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(1874–5); Resurrecturi (1876). He also wrote poems, dramaš, and numerous historical, literary, and artistic studies. is novels a eared at †. in 102 vols. 1871-5). See Bohdanowicz's J. I. von Krászewski (1879). Krause, KARL CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH (1781–1832),. German philosopher, born , at Eisenberg; was a philosophical contemporary of Sc |io and Hegel, and a pupil of the former. He was a voluminous writer on philosophical subjects, and for some time a lecturer in the Universities of Jena (1802–5) and Göttingen (1si4–31). The doctrine with which his name is mainly associated, his Panentheism, is an attempt to mediate between pantheism and theism. See Life, in German, by Martin (1881). Kreasote. See CREOSOTE. Kreatine. See CREATIN. Krefeld, or CREFELD, th:, Prussian prov. Rhineland, 34 m. by rail N.w.. of Cologne; the §ief centre in Germany for the manufacture of velvets and silks. There are also railway repairing shops, , engineering works, iron foundries, manufactures of sugar and chemicals, and , breweries. The foundations of its present

prosperity were laid in the 16th and 17th centuries by refugee Mennonites and Protestants.

Here in 1758 the allies under Ferdinand of Brunswick defeated the French. Pop. (1900) 106,893. Krehbiel, HENRY EDWARD (1854), American music critic, was born, at Ann Arbor, Mich. and received a public schoo education. He studied law in Cincinnati, but abandoned it to take a position on the Gazette of that city, of which he was music critic from 1874 to 1880. In the latter year he accepted the same position on the - - Tribune, and, afterward held a prominent o as a critic of music. e was identified with the rise of Wagnerian music drama in America, was a juror at the Paris exposition of 1900, and was decorated by the French government. Author of Review of the New York Musical Seasons (iss5–90), Studies in the Wagwnerian Drama (1891), The Phil|haloni; Society of New York , (1892), How to Listen to Music o Music and Manners in he classical Period (1898), and editor of various text-books. Kremen chug, or KREMENTCHUG, th:, Poltava gov., S.W. Russia. 73 m. sw. of Poltava City, it is one of the Prio, commercial centres of Little Russia, and one of the chief river É on the Dnieper. Carriageuilding, soap, hat, and agricultural instrument making, sugarrefining, tanning, sawmilling, tobacco and saltpetre manufac


ture, are largely carried on. Its liqueurs and preserved fruits are also famous; and of late the smelting of iron ore has become important. Pop. including suburb Krukov o 58,648. Kremenets (Pol. Krzemieniec), tn., Volhynia gov., S.W. Russia, 130 m. w. of Jitomir (Zhitomir). Among the industries are piano, carriage, and mathematical instrument factories, and goldsmiths' and silversmiths' Pop. (1897) 17,618. Kremlin. See Moscow. Krems, th:, Austria, Lower Austria, on Danube, 40 m. N.W. of Vienna, manufactures wine, leather, white lead, and grows fruit. Steel, mustard, and vinegar are also made. Pop. (1600) io,657. ". Kremsier, tn. Moravia, Austria, on 'the March, 28 m. by rail's. § E. of Olmütz. Its principal edifice is the summer palace of the prince-archbishop of Olmütz. There is some malting, brewing, and manufacture of sugar. The Constitutional Diet of Austria met here from November, 1848, to March, 1849. Pop. (1900) 13,991. Kreutzer, Ropol.pHE (1766– 1831), French musician, and violinist, born at Versailles. An exponent of the Italian school, he was Mo first violin at the Italian, theatre, in Paris, and in 1817 chef d'orchestre at the Paris opera. e himself composed several operas, and Beethoven's Rreutzer Sonata was dedicated to him. *****f; tn., Prussian Silesia, 59 m. by rail E.S.E. of Breslau. Birthplace of Gustav Freytag (1816–95). The town has milling, iron-founding, brewing, and isliš. industries. Pop. (1900) 10,230. Kreuzer, former Austrian copper coin (100 kr.=1 gulden), so called from the cross formerly stamped upon it, had a value of one-fifth of an English penny. Until the foundation of the German Empire (1870), kreuzers were current in S. Germany, but the German kreuzer was worth about one-third of an English penny. Kreuznach, th: and wat-pl., Prussian prov. of Rhineland, on the Nahe, 28 m. by rail s.w.. of Mainz, with saline waters and baths. The town is the ancient Cruciniacum, and several Roman remains have been discovered in the neighborhood. Pop. (1900) 21,321. Kriegspiel, , or THE WAR GAME, invented by a Prussian officer in 1824, is intended to afford a representation of military manoeuvres. It is played on contoured maps of a sufficiently large scale to show the main features of the ground, and




