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Joinery

©ote: of wood fits tightly into the o: ise, cut into the side of the other, and is glued in place. Beadings are frequently added beside a longitudinal joint, partl for ornament, and partly to hide by their shadow *"...o.; of the joint that may caused by

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nected by mortise-and-tenon joints, and grooved on the inner edge to a depth of about 4 in. to receive the boarding or panel which fills the *:::: The vertical members frames are termed “stiles,' the horizontal trails.'. The panel is generally formed of two boards, united by

shrinkage of the wood. They a ploughed and slip-feathered
Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16.
I::: **Top ledge Top rail
Loco rail
Bottom rail

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Joinery

sides. The edges of panels are usually further marked by beadings, grooves, or chamfers, to make the joint less conspicuous. Doors, which should usually open inwards, range in size upwards from, 6 ft. 6 in; by 2 ft. 9 in. for inside use, and from 6 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. for entrances. If more than 3 ft; 6, in; wide, they should preferably be hung in two halves, or ‘folding.' Doors may be ‘ledged,” “ledged and braced.” "framed and braced,' or ‘panelled.' Ledged doors, which are only suitable for inferior purposes are made of narrow vertical boards, connected by three horizontal members termed “ledges,' to the uppermost and lowest of which the hinges are fixed. Ledged and braced doors are further strengthened by diagonal braces between , the ledges. Framed and braced doors consist of a, frame strengthened by a middle horizontal piece, or “rail,' and by diagonal braces, and filled up with narrow vertical boarding. Panelled doors, which are almost entirely used for dwell. ing-houses, have a framework of narrow J”. joined with mortises and tenons, and grooved to receive four or six panels in pairs. The uppermost pair in a six-panelled door are termed the “frieze” ol. those in a four-panelled oor the “top” panels; the other panels being respectively ‘middle’ or ‘bottom,’ according to their position, the "horizontal frame members taking the names of “top rail,’ ‘frieze, rail,” “middle’ or "lock rail,” and “bottom rail.” The different varieties of panelled doors are also distinguished § technical terms denoting their thickness and the number and kind of panels they contain. Windows should generally be about 2 ft. 6 in. from the floor inside, and should (for purposes of ventilation) reach nearsy to the ceiling. They consist of two parts—the sash, which holds the glass; and the frame, which carries the sash. Sashes are usually either hinged at the sides to open like a door (as in a casement window), or are suspended by cords over pulleys, with counterweights which move up and down as the sash is lowered or raised. The frames are in the first case solid, in the latter hollow to receive the counter-weights. . The sash consists of a framing of rails and stiles, as in a door, and of sash bars, horizontal and vertical, which cut up the enclosed space and hold the glass. In a casement window the horizontal bars are continuous from side to side the vertical bars being mortised into them. In , a sliding sash window the vertical bars are continuous. , The sash bars and the inside edges of the framing are Joinery

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rabbeted to receive the glass, which is secured in place with putty. The other side of the bars, rails, and stiles may be moulded, bevelled, or left square. Wooden Stairs are supported on thick boards or pieces of tim: ber placed at an inclination and termed 'strings.” . These may be (1) “cut,’ when the stair boards rest on rectangular notches cut in the upper, edge of the strings; (2) “cut and mitred,” when the treads alone show above the strings, the rises being mitred into their vertical edges; or (3) “housed,” in which case the upper edge of the string is left parallel to the lower, the stair boards being wedged into grooves cut in the inner sides of the strings. A usual practice is to house the ends of the stair boards in the string alongside the wall, and to rest the other ends on a cut and mitred string. . For , steps over 4 ft. long a third intermediate string is necessary. Stair boards consist of risers and treads, the latter (which are laid flat), projecting over the (vertical) risers and being finished with a roun or moulded nosing. The treads should be of oak or other hard wood, and should have a thickness of 14 in. for a step of 4 ft. 6 in. in length. The risers are jointed to the treads, both above and below, by grooved and tongued or rabbeted joints, well

