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writer who can range from the easy cynicism of Plain Tales from the Hills and Departmental Ditties to the realism of Soldiers Three and Barrack-room Ballads, the human charm of Wee Willie Winkie, the fantasy of The Phantom 'Rickshaw, the keen observation of Many Inventions, Captains Courageous, and Kim, the delicate imagination of the two Jungle Books, and the dignified poetry of such works as the ‘Recessional,’ ‘M’Andrew's Hymn,' and the “Envoi' in The Seven

Rudyard Kipling. (Photo by Elliott & Fry.)

Seas. If the latter poems and the Jungle. Books represent. Kipling at his highest, he is at his lowest in the almost brutal realism that occasionally disfigures his work in passages where his capacity for the forcible runs away with his discretion. His power of selective 9bservation of absorbing detail in vast quantities, and retaining that which is essential, leads occasionally to another weakness which is displayed in a superfluous revelling in technicalities. But notwithstanding such tendencies on the part of Mr. Kipling, there has seldom been in the history of English literature a writer who has, at so comparativel early an age, show himself sses.ed of gifts so varied or so ull of possibilities. Kirby, WILLIAM (1759–1850), English naturalist and entomologist, born at Witnesham, Suffolk. He was rector of Barham, Suffolk, and a prominent fellow of the Linnean Society. His Monographia Apum Angliae was published in 1802. The four volumes of An Introduction to Entomology were written conjointly with William Spence, and appeared in 1817–26. In 1835 the Bridgewater treatise On the His: tory, Habits, and Instincts of


Animals appeared. See J. Freeman's Life of Kirby (1852). Kirby, WILLIAM (1817–1906), Canadian poet, was born at Kingston-upon-Hull, England, and was brought to Canada in 1832, where he was occupied in the customs service at Nijo. Ontario, for a long period. He was editor and proprietor of the Niagara jail". 1841 to 1861. He issued V. E., a Tale of Upper Canada, verse (1869), Chien d'Or (1879), several dramas and many miscellaneous poems. Kirchhoff, GUSTAv Rob ERT (1824-87), German physicist, was born at Königsberg, became professor of physics at the universities successively of Breslau (1850-4), Heidelberg (1854-74), and Berlin (1874-87). From 1845 onward he published a number of valuable papers on electrical and dynamical subjects. Then, in 1859–60, his researches on radiation led him to the definitive establishment of the science of spectrum analysis. His Untersuchungen iber das Sonnenstektrum (1862) was translated into English. He published further, Worlesungen iber mathematische Physik (1876) and Gesammelte Abhandlungen (1882–91). Kirchoff’s Laws. See ELECTRIC CIRCUIT. Kirghiz, properly KAZAK, a people widely spread over W. Central Asia, of Turkish blood, with a strong Mongol element, divided into two main groups— (1) Kirghiz Kazaks, (2) . KaraKirghiz. The former inhabit the steppes, of the Russian provinces of Ural, Turgai, Syr Daria, Akmolinsk, Semipalatinsk, and Semiryechensk. They number about 2,747,000, and are a nomadic and patriarchal people. They are mentioned in Chinese annals from 9th century A.D. The Kara-Kirghiz, or Black Kirghiz, are found in the basin of Issik-kul, in the Syr Daria province, in Fergana, on the Pamir plateau, in Kulja, and in E. Turkestan. They are estimated to number about 340,000 in all. See Grodekow's Kirgisen und Karakirgisen (1886); Hellwald's Centralasien (1880), and . Zales§§ Vie des Steppes Kirghizes Kirin, or GIRIN. (1.) Central prov. of Manchuria, with Korea and the prov. of Shing-king on the S. Well-watered and fertile, it produces pulse, millet, maize, wheat, barley, potatoes, and the poppy. Kirin is the capital. Area, 115,000 sq. m. (2.) Capital of above prov., at the head of navigation of the Sungari, 225 m. N. of Mukden. Pop. 90,000. Kirjath-jearim (Josh. 9:17, etc.), a town on the northern border, of . Judah, Palestine, where the ark remained for some