enable the effect of fire and cover from view to be estimated. The opposing troops are indicated by metal blocks or dice, colored red and blue, which aré made to scale to represent the front of battalions, squadrons batteries, companies, patrols, an vedettes. The game may played with a minimum number of three persons, one to act as umpire and the other two to command the opposing forces. For every game a scheme, must be drawn up which should contain a “general idea’ on which the operations as a whole are based, and a ‘special idea,” which wiil be obviously different for each side. After receiving the scheme, each commander should forward to the umpire a short memorandum giving his view of the operation to be undertaken, and stating in general terms the mode in which he proposes to carry it out. At the same time he should forward his orders for the day of action. These should be .P. similar, both in form and substance, to those which would be issued in the field, and the players must as a rule be held strictly to them. The framing of orders is perhaps one of the most valuable features of the training to be derived from war so After these preliminaries ave been carried out, from one to three maps are próvided, depending §o the game to be layed. ne small map suffices or the strategic game, showin only the larger, operations an omitting tactical details, while for the more elementary and detailed, game, three maps are required either in adjoining rooms or separated from one another by screens. At the commencement of this game metal blocks representing the forces on either side will be arranged on their respective maps by the umpire, in accordance with the disposition and orders of the commanders, and on the central or umpire's map the forces of both sides will be i. arranged. The successful conduct of the game depends principally on the umpire, who gives notice of the commencement of each move, and regulates its length. The time taken in dedeciding upon and issuing orders should be deducted from the length of time allowed for the corresponding move. At the beginning of a game, when the contending forces are a long way apart, it may be possible to allow troops to be moved for an § aginary) hour, but when they come to close quarters it may become necessary to limit a move to a few minutes. The game is generally brought to a conclusion when one side has obtained a decisive advantage over the other,


or when the bulk of the forces on both sides are in such close contact as to render a decision of the result a matter of too great difficulty. The question of losses possibili of movement, an effect of fire are left to the decision of the umpire. The apparatus for conducting the game may be much simplified, one large scale map answering, all purposes, the only other articles required being some , representative of soldiers, a scale and a pair of dividers. The true value of any war game lies in the fact that each commander is required to explain the reasons for all movements, and his intentions relating thereto, and depends largely on the ability of the umpire or director. An arrangement of the game for the navy has been made in which, as in the war game, all movements must conform to laws which would govern in actual war. See Livermore's The Krie ‘ī; and Vernois' A Simplifie Yar Game, translated by Swift. See also jane's Naval War Game. Kriemhild, the heroine of the Nibelungen iii, was sister of Gunther, king, of Worms, and wife of sijää, possessor of the Nibelungen hoard. , Gunther married Brunhild, at whose sugso Siegfried was murdered Gunther's vassal, Hagen, who rew the hoard into the Rhine. Kriemhild afterwards married Etzel oilo king of the Huns, and when Gunther and Hagen visited her, they were put to death. Kriloff, Ivan ANDREEVITCH (1768–1844), Russian fabulist,born at Moscow. He was for some time secret to the governor of Livonia, and held an appointment in the imperial library at St. Petersburg § 1. is Fables appeared in 1809; Eng. trans. # W. R.'s. Ralston (4th ed. 1883)