lued, the upper joint bein

urther strengthened by sma blocks glued into the inside angle. Balusters, vertical bars

to support the handrail, should be dovetailed into the treads of the steps and secured to the handrais by a continuous flat bar of wrought iron, which is screwed into both. The balusters should not be more than 5 in. apart. Architraves are borders fixed round the openings of doorways and windows, both for ornament and to conceal the joint between the wooden frame and the plaster of the wall. They may be plain, moulded, or in the form of a pilaster, either extending down to the floor or resting on a plinth. Baseboards are boards running round the base of the walls of a room, so as to hide the junction of the walls with the floor. They are o 6 to 12 in. wide, and may either plain or ornamented, with a moulding; being fastened to the wall direct, or fixed to rough battens termed ‘grounds,’ which are themselves nailed to plugs in the wall. The ower edge of the baseboard may be housed or tongued into the floor, or simply rest upon it; in the latter case being "scribedo: i.e. cut to fit the irregularities of the floor boards. Linings are coverings of wood placed so as to hide or ornament

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o of the interior of buildings. hey should be made of narrow boards, jointed together longitudinally, and nailed , to battens fixed to the wall about 2 ft. apart. Of the linings to doorways, “jamb” linings. cover the sides, and “soffit’ linings the underside of the arch or lintel; of those to windows, the terms “breast,” “elbow,’ and ‘back' linings are given according to, their respective positions. “Wall linings’ are employed solo to cover the surfaces of the walls beside windows—a development of this being those, frame and panelled , linings which conceal and at the same time form the walls in the rooms of many old houses. Joint Adventure. ship confined to a particular speculation or transaction. Examples are , agreements, to promote the sale of mineral or patent rights, or to combine forces for the creation of a ‘corner' in grain or a ‘pool” in a stock transaction. Joints, in morphology. Anatomically, a joint is formed by the approximation of two or more bones which are bound together and enveloped by other structures. A distinction must be drawn between rigid and mobile articulations. Good examples of the former are the sutures or synarthroses of the cranial bones, whose serrated edges interlock with only a thin sutural membrane between. When adjacent bones are separated by a plate of cartilage which is adherent to each, a limited amount of mobility results, and such a joint is known as a mixed articulation, or an amphiarthrosis. The joints between the vertebrae are of this type; and while the movement possible at each joint is but slight, the spine as a whole acquires a considerable degree of flexibility from a series of such articulations. . Joints which are freely movable are called diarthroses. The part of each bone which enters into the formation of a diarthrosis is covered by a thin layer of cartilage, which acts as a smooth bearing surface over which the other moves with little friction. A joint of this nature is also provided with fibrous ligaments, which by binding the É. together limit the range of movement, and with a synovial capsule or sac, the inner surface of which secretes a glairy lubricating fluid known as the synovia. The outer layers of the synovial capsule are dense and fibrous, and the whole forms a bag enclosing the joint cavity into which the articular surfaces protrude. In the knee and maxillary joints, are interarticular pads of cartilage, which, besides

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Joints

giving greater elasticity, allow of more complicated movements. Diarthroses may be hinge-shaped, or of the ball-and-socket form; or, again, the movement may be either §§ or rotatory. The ball-and-socket joint gives the widest range of movement, as in the shoulder, in which the ballshaped head of the humerus is applied to the shallow glenoid fossa or socket of the scapula. Of injuries, a dislocation is a separation of the articular surfaces. Like fractures, dislocations may be either simple or compound, the latter term being employed when, from laceration of the surrounding tissues, a communication is established between the joint cavity and the external air. In the hip an intracapsular fracture of the neck of the femur

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may occur; and the knee is liable to displacement of the interarticular or semilunar cartilages —an accident which is often followed by a permanent weakness of the joint. Nearly all injuries of joints are attended by considerable pain and swelling, due partly to extravasation of blood into the surrounding tissues, and partly to effusion of bl and synovial fluid into the joint cavity. In nearly all cases of joint injury rest is an important factor of the treatment. Movement should be prevented by mechanical apparatus, and if there be much effusion and extravasation. elastic pressure should be o: means of cotton and bandages. When great pain is present, however, or when the effusion is still increasing, the **i. of cold by ice bags or by Leiter's coil É. relief, while in some cases ot applications are, more grateful to the patient. The period for rest of an injured joint must not be too prolonged, lest permanent stiffness result. To avoid this effect gentle movement and masJoints

