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IX. NOTICES AND CRITICISMS..

History....

Education and Belles-lettres...

Biography and Autobiography.

Art...

182

182

190

198

206

ABT.

PAGB.

I. THE EVOLUTION OF INTELLIGENCE..

209

1. Essai sur l'origine des connaissances humaines. Par L'ABBE

ETIENNE BONNOT DE CONDILLAC. Paris.

2. Traité des sensations. CONDILLAC. Paris.

3. Les Philosophes Français du dix-neuvième Siècle. Par HYPPO-

LYTE-ADOLPHE TAINE. Paris.

4. De l'Intelligence. TAINE. Paris.

5. Histoire de la Littérature Anglaise. TAINE. Paris.

6. System of Logic. By JOHN STUART MILL. London.

II. SIR WILLIAM HERSCHEL AND HIS DISCOVERIES.....

231

1. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol.

lxx., 1780, to vol. cviü., 1818.

2. Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society of London, for 1822.

3. Analyse de la Vie et des Travaux de Sir William Herschel, par

M. ARAGO. Annuaire, 1842.

4. Histoire de l'Astronomie Moderne, par M. DELAMBRE. 2 vols.

4to. 1821.

III. WHY THE JESUITS ARE EXPELLED.

245

1. Decrees of Expulsion against the Jesuits by the Prussian Govern-

ment, 1872.

2, Speeches at Public Meetings in England, Germany, and Sroitzer-

land, relative to the Expulsion of the Jesuits.

3. Histoire impartiale des Jésuites. LINGUET. 2 vols., 12mo.

Paris.

4. Historie religieuse, politique, et littéraire de la Compagnie de

Jésus, composée sur les documents inédits et authentiques. Par

S. CRETINEAU JOLY. 6 vols.

5. Institutiones Societatis Jesu, cum earum Declarationibus. 7 vols.

IV. ANCIENT ENGRAVED GEMS.....

265

1. Handbook of Ancient Gems. By the Rev. C. W. KING, M. A.

London.

2. Recueil de Pierres gravées, etc. Par J. MARIELLE. Paris.

3. Recueil de Pierres antiques gravées, etc. Par J. N. RAPONI.

Paris.

V. New CATECHISM FOR YOUNG LADIES-GODS AND GODDESSES.. 275

The Student's Mythology. A Compendium of Greek, Roman,

Egyptian, Assyrian, Persian, Hindoo, Chinese, Thibetian,

Scandinavian, Celtic, Aztec, and Peruvian Mythologies, in ac-

cordance with standard authorities. Arranged for the use of

Schools and Academies. By C. A. WHITE. Pp. 315. New

York. W. J. Widdleton, Publisher. 1870.

ART.

PAO.

VI. THE JEWS IN SPAIN...

305

1. The History of tho Jews in Spain, from the time of their settlo-

ment in that country till the commencement of the present cen-

tury. By Don ADOLFO DE CASTRO. Cadiz, 1847. Trang-

lated by the Rev. EDWARD D. G. M. KERWAN, M. A. Cam-

bridge. 1851.

2. Histoire Générale d'Espagne, traduite de l'Espagnol de Jean de

Ferreras, enriche de notes historiques et critiques, de vignettes

en taille-duce, et de cartes géographiques. Par M. D'HER-

MILLY. Leyilen. 1779.

3. Historia Critica de España y de la Cultura Española. Par Don

JUAN FRANCISCO DE MASDEN. Tome xvii. Madrid 1783.

4. JOANNIS MARIANÆ HISPANI é societate Jesu Histora de

Rebus Hispaniæ, Libri XXX. Maguntiæ (Mentz), 1605.

VII. COLLEGES OF THE CHRISTIAN BROTHERS.

331

1. Address to the Graduates of Manhattan College.

By Hon.

JOHN P. O'NEILL.

With Remarks of His GRACE THE MOST REV. ARCHBISHOP.

June 28, 1872.

2. Sketch of the History and Progress of the College of the Christian

Brothers. St. Louis, August, 1872.

3. Address to the Graduating Class of Rock Hill College. By A.

LEO KNOTT, Esq. June 27, 1872.