years (2 Sam. 6: 2). It was near Beth-shemesh. and east of the ‘camp' or ‘plain' of Dan. Kirk, ELLEN WARNER (1842) American author, was born (Olney) at Southinton, Conn., and received an academic education. She was married to John Foster Kirk, 1879, , and thereafter resided in Philadelphia. Her numerous novels include Love in Idleness (1876), The Story of Margaret Kent (1886), A Daughter of Eve (1889), Dorothy Dean (1899), and Good-by, Proud World (1903). Kirk, John Foster (1824– 1904), American author, was born at Fredericton, N. B., and received an academic education. He came to the U. S. in 1842, and was secretary to the historian Prescott (1847–59), whose works he afterward edited. Kirk himself wrote A History of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, a work of considerable merit (1863–8). From 1870 to 1886 he edited Lippincott's Magazine, and he was lecturer on European history at the University of Pennsylvania, 1885–8, besides contributing numerous articles to periodicals. Kirkbride, THoMAs Story (1809-83), American physician, was born in Morrisville, Bucks co., Pa., of Quaker descent, and graduated (1832) in medicine at the University of Pa. He gained a wide reputation as an expert in the treatment of the insane, and was the first to insist on separate buildings for the sexes in psychopathic institutions. He was resident physician of the Friends' Asylum at Frankport, Pa., for several years. He was superintendent of the Pennsylvania. Hospital for the Insane, in Philadelphia, from 1840 until his death. Author of The Construction, Organization, and General Management of Hospitals for the Insane (1854). Kirkcaldy, seapt., roy. and parl. burgh, on s. E. coast of Fifeshire, Scotland, 10 m. N. of Edinburgh. The High Street is about four miles long, hence the derivation of ‘the lang toon o’ Kirkcaldy.” Kirkcaldy is , the home of the floorcloth and linoleum manufacture. Linen manufacture, bleaching, engineering, ironfounding, pottery making, and brewing are other industries. Adam Smith, author of The Wealth of Nations, was a native, and here Thomas Carlyle and Edward Irving were schoolmasters for some years. Coal and iron are extensively worked. Pop. (1901) 34,079. Kirkcaldy, or KIRKALDY, SIR WILLIAM, of GRANGE (d. 1573), Scottish soldier, who in 1546 took charge of the arrangements for the assassination of Cardinal Beaton, On the capture of St. AnKirkcudbrightshire


drews Castle by the French, he was carried prisoner to France; but making his escape he took refuge in England. With Moray he took up arms against the Darnley marriage in 1565, and after the failure to rouse the country against it fled to England. Returning with Moray after Rizzio's assassination, he supported the Protestant lords against the queen on her marriage to Bothwell. It was to him she surrendered at Carberry, and it was mainly owing to his masterly generalship that she was defeated at Langside. After the conferences in England, his sympathies gradually veered towards the queen, and he finally decided to hold the castle of Edinburgh for the queen's party; but was forced to surrender on June 3, 1573, and, owing to the ‘denunciation of the preachers,’ he was, on August 3, executed at the Cross of Edinburgh. See Grant's Memoirs and Adventures of Sir William Kirkcaldy of Grange (1849). and Barbé's Kirkcaldy of Grange (Famous Scots Series). Kirkcudbrightshire, or the STEwARTRY of Kirkcudbright, maritime co., Scotland, skirting the N. shore of the Solway Firth for some 50 m. The coast is irregular and rocky, and contains numerous caves, in former times the storehouses of smugglers (see Guy Mannering). The shire is mountainous, especially in the N.w. Granite is quarried. Only 33 per cent. of the area is under cultivation, the grassy uplands being more suited to the rearing of sheep and Galloway cattle. Pigfeeding and dairying are carried on. The chief town is Kirkcudbright. Area, 989 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 39,383. Kirkdale Cave, limestone cavern, N. Riding, Yorkshire, England, 1 m. wis.w, of KirkbyMoorside; owes its fame to the discovery, in 1821, of fossil remains of mammals now extinct in Great Britain. Kirke, SIR DAvid (1596–1656), English adventurer, who effected the first English conquest of Canada, born at Dieppe, France. In 1629, war having broken out (1628) between England and France, he and his two brothers, in command of a small fleet fitted out by his father for the conquest of Canada, forced the surrender of Quebec, then under Champlain; the stronghold, however, was soon returned by Charles I. to France. In 1637 he received a grant to Newfoundland, but this was soon withdrawn. Kirke was knighted in the same year (1629) for his services. See Henry Kirke, The # Folio. Conquest of Canada 1871). Ikirke, PERCY (?1646–91), English soldier, colonel of “Kirke's


