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wards of fifty years. Martin V. ventured to sleep at Rome, even in whom this schism ended in the in broad day, in any other house year 1429, and his first fucceffors, than their own*. They are greatly were able to make but feeble efforts relaxed at present from these anagainst fo inveterate an evil. It cient scruples : I have feen cardiwas not till the beginning of the nals, in the months of July and fixteenth centary that Leo X. un- August, go from: Rome to lie åt der whom Rome began to resume Frascati, Tivoli, Albano, &c. and her wonted splendor, gave himself return the next or the following fome trouble about re-eftablishing days to the city, without any dethe falubrity of the air ; but the triment to their health : I have city being thortly after besieged myself tried all these experiments, twice fucceflively by the emperor without fuffering the least inconCharles the fifth, saw itself plunged venience from them: we have ever again into all its old calamities; seen in the last war in Italy, two and from eighty-five thousand in- armies encamped under the walls habitants, which it contained un- of Rome, at the time when the der Leo X. it was reduced under heats were most violent. Yet nota Clement VIII. to thirty-two thou- withstanding all this, the greater sand. In fhort, it is only fince part of the country people dare the time of Pius V. and Sextus. V. not still venture to lie during that at the end of the sixteenth century, season of the year, nor even as that the popes have constantly em- much as seep in a carriage, in any ployed the neceffary methods for part of the territory comprehendpurifying the air of Rome, and ed under the name of the Camits environs, by procaring proper pagina of Rome. discharges for the waters, drying M. Lancifi and M. Leprotti, up the humid and marshy grounds, physicians to the popes Clement and covering the banks of the XI. and XII. as well as M. LaTiber, and other places reputed pit, have ftrenuously combated, uninhabitable, with fuperb edifices. both by reafon and experience, the Since that time a perfon may dwell abuse of this old prejudice, but it åt Rome, and go in or out of it is only by insensible degrees that at all seasons of the year, At the the truth begins to prevail. It beginning, however, of the pre- must also be confefled that the exsent century, they were ftill afraid periments made for proving an air to lie out of the city. in fummer, that is reputed mortal not to be so, when they had refided there ; as are necessarily very few, and no they were also to return to it, when lefs foreign from the end proposed. once theyhad quitted it. They never
They cannot in Rome compel a tenant to diflodge in fummer, even on de. fault of payment,
I See" Joan. Mariæ Lancisi Dissertatio, &c. or the Differtation of Joanna Maria Lancisi, concerning the natural and adventitious, qualities of the Roman climate, published at Rome in 1711: and the Ragionomento contra la volgare opinione, &c. da Giovani Girolama Lapi. Roma, 1749.,
Having in a former volume (vol. III., tion are observed. It
has however p. 162,) given Tome account of been generally supposed by the lithe firft volume of gravings from terati who have seen it, to have the paintings and drawings dif- been intended to represent a laurel covered among the ruins of Hercu-, leaf, and they observe that the laneum, we think it incumbent upon fame is generally found in the us, now that the second volume of hands of the hermaphroditical that magnificent work has been figures which are so common an published, to give our readers fome ornament in the baths, both of account of it likewise, as far as men and women; they suppose it relates to the same fubject. that it served as a kind of fan, and
was a symbol of effeminacy. The Some account of the second volume of scholiast of. Aristophanes tells us, gravings from the paintings and that it was .common for lovers to
drawings found among the ruins, carry leaves in their hands, upon of Herculaneum.
which they wrote the names of
their mistresses ; and it was also IT appears by several pieces in common to ftigmatize effeminate
this volume, that the ancient persons by the name of bay-bearers painters were not more exact in the The colour of the leaf represented representation of the dresses and in this picture is reddish, which omaments of their figures, nor has been urged as an objection to even in their representation of na- its being a laurel; but it has been tural objects, than the moderns : alledged, on the other fide, that with respect to the architecture re- Pliny mentions a laurel of that copresented in the pictures found in lour: in another picture, however, Herculaneum, the rules of art are a leaf of the fame size and shape violated in the grosseft manner; is represented of a yellowish cothere are columns of an enormous lour, and some have thought it was height, with respect to their dia, intended for the leaf of an aquameter, so as to have the appear- tic plant, called nymphea ; this. ance of walking sticks; and the plant is mentioned by Pliny, and landscapes, of which there are se- he attributes several qualities to it veral in this volume, are disgraced which seem to bear some relation with a variety of objects not exist to those of hermaphrodites. Some ing in nature, but merely in the antiquarians have taken this leaf, capricious fancy of the artist : at or at least, an instrument that releaftif they are natural objects, they sembles it, found in the hands of are fo wantanly, and unskilfully re- fome ftatues, as a sprinkler for the presented, that the spectator is at a luftral water. loss to know what they are.
