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master. While attending on him, it chanced several times to get a sight of Macaire, and on every occasion it sprang upon him, and would have strangled him, had it not been taken off by force. This intensity of hate, on the part of the animal, awakened the suspicion that Macaire had had some share in Aubrey's murder.

Charles V., on being informed of the circumstances, wished to satisfy himself of their truth. He caused Macaire and the dog to be brought before him, and beheld the animal again springing upon the object of its hatred. The king questioned Macaire closely, but the latter would not admit, that he had been, in any way, connected with Aubrey's murder.

Being strongly impressed by a conviction that the behaviour of the dog was grounded on some guilty act of Macaire, the king ordered a combat to take place between the officer and his dumb accuser. This remarkable combat took place in presence of the whole court. The king allowed Macaire to have a strong club, while, on the other hand, the only defence allowed to the dog was an empty cask, into which it might retreat, if hard pressed.

The combatants appeared. The dog seemed perfectly aware of its situation and duty. For a short time it lept actively around Macaire, and then, at one spring, it fastened itself upon his throat in so firm a manner, that he could not disentangle himself. He would have been strangled, had he not cried for mercy, and confessed his crime. He was freed from the fangs of the dog only to perish by the hands of the law.



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The dogs used for drawing sledges over the ice, in polar countries, are very sagacious and faithful to their masters. On them, indeed, the latter are entirely dependent for their existence. Here is a tribute to the memory of one of these dogs, by a famous traveller, who was wintering in his ship on the ice :

“ There is an excitement in our little society. Old Grim is missing, and has been for more than a day. Since the death of Cerberus, my leading Newfoundlander, he has been patriarch * of our scanty kennel.

“Old Grim was a character,' such as perhaps may be found among beings of a higher order. A profound hypocrite and time-server, he so wriggled his flattering tail as to secure every one's good graces and nobody's respect. All the spare morsels – the cast-off delicacies of the mess t, -- passed through the winnowing jaws of Old Grim.' This is an illustration not so much of his delicacy, as his universality, of taste. He was never known to refuse anything offered, or to restrain himself from anything approachable; never known to be satisfied, however abundant the bounty or the spoil.

“Grim was an ancient dog: his teeth told of many winters, and his limbs, once splendid tractors f for the sledge, were now covered with warts and ringbones. Somehow or other, when the dogs were harnessing for a journey,

Old Grim' was sure not to be found; and on one occasion, when he was detected hiding away in a cast-off barrel, he suddenly became lame. Strange to say, he continued

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* Patriarch, the oldest -— reverenced on the score of age.

Mess, the meals of soldiers or sailors, # Tractors, drawers,

lame ever after, except when the team *

was away

without him.

“ Cold disagreed with Grim; but by a system of patient watchings at the door of our deck-house, accompanied by a well-timed wag of his tail, he became at last the one privileged intruder. My seal-skin coat has been his favorite bed for weeks together.

“Whatever love for an individual Grim expressed by his tail, he could never be induced to follow him on the ice, after the cold darkness of the winter set in. Yet the dear, good, old dog would wriggle after one to the very threshold of the gangway f, and bid one good-bye in a manner that disarmed resentment. I “ His appearance was quite peculiar :

- his muzzle was roofed like the old-fashioned gable of a Dutch garretwindow ; his forehead indicated the existence of the smallest amount of brains that could accord with his sanity || as a dog; his eyes were small; his mouth was curtained by long black dewlaps; and his hide was a mangy russet 1, studded with chestnut burrs.

“ Poor dead Grim! We ne'er shall look upon his like INSTINCT OF THE HORSE. We see fellow-friendships manifested, to a great degree, between horses that inhabit the same stable, or draw together. The coachman well knows that he gets over his stage in less time, and with a great deal more pleasure, when old yoke-fellows are pulling together than when strange horses are paired. In some, the friendship is so intense, that they will neither eat nor rest when separated from each other.



* Team, a chain of horses or draught-animals of any kind. t Gangway, passage into or out of a ship.

| Disarmed resentment, took away any ill-feeling which his selfishness naturally aroused.

§ Gable, the triangular upper part of the side of a building, between the eaves and the top; also the triangular fork surmounting a window or door. || Sanity, healthiness of mind, &c.

Russet, reddish brown color.

Two Hanoverian horses had long served together, during the Peninsular War *, in the German artillery. They had assisted in drawing the same gun, and they had been inseparable companions in many battles. One of them was at last killed, and after the engagement was over, the survivor was sent to his post as usual, and his food brought to him. He refused, however, to eat, and was constantly looking about in search of his companion, sometimes neighing, as if to call him. All the care that was bestowed on him was of no avail. He was surrounded by other horses, but he did not notice them. Shortly he died, not having tasted food from the time his companion was killed.

We are all familiar with the docility of the dog, &c.; but the following example of the pitch of perfection to which horses may be trained is novel :

Any one who has visited Astley's Circus in London, will recollect a fine black horse who surpassed all his companions. A tournament f is supposed to be held, and the horse comes galloping on the stage with a knight on his back. A lady, sitting on a kind of throne, drops her

* Peninsular War, that of Spain, &c., with Napoleon I.

of Tournament, a mock engagement on horseback. See Historical Section, Book iii.

handkerchief on the stage, which the horse immediately picks up with his mouth, and, turning his head round, presents it to his master, who immediately ties it round his arm, as a sign of his affection for the fair one.

Other knights enter, and the fight begins. It is carried on with great spirit for some time, until our favorite receives his death-wound, staggers and falls on the ground. The knight leaps from his back, and carries on the contest on foot. And then it is that the wonderful powers of the horse reach their highest pitch. Writhing through all the struggles of death, he at last becomes motionless and still as a stone.


It is interesting to observe how any very powerful feeling will arouse a wonderful amount of sense in the dullest and most stupid of animals. A curious instance of this came under a gentleman's notice a short time ago. An old cart mare, as stupid, on ordinary occasions, as she could well be, had a foal. One day, she came trotting up the village to her master's door, neighing, and seemingly very uneasy. Her master noticing it, said, Something must be wrong;" and went out. The mare trotted off neighing; presently returned ; and then advanced as before.

The man followed her, and she led him to the mill dam, where he found the foal had fallen in, and was nearly drowned. Having recovered her foal, the old mare relapsed into her former state of stupidity.

Again, two cart-horses were driven from a farm-yard to be watered at a brook which happened to be frozen over. One horse struck with his foot to break the ice, but it was too hard to yield. Then, however, the two horses, standing side by side, lifted each a foot together, and both struck with the hoof at one time. Thus by their united force they broke the ice.

Anecdotes in Natural History.

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