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Kuenlun reaches from about 89° 20' to 104° E. long., from the -Tarim route to the meridian of Lan-chow on the Hwangho. It is split, into two main chains by Tsaidam. (3.) The Eastern Kuenlun, lying wholly in China proper; strohes from about 104° to 112° 20' E. long. from the meridian of Lan-chow to a little E. of Ho-nan city in Ho-nan. The Western Kuenlun is super§". separated from the Pamir b e valley of the Yarkand aria, but really has its root in that great knot of the Asiatic mountain systems. It runs E. under the general name of Astintagh, but is backed towards the s. by a great number of parallel ranges—e.g. Akato-tagh imenta Kalta-alagan, rkataghwhich rise like ste up to the level of the vast Tibetan plateau. his is the highest section of the Kuenlun, the average, elevations in some cases exceeding 20,000 ft., while the passes which cross the more southerly ranges often range between 16,000 and 17,000 ft., and even reach nearly 18,000

ft. The Central Kuenlun encloses in its wide ramifications the u land basin of Tsaidam, to the w. of Koko-nor, and is continued H. by the Nanshan ranges...Some of the greatest rivers of Chinese S.E. *io. the Hwangho and the Yang-tse-kiang, rise in this part of the Kuenlun. The system is continued from the Nan-shan chain by the mountains of N.W. China (Ku-liang, Ala-shan, and In-shan), to join the highlands of N.E. Asia in the Greater Khingan range.

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Rugler, FRANz (1808–58), German art historian, was born at Stettin, and appointed professor in the Art Academy at Berlin (1833). He wrote Handbuch der Geschichte der Malerei (1837) from the time of Constantine, which became the standard work on the subject, and was translated into English partly by Sir C. and #". Eastsake (new ed. by A. H. Layard, , 1891), and artly by Sir E. Head (new ed. by ir }. A. Crowe, 1898); also Geschichte der Baukunst (1855–60); Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte 5th ed., 1872); and Geschichte riederichs des Grossen (1840; 5th . 1901; trans. with Menzel's famous illustrations, 1844). K’uh-fu, walled city, Shantung, China, 12 m. N.E. of Yenchow. About 1% m, to the N. is the burial-place of . Confucius, who was born in the city. magnificent temple in his, honor is visited by numbers of pilgrims. The ducal residence of the descendants of Confucius is situated within the walls. Pop. 25,000. Kuhn, FRANz FELIX ADALBERT 1812–81), German mythologist, rn at Königsberg in Brandenburg; taught o: at the nasium of Cologne, of which he became the head (1870). One of the founders of comparative mythology, he published Zur àltesten Geschichte der indo-germanischen Völker (2d ed. 1850); Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Göttertranks (2d ed. 1886); Ueber Entwickelungstufen der Mythenbil: dung (1874). He also published Märkische Sagen und Märchen 1842); Sagen, Gebräuche, und ãrchen aus Westfalen (1859). Kühne, WILHELM (1837–1900), German physiologist, born at Hamburg; and after working under Vischow at Berlin, became professor of ojo, at Amsterdam (1868) and at Heidelberg (1871). e wrote on the physiology of the muscles and nerves, and on digestion. Kuilenburg, or CULENBORG, tn., Netherlands, on 1. bk. of Lek, 9 m. s.E. of Utrecht; manufactures cigars, chairs, arms, flour, and ribbons. Pop. (1899) 8,280. Kuka, th:, Bornu, Central Sudan, on w. shore of Lake Chad the former centre of the slave trade with Tripoli. It was completely destroyed by Rabeh in 1898. Pop. estimated at 60,000. Ku-klux Klan, a Secret association founded in the Southern States of the American Union about 1866, during the early part of the Reconstruction Period, for the purpose of preventing the exercise of political rights by the newly emancipated negroes. Its members terrorized the superstitious blacks not only by working skilfully, upon their superstitious fears, but also by whipping