2. Two winged figures; one of Among the most remarkable them has a collar and bracelets of pieces in this volume, are the fol- pearls, and holds in the left-hand lowing:
a bason, over which the right-hand 1. An hermaphrodite, holding holds a vafe with a cover that terin the left-hand a leaf representing minates in a sphynx. Some supthat of a laurel in its ihape, but pose this figure to represent Hebe, much larger if the rules of propor- and the first appearance of it fa
vours their opinion; others sup- the mysteries of Isis. Behind this pose it to be a victory, and think figure is that of a girl, with a they have discovered another figure vase in her hand, and a bafket upof the fame kind upon an Etruscan on her head ; by her side are two vase; the vafe upon which it is women, one of which is naked to represented, they suppose alludes the girdle, and has her head close to the sacred libations and the fa- lhaved, holding a branch in her crifices offered by way of thankf- left-hand, and a fiftrum in her giving for a victory. The blood right; the other has dishevelled which is shed in the obtaining of hair, but her action cannot be a victory,' makes it absolutely ne- distinguished. On the left-fide of cessary to wash before any facred, the altar there is an old man kneelfunction is performed ; and the ing; he is bald and half-naked, practice of washing before sacri-, and his hands are extended as in fice was more fcrupulously practised" an attitude of prayer ; behind this by the ancients on fuch occasions figure is that of a woman holding than on any other.' The other a flower in one hand, and in the figure is agreed to be a victory by other an instrument very little difall parties; the right hand holds a ferent from the common fiftrum; buckler, and the left a crown of also a man, who is either sounding oak-leaves, enriched with gold, a trumpet or playing on a flute ; that is, painted of a golden colour and a man holding in one hand a This wreath was called by the kind of crotalum, consisting of a. Romans a civic crown, and be circle furnished with little bells, ftowed upon those who had *pre- and crossed diametrically by a small served the life of a citizen, by bar; in his left-hand he holds a killing an enemy; under the em- chain, consisting of four links, perors, this crown was frequently each gradually less than another; decreed to princes, ob cives ferva- five iteps, two columns and an
epiitylium, form the entrance of 15. Two pieces that reprefent the temple, in the front of which two religious ceremonies in use ao stands the altar, and in the middle mong the Egyptians; these are beyond the altar, upon a ground a very curious : in the first of them little raised, there are fix other there is a quadrangular altar with perfons; two women playing upon a Hame ascending from it, and two a fiftrum, and accompanied by a Ibises upon the pedestal; the altar third with a tabor; the fourth wois surrounded by 1 figures, of man holds up the fore-finger of her different sexes, ages, and dreffes: right-hand, as if to enjoin filence, on the right side is a woman kneel and a girl beside her seems to be ing, holding a fiftrum in one hand, in motion with her hands as if playand in the other a plate of fruit; ing upon fome instrument which her head is crowned with a wreath, cannot be diftinguished; the fixth that seems to consist of a branch figure is that of a man with a of palm, the leaves of which are bushy beard, crowned with a placed so as to form 'rays, in the wreath, and dressed in a kind of manner described by Apuleius, close jacket, which leaves his when he speaks of initiation into arms, his feet, his legs and thighs
raked. This figure appears by his which is a kind of fringed scarf ; attitude to be dancing.