Lambs, served under Monmouth, and, was appointed to command at Tangier (1680). The regimental symbol, “the Paschal Lamb,' provided the above nickname for his men, who, after Sedgemoor and Monmouth's defeat (1685), became a synonym for ferocity because of the treatment of the rebels. Kirke helped William III. against James, and raised the siege of Derry. Kirkintilloch, par. and th:, Dumbartonshire, Scotland, 8 m. N.N.E. of Glasgow; has iron foundries, coal mines, and weaving factory. Pop. (1901) par. 14,401; r. 10,502. Kirk-Killiseh (‘the town of forty churches'), thi, Turkey in Europe, 35 m. E. of Adrianople; has a trade in butter and cheese. It is the chief station on the traffic route between the capital and the Balkans. Pop. 16,000, of whom two-thirds are Bulgarians, and one-fifth Turks. Kirkland, CARolin E MATILDA (1801–64), American author, was born (Stansbury) in New York city and was married to Prof. William Kirkland of Hamilton College. With him she removed to Central Michigan about 1839, and experienced in...that . wild country the frontier life which is so humorously described in her volumes, A New Home: Who'll Follow 2 (1839), Forest Life (1842), and Western Clearings (1846). Her later life was passed in New York city. Kirk 1 and, JAMES HAMPTON (1859), American educator, was born at Spartanburg, S. C., and graduated (1877) at Wofford College. From 1883 to 1886 he trayelled in Europe and studied at Leipzig University. Returning to the U. S., he was made professor of Latin at Vanderbilt University, and became chancellor of the university in 1893. Dr. Kirkland edited the Satires and Epistles, of Horace, and contributed Holocal papers to various pubicationS. Kirkland, Joseph (1830–94), American author, was born at Geneva, N. Y. He was the son of Caroline Kirkland, and his boyhood was passed with his parents in the backwoods of central Michigan. From 1842 to 1856 he lived in New York city, returning to the West in the latter year. He served through the Civil War in the 12th Illinois volunteers, and was promoted to be major. After the war he practised law in Chicago. Zury: The Meanest Man in Spring Valley (1887) and The McVeys (1888) are studies of early prairie life in Illinois. Major Kirkland also published The Captain, of Company K (1889), and a history of Chicago. (1741–

Kirkland, SAMUEL


1808), American missionary and educator, was born at Norwich, Conn., and graduated (1765) at Princeton, immediately taking up work among the Six Nations. He was ordained a Congregational minister, and worked among the Indians in the neighborhood of Oneida, N. Y., for the greater #. of his life. He was able uring the Revolution to secure the neutrality of the Oneida Indians, and after the war labored for the civilization of the Indians É. Hamilton Oneida Colege, now Hamilton College, was founded by him in 1793. Kirkpatrick, SIR GEORGE AIREY (1841), Canadian statesman, was born in Kingston. Ontario, and graduated at Trinity College, Dublin. He began the practice of the law in 1865, and soon, obtained a leading position in Canadian affairs. c was a member of the Dominion Parliament from 1870 to 1891, and its speaker from 1883 to 1886. He was appointed lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 1891, and was knighted the following year. Kirksville, city, , Adair co., Mo., on the Wab. and the Omaha, Kan. Cy N. Eastern R. Rs., 34

na. N. o açon. The city has flour and woollen mills, and agricultural implement works. x

tensive bituminous coal mines are in the vicinity, giving employment to about 3,000 miners. The state normal school is located here. Kirksville is the chief centre of o in the U. S. and the seat of the American School of Osteopathy and an osteopathic hospital. . It was settled about 1828 and incorporated as a city in