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sage of the injured parts should be resorted to. Å dislocation must be reduced as early as possible, and should it be compound, the eatest care must be taken to eep or to render it aseptic. The same necessity holds in the case of wounds of the joints. When, in spite of all precautions, septic infection, suppuration, and extensive destruction of the tissues ensue, the most the surgeon can hope for, in many cases, is anchylosis (union) of the bones in such a position as to secure a useful limb to the patient. Should the infection be so virulent as to endanger the patient's life, amputation may be necessary. One of the commonest affections of an articulation is inflammation of the synovial membrane, or synovitis, which may be acute or chronic. In a large number of cases it is associated with some general pathological condition, such as rheumatism. In acute synovitis, from whatever cause it may arise, the membrane is congested and exudes into the joint cavity an excess of synovial fluid of a more serous character than is normal. Pain and swelling are proportionate to the rapidity and extent of the effusion, which in bad cases may after a time become purulent. In such cases general arthritis, or inflammation of the whole joint, may follow, and may lead to the destruction of not only the membrane, but of liga: ments, articular cartilages, and even the ends of the bones. In chronic synovitis the X. of the membrane is less marked, and there is generally a smaller amount of exudation, which, however, has a tendency to undero fibrous development, so that the synovial membrane becomes thickened and indurated. Rheumatic synovitis corresponds very closely with that of an acute type. The process, however, is generally more extensive, the ligaments, cartilages, and surrounding tissues being involved. Suppuration rarely follows this form. Gouty synovitis is very similar to the rheumatic type, but the pain is more paroxysmal, and the general health is less disturbed. A chronic rheumatic arthritis, sometimes gives, rise to the condition known as hydrops articuli, in which the synovial membrane develops fringes, and tufts of pedunculated growths of new tissue, while the cavity is often greatly distended by serous fluid. A grave form of synovitis occurs in diseases such as pyae

mia, smallpox, scarlet, fever, gonorrhoea, phoid, and dysentery. . In such cases joint after

joint is attacked in quick succes; sion, and so extensive and rapid is the destruction that, each may be wholly disorganized within a

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few days. . Even in the slighter cases complete recovery is rare. In young children inflammation of the epiphyses of long bones frequently extends to the neighboring joints, and sets up a septic arthritis which does not materially differ from the forms above o to. The result is frequently fatal; but if the joint cavity be , freely opened and drained before destruction of the surfaces, has set in, the joint may be saved. Another group of joint diseases includes those of tubercular origin and those into which, arising from a traumatism, tuber: colosis gains entrance secondarily. The jo most frequently, affected by , tuberculosis are those between the vertebrae and those of the lower limb. In some, the bone is the first tissue to be affected; in others, the synovial membrane, the ligaments and cartilages becoming involved later; and in nearly all, the disease begins in childhood. Tumors involving joints generally have their origin in the ends of , the long bones. They are nearly always of a sarcomatous, type, but may be wholly cartilaginous. Joints, in geology, are fissures which traverse the rocks of the earth's crust, mostly in a vertical or nearly vertical direction. They are usually open, though their width may be very sm They serve as passages for the circulation of underground water, and those which are nearest the surface may be widened by solution or filled with débris. Joints are developed in perfection only in rocks which are hard and coherent; in sands, clays, and foll they are absent or rare. In bedded sediments the joints, are perpendicular to the bedding planes,...and very frequently run in two directions, one set being nearly at right angles to the other. The master joints have usually, a close relation to the dip of the strata, and as this is a consequence of the folding which has resulted from lateral earth pressure, it seems reasonable to believe that folding is an important factor in the production of joints. This is suprted by the experiments, of aubrée. Where movement has taken place along a joint, it becomes a fault. o: in some cases have been injected with igneous material, forming dikes. n the igneous rocks the i.g is very frequently, columnar. Very perfect examples are furnished by the basaltic rocks of the Giant's Causeway and the west of Scotland. The columns are roughly hexagonal, and are bounded by three sets of vertical lanes, making angles of sixty egrees with one another. There can be no doubt that these joints