Krimmitschau, or CRIMMITSCHAU, th:, kingdom of Saxony, near w. fromier, 39 m. by rail s. of Leipzig, the seat of cloth (buckskin) manufacture on a large scale, with wool-spinning, dyeing, and stamping and iron works. Pop. (1900). 22,845. Kris, or CREESE, a o worn in Java and the Malay eninsula by almost every male above fourteen, and sometimes by women. The blade is usually wo though sometimes *. while the handle and scabbard are much ornamented. Krishna, Hindu god, was the eighth incarnation of Vishnu. The circumstances of his birth and early life are set forth in two modern supplements to the Mahābhārata, called the Harivansa-pairan and the Bhagavataands. , In, the Krishna of the hagavad-Gita is represented a


reat spiritual teacher; but in the popular legend of his dalliance with the Gopis (wives and daughters of cowherds), and in the indecencies of his worship as Wallabhacharva we have modern Hinduism in its most depraved form. ... See Farquhar in East and West (Sept., 1904) and Keane in Hibbert, Journal (July, 1905), where the Krishna myth is for the first time cleared up. Krishna. See KISTNA. Krishnagar, munic, th:, Nadia dist., Bengal, 55 m. N. of Calcutta. Pop. (1901) 24,547. Kristianssund, or CHRISTIANSSUND, seapt. th:, Romsdal co, Norway. 85 m. w.s.w.. of Trondhjem; lies on three islands only protected against the sea on the W. It was so named in honor of Christian VI., who gave it its civic privileges in 1742. The main export is fish. There is a thriving coast trade town sts its own h (1900) 12,043. Kristianstad, or CHRISTIANSTAD, cap. of co. same name in Sweden, prettily situated about 14 m. from the Baltic, on the ninsula Allon in river Helgra. he town has some industries §. foundries, machinery, manuactories, breweries, distilleries, tanneries, etc.), and a lively trade in spirits aná agricultural produce. . A garrison is statione the place, which is the seat of the chief tribunal for Scania and Bleking. ... The chief building is the Trinity Church, of the time of Christian Iv., built in the Renaissance style. The town was founded by Christian Iv. in 1614, was ceded to Sweden (1658), and suffered many sieges in the Swedish-Danish wars. Pop. (1900) 10,318. Krolevets, th:, Chernigov gov., S.W. Russia, 100 m. E. of Chernigov city; has beet-sugar, earthenware, and brick manufactures. Pop. (1897) 10,375.

and the eet. Pop.

Kris and Sheath.

Kronenberg, th:, Prussian prov. of Rhineland, 7 m. by rail S.w.. of Elberfeld, with iron and steel industries. Pop. (1900) 10,210.

ićrones. See CRONos.

Kronstadt, or CRONSTADT. (1.) . Town, fortress, naval arsenal, and rt in St. Petersburg gov., S.W. Russia, on the E. end of Kotlin island, at the head of the Gulf of Finland, less


