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M. Reaumur was the firft that He found also that eggs might reduced thermometers to a common be kept fresh, and fit for incubastandard, so as that the cold indi tion, many years, by washing them cated by a thermometer in one with a varnish of oil, grease, or place, might be compared with any other substance, that would efthe cold indicated by a thermome- fećtually stop the pores of the shell, ter in another in other words, he and prevent the contents from evaprescribed rules by which two ther- porating; by this contrivance eggs mometers might be constructed, that may not only be preserved for eatwould exactly coincide with each ing or hatching in the hotteft cliother through all the changes of mates, but the eggs of birds of heat and cold: he fixed the middle every kind may be transported from term, or zero, of his division of one climate to another, and the the tube, at the point to which the breed of those that could not furliquor rises when the bulb is vive a long voyage, propagated in plunged in water that is beginning the most diftant part of the world. to freeze, he prescribed a method While he was employed in these of regulating the divisions in pro- discoveries, he was gradually proportion to the quantity of liquor, ceeding in another work, The and not by the aliquot parts of the history of infeets, the first volume length of the tube, and he direct- of which he published in 1734. ed how spirits of wine might be This volume contains the history reduced to one certain degree of of caterpillars, which he divides dilatability. Thermometers con into feven classes, each of a distinct ftructed upon these principles were kind and character : He describes called Reaumur's thermometers, the manner in which they sublift

, and soon took place of all others. as well under the form of caterpil

M. de Reaumur invented the art l'ars as in the chrysalis ftate ; the feof preserving eggs, and of hatch- veral changes which they undergo; ing them ; this art had been long their manner of taking food, and of known and practised in Egypt, but spinning their webs. to the rest of the world was an im The second volume, which was penetrable secret: M. de Reaumur published in 1736, is a continuafound out and described many tion of the same subject, and deways of producing an artificial fcribes caterpillars in their third warmth in which chickens might ftate, that of butterflies, with all be hatched, and some by the ap the curious particulars relating to plication of fires used for other their figure and colour, the beaupurposes; he shewed how chickens tiful duft with which they are powmight be hatched in a dunghill ; dered, their coupling and laying he invented long cages in which their eggs, which the wisdom of the callow brood were preserved Providence has, by an invariable in their first state, with fur cases to instinct, directed them to do, where them to creep under instead of the their young may most conveniently hen's bosom, and he prescribed find thelter and food. proper food for them of such things The third volume contains the as are every where to be procured history of moths, not only of those in great plenty

which are so pernicious in cloaths



and furniture, but those which live nourishment for the worms they among the leaves of trees, and in produce till their transformation. the water ; the first is perhaps the The author then proceeds to the most useful, because M. de Reau- history of wasps, as well those mur has given directions how the who live separate, as in companies, cloth-moth may be certainly de to that of the lion-pismire, the froyed ; but the second abounds horse-ftinger, and lastly to the fly with particulars that are not only called an ephemeron, a very fincurious, but wonderful in the gular infect, which, after having highest degree.

lived in the water three years as a This volume also contains the fish, lives as a 'fly only one day, history of the vine-fretter, an in- during which it suffers its metafe&t not lefs destructive to our gar- morphosis, couples, lays its eggs, dens than the moth to our furni- and leaves its dead carcase

upon ture; with an account of the worm surface of the water which it had that devours them, and the galls inhabited. To this volume there produced upon trees by the panc- is a preface, containing the wonture of some insect, which often derful discovery of the polypus, serve them for habitations.

an animal that multiplies without From the gall, or gall-nut, pro- coupling, that moves with equal perly so called, M. de Reaumur facility upon its back or its belly, proceeds in his fourth volume to and each part of which, when it the history of those protuberances is divided, becomes a compleat which, though galls in appearance, animal, a property then thought are really insects, but condemned fingular, but fince found to be by nature to remain for ever fixed pollessed by several other animals, and unmoveable


the branches It had long been a question of trees, and he discloses the asto- amongst anatomists, whether dinishing mystery of their multipli- geftion is performed by solution or cation. He then proceeds to give trituration : M. de Reaumur, by an account of flies with two wings, dissecting a great number of birds and of the worms in which they of different kinds, and by many pass the first part of their lives; fingular experiments, discovered this article includes the very fingu- that the digestion of carnivorous lar history of the gnat. The fifth birds is performed by folution, volume treats of four-winged flies, without any action of the stomach among

others of the bee, con itself upon the aliments received cerning which he refutes many on it ; and that, on the contrary, groundless opinions, and establishes the digestion of granivorous birds others not less extraordinary. is effected wholly by grinding, or