1892. The water-works are owned by the town. Pop. (1900) 5,966.

Kirkwood, o: St. Louis co., Mo., on the Mo. Pac. and the St. L. and S. Fran. R. Rs., 13 m. w. by S. of St. Louis. , Market-gardening is a thriving industry, and there are smelting-works and a considerable trade in lumber. Kirkwood is the seat of the Redemptorist Fathers' College, and of a military academy. Nearby is Meramec Highland, a scenic resort overlooking Meramec river. The city, owns and operates its electric look plant and sewer system. It was incorporated in 1865. Pop. (1900) 2,825.

Kirkwood. DANIEL (1814–95), American astronomer, was born in Maryland. He became professor of mathematics at Delaware College (1851), and in 1854 president of that institution. In 1856 he was appointed professor of mathematics at the University of Indiana. In 1891 he accepted the appointment of lecturer, on astronomy at the Leland Stanford University, California. He pub


lished (1867–88) Comets and Meteors, and The Asteroids. He anticipated, in 1861, the relationship between comets and meteors established in 1866; criticised effectively Laplace's nebular hypothesis; and explained the lacuna, in the distribution of asteroidal orbits, and in Saturn's ring system, by the commensurability. of the periods of the missing bodies with those respectively of jū. and Saturn's satellites. Kirkwood, SAMUEL JoRDAN (1813–94), American political leader, the “war governor' of Iowa, born in Harford co., He was educated in the academy of John McLeod, Washington, D. C., removed to Richland co., Ohio, in 1835, was admitted to the bar in 1843, and became prominent both as a lawyer and as a political leader. . In 1850-1 he was a member of the Ohio constitutional convention, and in 1855 removed to Johnson co., Iowa. He was elected to the Iowa senate (1856), was governor of Iowa. (1860-4 and 1876-7), vigorously supporting President Lincoln during the Civil War, was a Republican member of the U. S. Senate (1866-7 and 1877-81), and was secretary of the interior under Presidents Garfield and Arthur (1881–2). Kirman. See KERMAN. Kirmanshah. See KERMANsh Ah. Kirriemuir, par. and mrkt. tn., Forfarshire, Scotland, 5 m. w.N.w.. of Forfar; has linen manufactures. J. M. Barrie, a native, has immortalized it as ‘Thrums.' Pop. (1901) 4,096. Kirschwasser, a cordial prepared from both the fruit pulp and the stones of ripe cherries. Grain oil and water are used as the steeping medium for the crushed ruit, which after distillation is sweetened with cane sugar and bottled. Kirtland, JARED Potte R (1793– 1877), American naturalist, was born at Wallingford, Conn., and graduated (1815) at Yale. As a lad he had had unusual opportunities for observing the fauna and flora of Connecticut and Ohio. After graduation he practised medicine for a time in Connecticut, and then removed to Poland, O., where he was professionally occupied from 1823 to 1837, when he was appointed professor of medicine in the Ohio Medical College at Cincinnati. From 1842 to 1862 he was professor of medicine at the Cleveland Medical College, which he helped to found. Besides his discoveries relating to silk-worms and the fresh-water, fishes of the West, Dr. Kirtland made many valuable suggestions in the agricultural field. Kirwan, RICHARD (1733–1812),