than 18 m. w. of St. Petersburg city, , which it protects by sea. To the S. of the town and harbors is the fort of Kronslot. Since the construction of the new maritime canal uniting Kronstadt with St. Petersburg, the largest V are able to go up to the quays of the capital. Apart from fortifications, and naval works, arsenals, barracks, cannon foundries, and shipyards, Kronstadt has schools of naval instruction, a marine hospital, cathedral, and summer garden, originally ol. by Peter the Great, and properly attached to a small palace in which he lived. Kronstadt was founded by Peter 1. in 1710, and has ever since been the principal naval arsenal of Russia in the Baltic. It was the scene of strikes and of conflicts between the military, and mutinous sailors during the Russian crisis of 1905. Pop. (1897) 59,539. (2.) (Hung. Brassó), royal free th; picturesquely situated at foot of e Transylvanian Alps, Hungary, 70 m. s. E. of Hermannstadt; is strongly fortified. Its Gothic Protestant cathedral dates from 1385. It has manufactures of cloth, leather, cement, and candles, also petroleum refineries. in the 16th century it became the centre of Protestantism. Pop. (1900) 31,689. Kroomen, KRU, or CRoo, properly Crao, tribe of negroes inhabiting the coasts of Liberia and French Guinea, W. Africa. They are among the most active of negro races, and are skilful sailors and boat-builders. The are the best laborers in all W. Africa. See, Buttikofer, Reisebilder aus Liberia, vol. ii., 1890. Kroonstadt. dist. and th: in N. of orange River Colony, Brit. S. Africa. The former is bounded by the Vaal R. on the N. The town is 96 m. s.s.w.. of Johannesburg. Pop. (1904) 5,797; of dist. 19,255. Kropotkin, PETER ALExEIEviTCH, PRINCE (1842), Russian §§. and nihilist, was born in Moscow, and became secretary to the Physical §§.. tion of the Geographic iety. In 1871, at the request of the Geographical Society, he set out to explore the glaciers of Finland and Sweden. The following §o. in Belgium and Switzerland, he came under the influence of socialistic and anarchistic teachings. He attached himself to the International Working Men's Association, and e one of its most enthusiastic members. n his return to Russia he held secret conferences among the workmen of St. Petersburg. ... He was betrayed to the authorities, was arrested, and confined first in the fortress of St. Peter, and St. Paul, and later in the military

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plan of the Holy Alliance. She wrote a romance entitled Valeria (1803). See Ford's Life and Letters of Madame Kriidener (1893).

Kruger, STEPHANUs Johannes PAULUs (1825–1904), four times resident of the South African epublic (1883, 1888, 1893, 1898), was born at Čolesburg in Cape Colony, but his father joined in the great trek of 1836, and with his family settled in the Magaliesburg. n 1852 he accompanied Pretorius to the Sand R., where the Sand River Convention was concluded. A year later he figured as second in command of Pretorius's commando in an expedition off. to avenge the murder of Hermann Potgieter by the Kaffirs. In 1857 he was associated with Pretorius in what is known as the Potchefstroom revolt against the dominance of Lydenburg. A raid was made by Pretorius and Kruger into the Orange River Free State, in connection with this movement, in circumstances somewhat resembling those , of the subsequent Jameson raid into the Transvaal (1895), and with a like ineffective result. Kruger was actively concerned in the civil war (1861–4), on what was called the ‘Government' side, and it was largely on his initiative that the negotiations were entered upon which brought the strife, to an end, and led to the foundation of the united reFo of which he was elected irst commandant-general. The to. party, who declared that they had hââ enough of progress, under ... President. Burgers, nominated Kruger as their candidate for the presidency. After the annexation of the Transvaal by Sir T. Shepstone, Kruger was one of the deputation chosen to proçeed to England to present a formal, protest For some time after his return to the Transvaal, Kruger accepted the pay of the British government, but on his appointment expiring in November, 1877 the government refused to reappoint him. At length the republic was formally proclaimed at Paardekraal, near Krugersdorp, in December, 1880, under a triumvirate consisting of Kruger, {{..., and Pretorius. In 1883 Cruger was elected president, and with General Smit proceeded to England and negotiated the London, convention of 1884, which modified that of 1881. By his refusal of the franchise to the Outlanders, he provoked the Jameson Raid. The raid did more than anything else to focus attention on the internal affairs of the Transvaal, and negotiations were entered upon between Mr. Cham

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Krugersdorp, dist. and th: in Transvaal. Colony, British S. Africa. The town is 21 m. from Johannesburg. Here the Dutch used to celebrate annually, on Dec. 15, their victory over 'Din: gaan (1836), , and also their triumph over the British forces at Majuba Hill (1881). Near here (Doornkop) r. nameson surrendered to the Böers on Jan. 2, 1896. Krugersdorp is a mining centre. Pop. (1904) 12,118.