The bee is not the only Hy that trituration, which is performed makes honey, many species of the with a force fufficient to break the fame genus live separate, or in hardest substances. little societies. The history of M. de Reaumur, during the these begins the fixth and last vo course of his experiments upon lume, and contains a description of birds, remarked the amazing art the recesses in which they depolit with which the several species of and secure their eggs, with proper

thele animals build their nests.



His observations on this subject he So clean has learning falica communicated to the society in among the English nation, as that 1756, and this memoir was the last there have been very few on this that he exhibited. He died by a side Humber, that were able to onhurt in his head received from a derstand the English of their ferfall at Bermondiere in the Main, vice, or turn an epistle from Latin upon an estate that had been left into English; and I wot there were him by a friend, on the 17th of not many beyond Hamber that O&tober, aged 75 years.

could do it. There were fo few, He was a man of great inge- as that I cannot bethink one on the nuity and learning, of the strictest south side of the Thames, when I integrity and honour, the warmest first came to reign. God Almighty benevolence, and the most exten be thanked, that we have ever a sive liberality.

teacher in pulpit now. Therefore, I

pray thee, that thou'do, (as alfo

I believe thou wilt) bestow that Letter written by Alfred the Great, wisdom that God has given thee,

prefixed, by way of preface, to on all about, on them thou can't his translation of Gregory's pastoral bestow it; think what punishment Letter, and directed to Wulf-hg, shall for this world befall us, when, bishop of London,

as neither wę ourselves have loved

wisdom, nor left it to others; we Alfred, king, wisheth greeting, only loved the names that we were

to Wulf-fig bishop, his be- Christians, and very few of us the loved and friendlike, and thee to duties. When I minded all this, know I wish, that to me it cometh methought also that I saw, before very often in my mind, what man- all was spoiled and burnt, how all ner of wise men, long ago, were the churches throughout the Eng. throughout the English nation, lish nation stood filled with books both of the spiritual degree, and and ornaments, and a great multiof the temporal ; and how happy tude of God's servants; and at the times then were, among all the that time they wilt very little fruit English; and how the kings, of their books, because they could which then the people, God and understand nothing of them; for his written will obeyed : how well that they were not written in their they behaved themselves both in own language. So they told us,

and peace; and, in their home that our ancestors, that before us government, how their nobleness held those places, loved wisdom, was spread abroad ; and how they and through the same got wealth, profpered in knowledge, and in and left it us. A man may here yet wisdom. Also, the divine orders, see their swath; but we cannot enhow earnest they were as well about quire after it, because we have let preaching as about learning, and go both wealth and wisdom ; for about all the services they should that we could not stoop with our do to God; and how men from minds to the seeking of it. When abroad, wisdom and doctrine here I thought of all this, then wonderin this land fought; and how we ed I greatly, that their goodly the same now must get abroad, if wise men, that were every where we would have them.




throughout the English nation, and still read English writing; then had fully learnt all those books, began I, among diverse and maniwould turn no part of them into fold businesses of the kingdom, tá their own language: but I then turn into English this book, (which again quickly answered myself, in Latin iş name i Pastoralis, and in and said, they weened not that English The herdsman's book) somemen ever should become so rechless; times word for word, sometimes nor that this learning would fo de- understanding for understanding, cay; therefore they willingly let it even as I learned them of Plegalone, and wot that here would be mond my archbishop, of Affer my the more wisdom in the land, the bishop, and Grimbald massmore languages that we under- priest, and John my mass-priest. stood.