4. Address to the Graduates of La Salle College, at the Annual

Commencement, June 20, 1872. By JOHN J. CURRAN,

B. C. L.

5. Address to the Graduates of St. Mary's College, San Francisco,

Cal., at the Ninth Annual Commencement, June 7, 1872.

VIII. LOGIC AS AN AGENCY OF REFORM,

349

1. The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences. By WILLIAM Wak-

London. 1870.

2. Lectures on Metaphysics. By SIR WILLIAM HAMILTON, Bart.

London. 1868.

3. De la Logique d' Aristote. Par BARTHELEMY SAINT HIL-

LAIRE. Paris. 1858.

4. Traite de Logique. Par L'ABBE DE CONDILLAC. Paris.

XI. OUR CANDIDATES AS REFORMERS, GENUINE AND SPURIOUS...... 869

Speeches, Articles in Newspapers, Conventions, etc., etc., 1872.

X. NOTES AND CRITICISMS.

381

Education.

Belles-Lettres,

History and Biography.

XI. APPENDIX-INSURANCE: GOOD, BAD, AND INDIFFERENT.

THE

NATIONAL QUARTERLY REVIEW.

NO. XLIX.

JUNE, 1872.

ART. 1.-1. Tree and Serpent Worship; or, Illustrations of

Mythology and Art in India in the First and Fourth Centuries after Christ. By James Fergusson, Esq., F. R. S., M. R. A. S. London : India Museum, 1868.

2. American Archæological Researches, No. 1. The Serpent

Symbol, and the Worship of the Reciprocal Principles of
Nature in America. By E. G. SQUIER, A. M., etc.
New York. 1851.

3. The Worship of the Serpent traced throughout the World, and

its Traditions referred to the Events in Paradise ; proving the Temptation and Fall of Man by the Instrumentality of a Serpent-tempter. By the Rev. John BATHURST DEANE, M. A. London. 1830.

“THERE are few things,” says Mr. Fergusson,* " which at first sight appear to us at the present day so strange, or less easy to account for, than that worship which was once so generally offered to the serpent-god. If not the oldest, it ranks, at least, among the earliest forms through which the human intellect sought to propitiate the unknown powers. Traces of its existence are found not only in every country

* Introduction, p. 1. VOL. XXIV. -NO. XLIX,

1

of the Old World ; but before the New was discovered by us, the same strange idolatry had long prevailed there, and even now the worship of the serpent is found lurking in out-ofthe-way corners of the globe, and startles us at times with the unhallowed rites which seem generally to have been associated with its prevalence.” There is abundant evidence to prove the truth of these statements, and it will probably surprise those who think that serpent-worship was an ancient Asiatic practice, to be told that it prevailed in Italy under the Romans, and was found in full vigor in Mexico by the Spaniards when they invaded that country. In the present article we propose to summarize this evidence-to give it in detail would occupy too much space-and to discuss the nature and meaning of serpent-worship.

This worship seems to have been nearly universal among the primitive nations of the earth. It may be traced wherever there existed a monument of civilization or humanity.* In ancient Egypt the serpent was worshipped with a certain degree of pre-eminence over other animals, but not exclusively. The Egyptians worshipped all created beings in a greater or less degree. Their heroes and kings were gods; and they paid divine honors to bulls, beetles, crocodiles, cats, and dogs; so that it can only be said that the serpent was more honored by them than his associated gods. He frequently appears in the sculptures of the temples and in a place of honor, such as the brow of a king, or as a prominent ornament of his dress; yet it would be incorrect to designate the Egyptians as serpent-worshippers only. The reptile was much more honored by the original inhabitants of Canaan and Syria than by them. The ancient coins of Tyre contain representations of the serpent, and there is the testimony of that most ancient author, Sanchoniathon, who is supposed to have lived before the Trojan war, that is to say, in the twelfth century before the * Tod Rajasthan, vol. I, p. 580.

+ Herodotus, ii, 74. Quoted by Eusebius, Præ. Evan., i, 9, and by Müller, Fragmenta, iii, 572.

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