124 Irish scientist, was born in Cloughballymore, Co. Galway,

Ireland, and became a member of the bar in 1766. His attention, however, was soon diverted to chemistry and mineralogy, in which sciences he made notable investigations. Was elected a member of the Royal Society, 1780. Author of Elements of Mineralogy (1784), An Estimate of the Temperatures of Different Latitudes (1787), and Metaphysical Essays (1811). Kiryu, or KIRIU, th:, prov: Kotsuki, Japan, 60 m. N.w.. of Tokyo; produces, grapes, gauze, satin, and a kind of silk resembling taffeta. Pop, (1898) 23,991. Kisfaludy, KAROLY (1788– 1831), Hungarian dramatist, born at Tet, co. Raab. He is regarded as the founder of the national theatre. His best works are The Tartars in Hungary (1814) and The Student Matthias. German translation of both in Gaab's Theater der Magyaren (1820). Kisfaludy, SANDoR (1772– 1844), Hungarian poet and man of letters, the elder brother of Károly, born at Sümeg, Zala co. His most celebrated works are Himfy's Love (1807) and Legends of the Olden Time in Hungary (1807), and the historical dramas Janos Hunyadi (1825) and Ladislaus the Cumanian (1825). Kisfaludy Society, a Hungarian literary academy, established in 1837, in honor of the brothers Kisfaludy, has done much for the national literature. Kishangarh, feudatory state in Rajputana, India, with an area of 874 sq. m., and a population in 1901 of 2,658,666. The state produces cotton, for the spinning and weaving of which factories have been started. Kishinev, cap. of Bessarabia, S. W. Russia, 96 m. w.N.w.. of Odessa. The high or new city stands on a hill 740 ft. above sea-level; the low town, or old Kishinev, lies on the r. bk. of the Byk, an affluent of the Dniester. Brandy, leather, soap, and candles, and woollen stuffs are made here. !. form an exceptionally large element of the population. Massacres of the Hebrew community took place here in 1904, and again in 1905. Pushkin, the Russian poet, resided here from 1820 to 1823. Pop. (1897) 108,

796. Kishon, the river of Central Palestine which drains the plain of Esdraelon, and falls into the Bay of Acre. Here Sisera was defeated (Judg. , 4:7, 13), and Elijah destroyed the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18: 40). Kiskunhalás, Hungary. See HALAs. Kismayu, coast dist. of British E. Africa, bounded on the N. by the equator, and on the s.v. by


Tanaland. , Kismayu Bay (Refuge Bay) is the most northerly anchorage, on the E. coast of Africa to which the name of harbor is applicable. On the N. shore is Kismayu town. A small concession of land (5 ac.) for a landing stage and right-of-way was granted by Britain to Italy on lease in 1905. Kismet (Pers. kusmut; , Ar. kismeh), a word used by Mohammedans for ‘fate' or “destiny.” One of the leading precepts of Mohammed was that, the decree of God, as preordaining the whole of a man's life, both here and hereafter, must be submitted to by the faithful with absolute resignation. Such a doctrine, apparently paralyzing to human endeavor, has had among the Mohammedans precisely the opposite effect, having been the chief inspiration of that almost unexampled courage which won for their religion its early triumphs, and made it one of the great spiritual powers of the world. See MoHAMMEDAN is M. Kissing, a custom peculiar to Caucasians, and unknown to yellow and black races; originated in a maternal caress, and developed into the expression of affection, friendship, reverence, and love, according to Professor Lombroso (Pall Mall Magazine, August, 1899). From the Roman custom of greeting friends by kissing arose the kiss of peace, as a symbol of Christian brotherhood. See Nyrop's The Kiss (trans. by W. F. Harvey, 1901). Kissingen, wat.-pl. of Bavaria, prov. Lower, Franconia, on the Franconian Saale, 14 m. by rail N.N.w.. of Schweinfurt, with saline baths (51.3° F.). Pop. (1900) 4,757. K is t na, or KRISHNA. (1.) River of S. India, rises in the W. Ghats at an altitude of 4,500 ft., flows s.E., and breaking through the E. . Ghats empties, itself by two main outlets into the Bay of Bengal, after a course of 800 m. It is unnavigable for the greater part of its course, but is of great use for irrigation, and is connected by a canal with the Godavari. Its drainage area is computed at 97,050 sq. m. (2.) District on E. coast of the Madras Presidency, India, with area of 84,715 sq. m. and a population in 1901 of 2,154,803. Masulipatam is the capital. Kit, or Swift Fox. See Fox. Kit, of A Soldier, a collective term signifying such articles as underclothing, towels, boots, brushes, and not applying to uniform, arms, etc. The U. S. army kit or pack is in the form of a blanket roll. Each man carries a number of articles, having a total weight of about 62 pounds, not including the rifle (8.94 Kit-cat Club Kitchen Garden