After that I liad learned of them Then I called to mind how that how I might belt underltand them, the law was first found written in I turned them into English, and the Hebrew speech; and after that will send one to each bishop's fee the Greeks had learned it, then in my kingdom į and upon each turned they it into their own speech there is a ftile, that is, of fifty wholly, and also all other books. marks. And I command, on God's And then the Latin people, a lit- name, that no man the stile from tle after they had learned it, they the books, nor the books from the translated all, through wise interpre- minister, take; fering we know ters, into their own language; and not how long there inall be fo all other christian people also have learned bishops as now, God be turned some part thereof into their thanked, every where there are. own tongues.

Therefore, I would they should Therefore, methinketh it better, always remain in their places, exif you so think, that we also, fome cept the bishop will have them books that be deemed most needful with him, or that they be lent for all men to understand, into that fome whether, until that some language turn ; that we all know, other be written out. and that we bring to pass, (as we easily may with God's help, if we have quietness) that all the youth of freeborn Englishmen (such as Some particulars of the life of the have wealth, that they may main celebrated Christina, queen of Swetain them) be committed to learn den ; froni a work lately published ing, that, while they of no other in French by M. Lacomb. note can; they first learn well to read English writing; afterwards, Christina was the daughter of

, in tongue, those that they will fur- king of Swecien, and Maria. Elcother teach, and have to a higher nora of Brandenbourg. She was degree.

born on the 18th of December When I minded how this learn- 1625 : during the queen's prega ing of the Latin tongue, hereto- nancy, the altrologers, whole art fore, was fallen through the Eng- was then much in fashion, prelish nation, though many could difted that the child would be a VOL, VI:


fon, who was destined to maintain head of an army, nor so much as all the glory that his father had saw a battle. acquired : the prejudice which The tears which the shed when these predictions produced, joined he set out for his German expedito some false appearances, at first tion were regarded as a bad omen, deceived the women, and they de- and she betrayed the hero himself ceived the king into an opinion, into tears, by an act of childish that the child was a boy; but his fimplicity, which was, however, fifter Catherine discovered and told characteristic of the childhood of him the truth. • Let us ftill be , Christina. She took leave of her thankful to God, faid Gustavus, father by a little compliment which I trust this girl will be as good as had been made for her, and which a boy; adding, with a smile, the she had learned by heart. When must certainly be clever, for the the repeated it, Gustavus, being has deceived us all already.” ruminating and abstracted in

Guftavus took great pleasure in thought, did not hear what the carrying her about

with him, when said ; the child, not content with he went a journey ; and when the having said her lesson, and perwas about two years old, he took formed the task that had been alher to Calmar: the governor had signed her, pulled him by his the precaution to ask, whether he sleeve to excite attention, and beshould give his majesty the usual gan to repeat her little speech again; falute, by firing the cannon, fear at this, the father bursting into ing that the noise might possibly tears, caught her in his arms, and fright the child: the king hefi- after pressing her to his breast for tated a little at first, but after a fome minutes, gave her to an atmoment's pause, “Fire, said he, tendant, without speaking; an for the girl is a soldier's daughter, incident which put some of the and she Thould be accustomed to it spectators in mind of the parting betimes." They fired, and the of Hector with Aftyanax. child,' so far from being frighted,

The states of Sweden being a laughed, clapped her hands, and sembled, after the death of Gultas in her broken language cried, more vus, the marshal of the diet pro.

more This natural intrepi- posed the crowning of Christina dity greatly pleased Gustavus, and by virtue of a decree which had he afterwards caused her to be pre- declared the daughters of the pofent at a review: perceiving the sterity of Charles IX, the father at delight the took in this military Guftavus, capable of succeeding show, he cried, “ Very well ; I'll to the throne. A member of the warrant I'll take you where you order of peasants, whose name was Thall have enough of this diver- Larssen, when he heard this prod fion.” But he died too soon to posal, cried out, " Who is this keep his word; and Christina la- , Christina, this daughter of Guitar ments, 'in her memoirs, that the vus ? let us see her; let her big was not permitted to learn the art brought out to us." of war under so great a matter; the The marshal immediately went regretted also, during her whole out, and returned with Christina life, that she never marched at the whom he brought in his arms into

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