both hands are wrapped in this In the other piece there is an al- scarf, but, notwithstanding, they tar like that just described, near present a cruise (hydria) to the vewhich are two Ibises. One of the mi- neration of the assistants. nifters of Ihs fans the fire
the It is remarkable, that all these altar, with an instrument not un- figures have naked feet, and it like the fans now worn by the was the custom to enter bare-footed ladies : two other minifters stand into the temple to pray. The habeside him, one of them is cloathed bit of the ministers is a long white in a long white robe, with short robe, which was worn by all the fleeves, holding in his right-hand a priests .of Ilis, and was of linen, long wand or rod, and in the left whence the name Linigeri. Hesomething pointed, which may be rodotus relates, that every third either a sword or a feepter. An day they shaved all the hair of the instrument of the fame kind ap- body, that they might with more pears in the elevated right-hand propriety appear before the god of another minifter, who holds a whom they served. fiftrum in his left; on each side It has been conjectured by a very the altar is a group of figures, of learned and ingenious person in different ages and fexess, at the Italy, that the ħrft of these painthead of one of these groups; is a - ings represents a vow made by the man fitting and playing upon a Ififian college of Herculaneum, long flute; at the head of the upon the sickness of Pompey the other is a minister of the mysteries Great, about the 705 th year of standing up, with a fiftrum in one Rome, when the inhabitants of hand, and near him is a woman Naples, and of all the other cities also holding a fiftrum ; the greatest of Italy, offered up public prayers part of these figures appear to be' for his recovery. This conjecture gefticulating with their hands. accounts for the mixture of Greek Eleven, Ateps lead to the gate of the and ', Roman personages with temple, which is guarded by two Ægyptian priests, and we have sphynxes, the head of which ter- the testimony of Apuleius, that minate in the lotus : at the en an Ififian college was established at trance of the temple appear three Rome from the time of Sylla; and figures : on one side is a woman. it is probable that the worship of with dishevelled hair, cloathed, in. Isis was introduced into Greece a long robe, with a fiftrum, in in the time of Alexander, the her right-hand, and in her left Great. a small pail or bucket with its The rod which one of the figures cover; and over-against this fi- holds in his hand, calls to mind gure, is an aslistant at the Ilisian a passage of Artaphanes *, , who mysteries, with a sitrum in his testifies, that the Egyptians seeing right-hand; and between them the miracles which Mofes peris another affiftant in a robe that formed with a rod, made themreaches to his heels, over which felves a rod also, and preserved it
• In Euleb. præp. Ev. ix. 4.
in the temple of Ifis. Apuleius's the prief made at the door of the description of an Iffian Solemnity, tempie for the prisce, and for all will also explain many particulars orders of the state, after which he in these pictures; the long white dismiffes the affitants by prolinen robes in which both men and nouncing the Greek words naiis women, but especially the prieks, Pisis, populis mijie. are cloathed, the shaved heads, Upon a border of one of the flutes, fiftroms of gold, filver and piatures in this collegion, there brass, the cruise which the prieft appears a volume, or roll, half carries as the symbol of the fu- open, in which many lines, writpreme Deity, gerebat felici fugten in Roman characters, are fill genio; and the veil which serves to vifible, and the three words quifquis, cover it, as described by Mont- maxima, cura, are diftinctly legifaucon in his account of an Iffian ble: it is fill more remarkable folemnity.
that the q, the F, the , and the A paffage of Vitruvias is also s, are in minuscular character. quoted on this occasion, which The observations which have octhrows confiderable light on the curred upon this particular to the subject, Quum bydriam legunt, que learned society to whom the pubad Templum ædenque caftà religione lication of these curious remains refertur, ture in Terra procumbentes, of antiquity have been intrafted, manibus ad cælum fublatis, inven- will appear when they publish tionibus gratias agunt divite be- their explanations of the papers nignitatis t.
that have been found in HercolaWe learn from Tibullus that neum. prayers were offered to Ifis twice a day 1: In the morning, that is, at the first hour of the day, as Sca- Dimensions of a giant cut out on liger remarks, and inthe evening at the fide of a very peep bill, near the eighth hoor: the service of the
Cerne in Dorfetshire, first hour was called the opening of the temple, the falutation, and THIS monstrous figure, viewed the morning facrifice : Arnobius from the oppofite hill, appears and Apuleius speak of it in many almoft erect, with a huge crabplaces; and in Porphyry's de- tree club in his hand, railed over Icription, the use that is made of his head, just going to strike a Rutes, fire, and water, is not for. 'blow, which seems fufficient, as it gotten. Martial, who is also cited were, to overtarn a mountain. It by Scaliger, speaks of the fervice is supposed to be above a thousand of the eighth hour, when, after jears ftanding, as there is a date the prayer, the temple is fhut. between its legs, and the figures The learned reader may eafily fee are not legible, but it is plain in what manner Apuleias describes there were but three figures ; so the return of an Ihfian folemnity, that, even fappofing them all to be which concludes with the vows of* pines, it must have been formed a
# Lib. 8. Præf.
Lib. I. Eleg. 3..