pounds), arranged as follows: the shelter tent half is spread upon the ground, on this is placed a folded blanket, an overcoat, tentpins and poles, under-clothing, blue flannel shirt, socks, shoes, brushes, combs, soap, towel, etc. The whole is rolled into a long thin roll and doubled so as to form a yoke, secured strapped, and worn over the shoulder. In addition, to the blanket, roll, a haversack containing rations for one or two days and the mess outfit, consisting of a double plate, which may used for cooking, knife, fork, spoon, with a tin cup hanging to the haversack strap, are carried. When we add to this a bayonet, sometimes an intrenching tool, one hundred rounds of ammunition, and a rifle, the entire load carried by an infantry soldier, in heavy marching order, is not far from 75 pounds. In European armies the soldier's kit is carried in knapsacks of various patterns, and with the equipment weighs from about 66 pounds in the English army to about 72 in the German. The Russian soldier, without blanket or shelter tent, carries 68 pounds, the great-coat making up the difference. Kit-cat Club, a society founded by Jacob Tonson (1703), ostensibly to encourage literature and the fine arts, but really to promote the Hanoverian succession. The club derived its name from meeting at the house of Christopher Cat. Sir Godfrey Kneller painted three-quarter length portraits of the forty-three members; hence the term ‘kit-cat portraits’ for figure paintings of this size. Kitchen Cabinet, a term derisively applied to a group of men not holding positions in the official cabinet, who, during the administration of Andrew Jackson, were supposed to dominate the President's mind, and thereb to exert more influence over af. fairs than the cabinet itself. Among the members of this group were Green (until 1831, after which he supported Calhoun against Jackson), William B. Lewis, Isaac Hill, Amos Kendall (who became postmaster-general in 1835), and (after 1831) Francis P. Blair, Sr. The term is also sometimes applied to groups of men, likewise without cabinet rank, who were supposed to influence in the same way, but to a less extent, President Tyler and President Johnson. For an account of Jackson's Kitchen Cabinet, see Parton, Life of Andrew Jackson (3 vols. 1860). Kitchener of KHARTUM, VIScount (1850). commander-inchief in India (1902). Horatio Herbert Kitchener, the eldest son of the late Lieutenant-colonel H.

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S. Africa with Lord Roberts on Jan. 10, 1900. He assumed supreme command on November 29, and waged war against the, Boers by a system of blockhouses’ and extensive ‘drives,' till he secured an honorable ace on May 31, 1902. King 2dward sent him a congratulatory telegram on the termiration of hostilities, and raised him in the peerage to a viscountcy. Parliament voted him a sum of £50,000, and thanked him for his

Ş. services to the , em ire. ord Kitchener returned to El gland on July 12, 1902, was ap

inted Commander in Chief in }.}. and went to that post in November. In 1909, he was made High Commissioner, and Field Marshal commanding the Mediterranean, and Imperial Inspector General, succeeding the uke of Connaught, resigned. He resides at Malta. Šee Stovens' With Kitchener to Khartum (1898). Kitchen Garden. See GARDENING. Kitchen-middens, KITCHENMOUNDS, SHELL-MOUNDS, or SHELL-HEAPs, are terms used by archaeologists to denote the domestic refuse-heaps of certain primitive races. They were first studied by the Danish professors Forchhammer, Steenstrup, and Worsaae (whence their earliest name kjökken - modding), who published the result of their investigations in 1860, and placed in the museum at Copenhagen many thousand specimens of the objects found. . The long mounds then examined had been previously supposed to be natural raised beaches. “True raised beaches, however,' observes Lord Avebury, “necessarily contain a variety of species; the individuals are of different ages, and the shells are, of course, mixed with a considerable quantity of sand and gravel. But it was observed that in these supposed beaches the shells belonged entirely to full-grown or to nearly full-grown individuals; that they consisted of four species which do not live together, nor require the same conditions, and would not therefore be found together alone in a natural deposit; and thirdly, that the stratum contained scarcely any gravel, but consisted almost entirely of shells." Rude implements of stone, bone, and wood, fragments of pottery, and broken animal bones were the objects found in the heaps; and in a number of cases the explorers came upon hearth-stones bearing the marks of fire. It accordingly became apparent that these mounds had been formed by a primitive race, and were simply the débris of their daily meals, flung from them as they ate. The largest Wol. VII.-Jan. "10,