Krum macher, FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1796–1868), German

reacher and religious writer, was É. at Mörs on the Rhine; was assistant in the Reformed congregation at Frankfort (1819–23) pastor at Ruhrort (1823-5), an

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Krupp, ALFRED (1812–87), iron and steel manufacturer, head of the works at Essen in Prussia, was a native of that town. In 1847 Krupp manufactured the first cannon made of cast steel, a 3pounder, and in the Exhibition of 1851 he showed a 6-pounder steel gun. When the Bessemer process of steel manufacture came into operation in England (1857), with the simultaneous use of the steam hammer, Krupp saw their advantages, and at once adopted both inventions. In 1880 he forged a steel breech-loading gun of 100 tons weight, till then the largest ever cast. . . The Krupp works are also noted for the manufacture of armor for warships.

lished the Germania Shipbuildin Yard at Kiel. See article wit rtraits. “The Founders of the rupp Establishment; in The Engineering Magazine, vol. xx., pp. 519–530. Krus en stern, ADAM JoHN (1770–1846), Russian navigator and traveller, was born at Haggud in Esthonia. In 1803 he was entrusted by Alexander I. with the command of a scientific and commercial expedition to the N: Pacific coasts of America and Asia, during which he discovered the Öriosi Is., examined and took soundings around the Washington and Marquesas groups, and was the first Russian to circumnavigate the world. In 1810 he pubKrypton


lished his Voyage round the World (Eng. trans. 1813). He was also the author of numerous works on hydrography, including an Atlas j}. o Ocean. See Memoir by Bernhardi (trans. by Sir John Ross, 1856). Krypton, Kr, 81.8, is a gaseous element off in the atmosphere. It was discovered spectroscopically by Sir William Ramsay, and is a colorless gas that liquefies at – 152°.c., has a density of 41, is, marked by a brilliant green and yellow line, in its spectrum, and is chemically inactive. Kshatriyas. See CASTE: ... Kuala Lumpur, cap. of British protected state of stiangor, in the Malay Peninsula, and chief centre of the tin-mining industry. Pop. (1901) 77,234. Kuala . Selangor, seapt....at mouth of Selangor, in British rotectorate of Selangor, in the K. Peninsula. ext to Malacca it was the most important stronghold of the Dutch in the Malay Peninsula. The chief exrts are tin, gutta-percha, tim:

jer, ivory, hides, salt fish, and

rattans. op. 31,000. Kuango. See CoNGo. Kuanza. See CoANZA.

Kuba, th:, Baku gov., Russian Transcaucasia, 95 m. N.W. of Baku; has a trade in silk, fruit, and rugs. Pop. (1897) 15,346.

Ku ban. (1.) Russian prov. Caucasus, includes the valley of the Kuban and the N. slope of the Caucasus range as far as E. Elbruz, and the plains of the lower Kuban and the coast of the Sea of Azov. Agriculture is almost entirely in the hands of Cossacks and German colonists. The mountaineers (Karacnai, etc.) and the nomads of the plains are a pastoral people, and rear horses. Petroleum, coal, and salt are obtained. Area, 36,438 sq. m. Pop. (1897) 1,922,773. (2.). Anc. Hys. and Wardan), riv., 450 m. ong, rises in drains an area of 21,000 sq. m. in N.W. Caucasus, and enters the Black Sea s. of Taman peninsula, and sends one arm N. to the Sea of Azov after a fall of 8,580 ft. It is navigable for 70 m. In the lower course the water is extensively used for irrigation.

Kubango, or OKAVANGo, riv., S. Africa, rising in Portuguese W. Africa, about 13° s. and 16° E., flows generally S.E., and enters the marshy tracts N. of Lake Ngami. During the rainy season its waters are said to flow in to the Zambesi and in part to Lake Ngami.

