle as the land birds. Thó were carefully preserved in several frequently foiled in my attempts, I departments but what most at- resolved not to give it up so easily, tracted my notice was three rooms and at length accomplished what I filled with a great number of fo was fo anxious to perfect. I have reign fowls, preserved in their lately preserved some scores of both lively and beautiful colours, whose land and fea fowls after this new brilliant appearance, freedom in method, all of which come as near their plumage, and animated atti- real life as possible; therefore, to tudes, feem as natural in this life- gratify those who are pleased with lefs ftate as if they still breathed. this itudy and innocent employI was very desirous to know the ment, I shall now insert the whole method of bringing them to this apparatus necessary to be observed, perfection; but after various fruits and if these hints can draw their less enquiries, was obliged to rest attention, my pleasure will be contented with barely admiring compleat. When I receive a fowl them, as all their preparation was
fresh killed, I open the venter, kept a profound secret among a
from the lower part of the breast few naturalists. I was determined, bone down to the anus, 'with a pair however, to make a trial with a of fine pointed fciffars, and extract few birds upon this single thought, all the contents; fuch as the inthat many good old house-wives teftines, liver, stomach, &c. This preserve hams, beef, tongues, &c. cavity I immediately fill with the for a long time, with falt only. following mixture of falts and spice, Now I imagined that if a stronger and then bring the lips of the antiseptic was used by way of a wound together by future, so as to pickle, and the fowls placed there- prevent the ituffing from falling in for some time and dried, the out. The gullet or partage muit
ther be füed, from tive break dowe proponzonadie pia izano, i 10 were the hou.ack Lay, with it wiu. Írong qua. The famnt fixtur í Dub nue ground, LODHOL S ok puting sa whule mur si iurce duw. a iit: Powdered tour Dunge 19 21 a tutto by mne aeis or a quilof rain Iwe sunce, mas ago
Toutal . Opct: nea: ine Liet. Tudi OL i Tonig up with a wars, and ai batang e am found care or four time to lifor the Aicinu of SreeSIR Dar se Bar bucu: fit braiden I t.linis caring in dit wil £ TEXTIL. Tuis is at the preparation i uk; as los te kvigs ang iligas i ne vien ASH 2 iuficient quantity tuuci can, but care am 20. dci
of fine iang, in a DSSÍCEnatura jaits for the maits, 3. lv to separate i tron al one sa Se.com is in a fer cans, to pe fance: ; ct it; pat rigt new ini meie juring and pre- a neve to cient it from art 7065 átrit licin ecua'y w te boar parācies v nich wout no: and acces of the fowi. Teste pidine washing : takt al earthen redbaing the faced engte this antiiepzic del af a proper bize, and fores, for sn xut, mut now De flag up íur every piant and fud wer winch you abou. Lubaws by the legs, it os intenc to preierve; are your der that, by tid. DUPLO, Tiit faits pants and flowers when they are Thay more efectuaný penetraze in a ftar of perfection, ane and round me muícits and ligaments weathes, and always WT) 2 CORHo bico co neće the vertebra of the 5-mipat portion of the frais : beat
The fowi mu bow be a ürtie of dit dry and prepared placed in a frane 2o cry, in the as above, and lar it in the bottom De attitude we ríuad y itt i waea of the relies, fo a eguair a Core wire on the pain or on a tree, it; iar the plant or flower poa in this frame i mut be held op by it, so as thit no part of it may Dyo threads, the one pafling from souch the ides of the vefiel: Eft er the anus to the lower part of the Snake in more of the fame and by back, and the other through the little and littie upon it, so that the eyes; the ends of these threads are
leaves nav be extended by decu brace up the fowl to its natural grees, and without injurs, til the
attitude, and faftened to the beam plant or fouer is covered about of the frame above: laitý, the two inches thick: put the reale!
feet <He to be fixed down with pins into a store, or hot boaie, beated or small nails, In this situation it by indle and dete to the gen de snul remain for a month o more, gree; iet it fiand there a day or until the bird is perfectly dry. two, or perhaps mors, according (which will readily be known by to the thickness and fucculence of ais ftifines) when it may be resen the fores x plant; shen gently, out of the frame, and placed on a inake the land oct upon a theet of chip pill-box: it will now require papes, and take out the plant, no other support but a pin through which you will find in all its beauty, each foot, lahened into the beat the shape as elegant, and the coThe ejes mut be fupplied with lour as visid as when it grew. .
Some flowers require certain to the bottom of it which touches little operations to preferve the ad
the floor of the oven. herence of their petals, particu 4. Two thoufand five hundred larly the tulip, with respect to pounds of grain being put into which it is neceffary, before it is an oven in which the heat was 85 buried in the sand, to cut the tri degrees, the heat in the center of _angular. fruit which rises in the the heap was, an hour afterwards, middle of the flower; for the petal found to be no more than 19 : it will then remain more firmly at gradually increased for 48 hours, tached to the stalk.
and at the end of that time it was A bortus ficcus prepared in this found to be 33 degrees and an half, manner would be one of the most equal to that of the oven. beautiful and useful curiofities that 5. The usual heat of an oven, can be.
two hours after the bread has been drawn, is about 100 degrees.
6. Grain that has endured go Merbods de Aroy feveral kinds of degrees of heat, is not less fit for in its and vermin.
In order to prevent butterflies, The Corn Butterfly, (for the history produced in other heaps, from of this inje& fee our article of depositing their eggs among grain
that has been dried in an oven, it
may be laid in fuch heaps as will Nothing more is necessary for have the smallest possible fuperfi,
this purpose than to heat the cies, and then covered with ashes, grain in an oven after the bread has
or powdered chalk; or a cloth been drawn ; this, at the fame either of linen or woollen ; or it time that it is perfectly efficacious, may be laid up in facks; or if the is simple and easy, and applies to quantity is great, it may be bara molt important purpose a heat relled in large casks, particular which would otherwise uselessly care being taken in fecuring the decay. It is, however, necessary head. to make the following observations,
1. Grain exposed during many The process, said to be effettual, for days to a heat which causes the
rendering the grain that is to be thermometer to rise to 6n deyrees, Jowed, perfectly pure, found, and lofes no degree of its fertility: free from insects, and for pre2. This heat, continued eleven
venting what is called the finut in. hours, will totally destroy all the wheat. infects contained in the grain, whe. ther caterpillar, chrysalis, or but Make a very strong lye of woodterfly; and heat, equal only te ashes ; and when it is become yel. 33 degrees, if it is continued two low like beer, and flippery to the days, will answer the fame purpose. touch, put in as much quick lime
3. But a great quantity of grain as will make it of a dusky white put into an oven, considerably re, when it is as hot as that the finger duces the heat of it ; and the full can but juft bear it, let the gross heat : f the oven will be communi- part of the lime subside ; then cated only to the superficies, and pour off the lye into a proper ves;