heaps were about 1,000 ft. in length by 200 ft. in breadth, and 10 ft. deep. Many were of much smaller dimensions. The formation of such kitchenmiddens is a process still going on among primitive peoples—notably among the Eskimos; and it is instructive to note that the process may be very rapid, as shown by Petroff's description of what he saw among the Aleuts, as quoted by Professors Keane and Windle:—'A family of three or four adults, and perhaps an equal number of children, will leave behind them a shell monument of their voracity a foot or eighteen inches in height after a single meal. The heaps of refuse created under such circumstances during a single season were truly astonishing in size. They will surely mislead the ingenious calculator of the antiquities of shellheaps a thousand years hence.” It will be seen, then, that kitchenmiddens may belong to any period of man's history, and need not denote a very prolonged residence in their neighborhood of the race who reared them. The rudeness of the great majority of the implements found in the heaps, and the kind of life otherwise implied, point to people in a low state of civilization. Thus, the Danish mounds might be mementoes of the savage Fenni described by Tacitus, as they wandered from camp to camp along the Baltic shores. In his consideration of the shell-heaps of Japan, Mr. J. Milne is inclined to ascribe them to the aboriginal Ainus, for the reason that the human tibiae frequently found in them are platycnemic, and many living Ainus show marked platycnemism. Kitchen - middens are very numerous in America, from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, both on the Pacific and the Atlantic coast; they are even found far inland on the shores of large streams. (See ARCH.EoloGY.) Special excavations have been made in the larger kitchen-middens of Georgia, Florida, Long Island, British Columbia, and Alaska, yielding large collections of stone and bone implements, and in some cases fragments of pottery. (For views of the Florida mounds, see United States National Museum Proceedings, 1893, No. 966.) In Europe they are found along the coasts of the British Isles, Denmark, France, Portugal, and Sardinia. See Lubbock's Prehistoric Times, Brinton's Artificial Shell Deposits of the United States, and Proc. Soc. of Antiquaries. Abbot's Primitive Industry (1881); H. T. Smith's Shell Heaps of the Lozver Frazer River (1903): Jones's Antiquities of the Southern Indians (1873).


Kitchin, GeoRGE WILLIAM (1827), was born at Naughton in Suffolk; dean of Durham (since 1894), and warden of the uniyersity; was censor of non-collegiate students at Oxford (186883); dean of Winchester (1883– 94); has published Catalogue of Manuscripts in Christ Church Library (1867); the Arundel Society's Life of Pope Pius II. (1881); Winchester (1890), and a Life of E. H. Browne, Bishop of Winchester (1895); Ruskin in O.rford (1904); and History of France Previous to the Reformation (4th ed. 1899–1903).

Kite, a ... term which, though strictly applicable only to the rare European glead (Milvus ictinus), is generally applied to , a group of birds of prey distinguished from the buzzards by the long forked tail, elongated wings, short metatarsus and toes, and claws only . of moderate length. The kite is a very miscellaneous feeder, but depends largely on offal, and in the Eastern tropics they

A Kite.

are valuable as scavengers. The nest is usually placed in a tree, and consists of a mass of sticks lined with rags and paper ; the eggs are three to four in number. Four allied species of kites occur in the warmer parts of America, but their habits are more like those of ordinary hawks. The Mississippi kite is slate-blue with a black tail. The beautiful swallow-tail kite (Elanoides furcatus) of America is chiefly black, with purple and green reflections, and is remarkable for its wonderful agility on the wing. It feeds chiefly on reptiles. ... The Everglad kite is a Floridian species. Kite. The first use of kites for scientific purposes, so far as is known, was in 1749, when Dr. Alexander Wilson and Thomas Melville raised into the clouds thermometers attached to kites. Franklin's famous experiment of collecting the electricity of a thunder-cloud by means of a kite was performed three years later

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