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Joint Stock Company. See CoMPANY; CoRPoRATION. Joint Tenancy. . The owner

ship of land or goods by two or more persons in such a way that each one is deemed to own the whole as well as an undivided share. This is the only interpretation that can be put on the mysterious phrase of NormanFrench law by which joint-tenancy is characterized—that the ownership is per my et per tout. Its, one, unfailing characteristic is the # of survivorship (jus accrescendi), the death of one of the joint tenants leaving the entire property to the survivor or survivors. Joint tenancy is char: acterized by the four unities: all the tenants must acquire their estate under the same instrument, at the same time, with the same interest (i.e. one estate cannot be for life and the other freehold), and with the same possession (i.e. all the tenants are seized of the whole land). A joint tenancy can be severed by partition, and converted into a tenancy in common by the alienation by a joint tenant of his share to a third person. See TENANCY IN CoMMon; SURVIvors.HIP. Jo in ville, FRANÇois FERDINAND PHILIPPE Louis MARIE D'ORLEANs, PRINCE DE (1818– 1900), third, son of . King Louis §§ Trained for the navy, he distinguished himself (1838) at the bombardment of San Juan de Ulloa, and in 1845 bombarded Tangier. At the revolution of 1848 he took refuge in England. Returning to France (1870), he fought under an assumed name, but was expelled by Gambetta. Later he was elected to the Assembly, in which he sat till 1876. Joinville, JEAN, SIRE DE (1224– 1317), French historian, was a seigneur of Champagne, who accompanied (St.) Louis Ix. of France in his crusade of 1248– 54. His Histoire de St. Louis was begun when Joinville, was almost §§ there. is a critical edition b ... de Wailly (1874). Besides this he wrote a Credo, or confession of faith, in 1250. Jókai, MóR or MAURUs (1825– 1904), novelist of #"#. was born at Komorn. His first book,

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Hétköznapok (1845), marked an era in Hungarian literature, and made the reputation of its author, who, as the editor of the literary journal Elet, Képek, gathered around him the rising talent of the country. . Having taken an active part in the Hungarian revolution (1848–9), Jókai, was roscribed, and only owed his #. to a stratagem of his wife, the tragic actress Rosa Laborfalvy. uring the next ten years he wrote no fewer than sixty romances, besides conducting three periodicals, io the overnment journal, The Nation. fter 1863 sokai entered Parliament, and became one of the principal supporters of Koloman Tisza o He also wrote two undred volumes of stories in the last five-and-thirty years of his life..., Jókai, combines a humor hardly inferior to that of Dickens with an illimitable imagination and a gorgeous fancy. is defects are #. of the ultra-romantic school. The most notable English translations of his novels are: Timar’s Two Worlds (1888); Midst the Wild "É. thians o with its sequel The Slaves of the Padishah (1903); Pretty Michal (1897);... Dr. Dumany's Wife (1891); Black Diamonds (1896); The Lion of Janina (1897); A Christian, but a Roman (1900); The Baron's Sons o: ; and Tales from Jokai (1904), wit a biography by R. N. Bain. Jokjokarta. (1.) Residency of Java, with an area of 1,200 sq. m., and population (1896) 858,392; The province possesses indigo and sugar factories. See JAyA. (2.) Or DjokyokaRTA, th: in above prov., at the s. E. foot of Mount Merapi, 260 m. s. E. of Batavia, with 60,523 inhabitants (1896): . Its principal feature is the citadel of the native prince, a vast walled enclosure, with some 15,000 inhabitants. Joliba. See NIGER. Joliet, city, Illinois, co. seat of Will co., on the Des Plaines R., the Illinois and Michigan Canal, the A., T. and S. Fe, the Mich. cent... the Chi,Rock f. and Pag., the Elgin, Jol., and E., and the Chi. and Alt. R. Rs., 33 m. s.w. of Chicago. It is the seat of the Illinois Steel. Co., the American Steel and Wire Co., the Joliet Mfg. Co., making corn shellers, etc., the Phoenix Horse Shoe Works, the Oliver Oat Meal Mills, Gerharz Piano Factory, Bates Machine Co., making Corliss Engines, etc., the Heggie Boiler Works, and other large manufactories. . Many thousand men are employed in, the steel works, rolling mills, and factories. In the barbed wire plant alone more than 1,600 men find work. The falls of the river supply excellent water power, and greater power is to be developed farther