Kubelik, JAN (1 so Bohemian violinist, born at Michle, near Prague; began to give recitals in 1898; in 1900 made his début in iondon, and in 1901–2 and again in 1905–6 toured in the U. S. Possessing phenomenal technical

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powers, he excels in the rendering of works of virtuosity. In 1903 he married the widow of Count Czaky. Kublai Khan (1216–94), founder of the Mongol dynasty , of China, was a grandson of Jenghiz Khan. While his brother Mangu occupied the Mongol throne, #. blai completed the conquest of N. China, or Cathay, commenced by his grandfather, and on Man§. death (1259) he became “the reat Khan.'... He subsequently made himself master of the southern provinces of China (1276), and an empire of vast extent, including Tartary, Tibet, Burma, , and other countries. {#. however, defied all his efforts at conquest. Kublai was an able and enlightened monarch, encouraging literature, establishing Buddhism as the state, religion, but delighting in Oriental magnificence, which Marco Polo has described in vivid language. Kuch Behar, feudatory state, Bengal, India, near the Himalayas. . It contains the ruins of two ancient capitals of the Kamrup Hindu dynasty. Area, 1,307 sq. m. , Pop. (1901) 566,974. Its capital is Kuch Behar. Kuching. See SARAwak.

Head of Kudu.

Kudu, a large African antelope related to the eland, but differing in that horns are absent in the female, while those of the male are curved in a spiral. The tail is short, the neck is maned, and the body is marked by narrow vertical white stripes. The common #"...sos. kudu) occurs in wooded regions from the Cape to the highlands of Abyssinia. The lesser kudu § imberbis) is confined to Somaliland and its vicinity. Both are favorites with sportsmen.

Kuenen, ABRAHAM (1828–91), Don Bilićai scholar, was born at Haarlem in Holland. In 1853 he became professor of Old Testament theo §. at Leyden, where he died. uenen will rank as one of the great masters in Old Testament criticism, and to him,

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(1866), to draw a distinction of origin and date between the historical and legal portions of the Grundschrift (i.e. P; see article HEXATEUch; and Kuenen, in his Godsdienst van Israël (1869–70; Eng. trans. The Religion of Israel, 1874–5), showed the untenableness of the hypothesis, and solved the matter by assigning the whole of the “priestly’ Grundschrift, both legal and historical, to a date much later than the ‘prophetic' narrative (J E ). In pursuance of the method adopted by, Baur in his book on early church history, Kuenen began with the literary prophets of the 8th century B.C. as a fixed historical point, and from this worked his way backwards to the earlier stages. , Kuenen's superb learning, his brilliant insight, and his fine quality of reverchce are displayed in all his works, the chief of which, besides the Godsdienst above mentioned, are Historischkritisch Onderzoek naar het Ontstaan en de Verzameling van de Boeken des Ouden Verbonds (1861– 65; Eng. trans. The Pentateuch and Joshua critically examined, by Colenso, 1865; Historico-Critical Inquiry into the Origin and Composition of the Hexateuch; German by Schultz, 1886–92); De Projeten en de Projetie onder Israël (1875; Prophets and Prophecy in Israel, 1877); Natural Re#. and Universal Religions (Hibbert Lecture, 1882). Kuenen also contributed largely to reviews, es cally the Theologisch Tijdschrift. ee Jewish Quart. Rev. (1892), and Kuenen's Levensbericht, by W. van der Vlugt (1893). Kuenlun, or . Kwen LUN, a system of mountains forming one of the loftiest ranges in Asia, and constituting the northern wall of the Tibetan plateau. Its general, direction is from w. to E.; its length is about 2,300 m. Íike the Andes and Himalayas, the main , range is continually dividing into several parallel chains. Most geographers, following Richthofen, divide it into three main parts—Western, Central, and Eastern. o The Western Kuenlun extends from about 76° 20' to 89° 20' E. long., from the Pamir to the Tashdavan pass in the Altin-tagh section of the range, where the trade route from o: Tarim valley to Lhassa crosses the mountains. This point answers roughly to the west end of the #. upland basin. (2.) The Central

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