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down the river. Among the public buildings are the court house, the government building, the oliet Township High School, St. oseph's and Silver Cross. Hos#. and a large public library. here are two Catholic academies and a convent. The state prison, located here, is a magnificent building. ere are also the women's prison and two orphanages. he material for the prison structure, was taken from the adjacent Silurian, limeston quarries, the largest in the ot; oplogo 3,000 men. The illinoi teel ompany's athenaeum is a fine club house for working men. Among the features of public interest are Highland and Western Parks, the County Memorial Soldiers' Monument, and a monument to Louis Joliet, for whom the city was named. It was settled in 1831 and incorporated as a city in 1852. Pop. (1900) 29,353; est. (1903) 30,769. Joliet, Louis (1645–c. 1700), famous French - Canadian explorer, born at Quebec. He was educated by the Jesuits and was destined for the priesthood, receiving the tonsure and the minor orders in 1662, but yielded to the seductions of the wilderness, and became one of the most adventurous of the early Canadian fur traders and explorers. He unsuccessfully attempted to discover the copper mines of Lake Superior (1669), and in 1673, with the Jesuit Jacques Marquette, he was sent by Talon, the indendant of Canada, to explore the Mississippi river. Proceeding_by way of Green Bay and the Wisconsin river, on o: 17, 1673, they reached the Mississippi, near the place where now stands the city of Prairie du Chien; they then passed down, the river to within about 700 miles of its mouth, and being convinced that it emptied into the Gulf of Mexico, returned and were again at Green Bay in September. Joliet subsequently visited Hudson Bay (1679), received a grant of the island of Anticosti (1680), where he engaged in fisheries, explored the coast of Labrador (1694), and was in turn o pilot for the St. Lawrence and hydrographer at Quebec. The priority of Joliet's and Marquette's discovery of the Mississippi has been denied, and it seems probable that Radisson preceded them, but they were certainly the first to pass down the river for any considerable distance. Their account of their journey may be found in French's Historical Collections of Louisiana (1st series, 5 v., 1846–53), and a man of their discoveries, in Marcel's Reproductions de cartes et de globes relatifs à la découverte de l'Amérique du

Jonah

XVI. au XVIII. siècle (1894). See also Parkman's La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West (new ed., 1898). Joliette, th:, Que., Canada, co., seat of Joliette, co., 35 m. N. of Montreal, on L’Assomption R., and on the C. P. and the Can. Northern Quebec R. Rs. It is a shipping point for grain, lumber, and agricultural produce, and manufactures lumber, flour, iron goods, paper, leather, shoes, woollens, etc. Here are a classical college and a mechanic's institute. Pop. (1901) 4,220. Jolly-boat, a term almost obsolescent for the small ship's boat (in the merchant marine) hoisted over the stern. Jolo. See SULU. Jomini, HENRI, BARON (1779– 1869), general, and author of works on military tactics, was a native of Payerne (canton Vaud), Switzerland. In the French military service he rose to be chief of staff to Marshal Ney. After the Peninsular campaign (1808), and the retreat from Moscow, he joined the Russian service. To him was largely due the Turkish capitulation at Varna (1828). He published Principes de la Stratégie (1818), Précis de l'Art de la Guerre (1830), and histories of the revolution and Napoleonic wars. See Life, in French, by Lecompte (3d ed., 1888), and by Sainte-Beuve (1869). Jonah, the son of Amittai, a native of Gath-hepher in Zebulun, a Hebrew prophet who lived in the time of Jeroboam II., c. 780 B.C. (see 2 Kings 14: 25); it is supposed by some (Hitzig, Riehm, Duhm, Renan) that the ‘word ' here referred to is found in Isa. 15–16 : 12. Jonah, THE Book of (so...) does not being to the period of the prophet of that name, and makes no claim to have been written by Jonah himself. It recounts how the prophet was commanded by God to . preach, in Nineyeh; how he fled instead to Tarshish; how on the voyage he was cast overboard, swallowed by a great fish, and liberated again after three days (ch. 1, 2); how eventually he preached to , the Ninevites, was instrumental, in bringing them to repentance (3), and was displeased at the result (4). The tenor and style of the narrative seem to indicate that it was not written as a historical record, and its place among the ‘Twelve Prophets’ can be adequately explained only if we emphasize the prophetic bearing of the story. It may be interpreted as a parable. Jonah and his experiences are meant to represent Israel, false to her mission, overwhelmed by the nations, at length Jonas

delivered, but still intolerant and sullen. Or it may be regarded as the free adaptation of an ancient tradition, either connected with Jonah or not. In any case the booklet brings out very forcibly the truth that the bounty and mercy of God are infinitely greater than was conceived by the post-exilic popular religion, and that the heathen are susceptible of spiritual influences; and thus, with all its apparent simplicity and grotesqueness, it forms one of the profoundest productions of the period between the return and the time of Christ, and, breaking through the narrow national limits of the old covenant, takes a long step towards the new. See commentaries by Martin (4th ed., 1891); H. C. Trumbull (1892); , , , Kennedy 1895), Perowne (Cambridge ible), and books on the minor prophets — e.g., G. . Smith, Orelli (trans.), Nowack (1897), and Duhm (1904); and works quoted under PROPHECY. Jonas, JUSTUs (1493–1555), German reformer, born at Nordhausen. He was an intimate friend of Luther, whom he accompanied to the Diet of Worms, and assisted in his translation of

the Bible. He was rector of the University of Erfurt and professor of theology at Wittenberg.

See Justus, Jonas , by Pressel 1863), and Meyer's Festchrist 400 jährigen Geburstags des Dr. Justus Jonas (1893). Jonathan... (1.) The eldest son of Saul. is prowess and ingenuity were shown in his successful attack on the Philistines at Michmash (1 Sam: 14), but it is the warmth and disinterested: ness of his friendship with David which keep his memory, fresh. Along with Saul he perished in battle with the Philistines, at Gilboa. His young son Mephibosheth was tenderly cared for by David (2 Sam. 9). (2.) A renegade Levite of Bethlehem, the son of Gershom, who founded the idolatrous priesthood at Dan (Judg., 17 f.). (3.) The son of Mattathias, who after the death of Judas Maccabaeus became the leader of the revolted Jews against the Syrian Bacchides, and subsequently high priest (161-143 B.c.). He was an able general and a clever diplomatist, but was eventually captured at Ptolemais, and shortly afterwards put to death. See MAccABEEs. Others of the name are mentioned 2 Sam. 21 : 21 ; 15:27 and 17:17 ; 23: 32; 1 Chron. 27:25; Neh. 12:11; 12:35; Jer. 37:15 and 38:26; 40:8; Ezra 8:6; 10:15. Jonathan, BROTHER, personification of the citizen of the United States, corresponds to the English “John Bull' and the French “Jean Crapaud.’ The

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name is said to come from Jonathan Trumbull (1710-85), governor of Connecticut. Nowadays “Uncle Sam ” has largely super

seded ‘Brother Jonathan' in popular use. Joncières, FELIX LUDGER,

known as VictoriN DE (1839– 1903, French musical composer, born in Paris. The two masters most influential on his style were Wagner and Gounod. He produced operas — Sardanapale §§ Pernier Jour de Pompéi É. Dimitri (1876), La Reine Berthe (1878), Lancelot (1900); also the incidental music to Hamlet (1863–8), and other works. From 1871 till his death he was musical critic to La Liberté, under the pseudonym of “Jennius.” Jones, ALEXANDER (c. 1802– 63), American inventor and author, was born in N. C. He practised medicine in , Miss., and while there invented various improvements in the cotton-gin. After 1840 he lived in New York city as correspondent of out-oftown papers, as agent of the As: sociated Press, and as commercial reporter for the New York Herald. He devised a system of ciphers for the Associated Press, and invented a street-sweeping machine. He was of Welsh descent and wrote much about the history of the Welsh in the U. S. Jones, ALFRED GILPIN (1824), Canadian statesman, lieutenantgovernor of N. S., was born at Weymouth, N. S., was educated at Yarmouth Academy, and entered the importing business. In 1865–66 he opposed the union of Nova Scotia and Canada, and from 1867–71, 1874–77, and 1887–91 he represented Halifax in the House of Commons. Jones, ANSON (1798–1858), the last president of the Republic of Texas, born at Great Barrington, Mass. He removed to Texas in

1833, took an active part in the

War for Texan Independence, was the minister of Texas to the U.S. (1838), and was successively president of the Texan Senate secretary of state of Texas, an president * the republic (1844– 5), vigorously o slno annexa** ; the gPP; food suicide at Houston, Tex., in 1858. His Memoranda and Official Correspondence Relating to the Republic of Texas, its History and Anne ration, including a Brief Autobiography of the Author (1859), primarily a collection of documents, is of great value to students of Texan history. Jones, EBENEZER (1820–60), English poet, was born at Islington; became (1837) a clerk in a city warehouse. ...His first volume of poetry—Studies of . Sensation and Event (1843)—though at

Jones

tracting Browning and Rossetti was eccentric in conception an harsh in expression. Towards the end of life he wrote three poems, which, though daring in conception, are as perfect in expression as his first were crude. For his works and accounts of him, see papers in the Athenaeum by Theodore Watts - Dunton 1878); an edition of Studies of ensation by . Shepherd (1869), containing a Memoir by Sumner }*. and Reminiscences by W. . Linton. Jones, EDward BURNE. See Büro fos;s. Jones, ERNEST CHARLEs (1819– 69), English Chartist leader, born at Berlin. . . Called to the bar (1844), he identified himself with the Chartist movement (1846), and soon became one of its foremost orators. His advocacy of violence led to his imprisonment (1848-50). His poems, especially The Battle Day (1855), are of considerable merit, as are also his Song of the Poorer Classes, and other lyrics. Jones, HARRY CLARY, (1865), American physicist, was born at New London, Md., and was educated at Johns Hopkins and in Germany. After holding scholarships and a fellowship in Johns Hopkins, he was appointed professor of physical chemistry there. His publications include Freezing Point, Boiling Point and Conductivity Methods (1897); Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation (1900), and works on physical chemistry (1902), and inorganic chemistry, (1903). He also translated Biltz's Practical Methods. 9f Determining Molecular Weights (1899). Jones, HENRY (1831–99), author of . Cavendish's' Laws and Principles of Whist, was born in Lon'don. He practised as a physician in London from 1852 until 1869. A member of the “Cavendish Club’, in Cavendish, Square, he published in, 1862 Principles of Whist Stated and Explained by Cavendish. In 1863 it was reissued under the title before given, and became the standard authority upon the game. See Courtney's English Whist and Whist Players (1894). Jones, HENRY ARTHUR (1851), English dramatist, was born at Grandborough, Buckinghamshire. He obtained his first hearing in London as a dramatist with A Clerical Error in 1879. His first definite 'success was made in melodrama with The Silver King (written with H. Herman) in 1882—the most important successors to which were Saints and Sinners (1884), and The Middleman (1889) and Judah (1890), both plays of a melodramatic kind, but marked by a consider

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