them and inflicting upon them bodily injury and in many instances death. The same methods were employed in dealin with the “carpet-baggers' an ‘scalawags,' and others who encouraged the negro, to exercise - newly acquired, political rights, and who shared with him and directed him in the systematic plunder of and domination over, the ex-Confederate white population. The organization, was at the outset, it appears, made up, largely of a class of men who did not countenance the license, violence, lawlessness, and criminality, which later characterized it; and the ‘klan’ undoubtedly contributed much toward , restoring to wer the class of Southern whites which had been dominant before the war. The ‘klan’ was investigated by Congress which passed a stringent measure (1871) for its suppression, but it was put down with much difficuity. The Report of the jo. investigating committee of Congress was published in 13 vols. in 1872. The article on REConstruction should be consulted for further information. Kulan, KIANG, or DziggetAI names given to a variety of the Asiatic wild ass (Equus ionus) found in Tibet and Mongolia, and distinguished by its reddish color, and the narrowness of the dark stripe down the back. See Horse and Ass. Kulasekharapatnam, th: in Tinnevelly dist., Madras, India, on coast of Gulf of Manaar. 45 m. N.E. of Cape Comorin. Pop. (1901) 19,898. Kulbarga, or GULBARGA, chief tn., of Kulbarga dist., Haidarabad State, India, 75 m. N.E. of Bijapur. It was (1347–1432) the capital of Hindu and Mohammedan dynasties, and has ruins of palaces. The citadel contains the great mosque, modelled after that of Cordoba in Spain. Pop. (1901) 29,228. Kulja, or ILI, cap. of prov. Kulja or Ili, in Chinese Zungaria, in the valley, of the Ili, s. E. of Lake Balkhash. It is walled, and has a citadel. It produces grain, fruits, vegetables, oil, and paper. In the middle ages it was known as Almalig or Almalik. From 1871 to 1881 it was occupied by Russia. Pop. 15,000. Kulm, th:, Prussia, proy. W. Prussia, on r. bk. of Vistula, 32 m. N.w.. of Thorn; with sawmills and machinery works. . It gives a title to a bishopric. Pop. (1900) 11,079. Kulmbach, th:, Bavaria, prov. Upper Franconia, on White Main, 38 m. by rail, N.E. of Bamberg; formerly residence of the marraves of Brandenberg-Kulmach. It has breweries and maltkilns. Pop. (1900) 10,591.


Kulturkampf, the name applied to the controversy and struggle , between the Prussian State and the Church of Rome. The name signifies, according to Virchow, the great antagonist of the clerical party, the struggle for education and enlightenment; but, according to the clericals, the .#. against education and enlightenment. It arose out of the May Laws passed in 1872 by Falk, the minister of public worship, to restrain the activities of the Jesuits and others. working compromise was eventually arrived at in 1880 and 1882. ko, chief tin. of prov. of same name in Irak-Ajemi, Persia, 80 m. s.s.w.. of Teheran. It contains the tomb of Fatima, sister of Imam Riza, and is a popular ilgrim resort., Next to Meshed it is considered the most sacred place in Persia. Cotton is largely cultivated. Pop. 20,000. Kuma, riv., Russia, forming the boundary of the Caucasus prov. on N.E. It rises on the main chain between the Kuban and the Terek, and has a length of c. 400 In . uch of its water is drawn off for irrigation, and it finally loses itself in the sands of the steppe. - - - Kumamoto, city, Kiushiu, #Po 50". N.E. of Nagasaki. ts (ruined) castle was built in the 16th ...?. Outside the town is a much-frequented Buddhist temple. #...". 61,463. Kumania, or CUMANIA. (1. Former dist. of Europe, N. of Danube and N.W. of Black Sea, including the present Moldavia, Walachia, and S. Russia. The Cumans belonged to the Turkish stock, and . Hungary about the 11th century. ‘àe. conquered and forced to become Christians in the 14th century. (2.) GREAT K., in Central Hungary, E. of the Theiss. The chief mrkt. th: is Kardzag-Uj-Szallas. Area, 424 sq. m. op. 55,000. (3.) iittie ., in Central Hunfloor between the Danube and the

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Kumassi, or Coom ASSIE, cap. Ashanti, Gold Coast hinterland, W. Africa, about 6° 30' N., some 180 m. by rail from Sekondi, its port on the Gulf of Guinea. In 1874 it was taken by a British exedition under Sir Garnet Wolseey. In 1895-6 a second British expedition took the place. There is a British resident. Pop. c. 30,000. Kumaun, or KUMAON, div., United Provinces, India, consisting of the three districts Naini Tal, Almora, and Garhwal. It lies chiefly on the s. slope of the Himalayas, and consists of mountains and forests (Tarái). Tributaries of the Alaknanda and


the Gogra drain it. Tea gardens cover 3,000 ac. Its valuable timber includes sal, Himalayan pine, cypress, and fir, and there are mines (imperfectly worked), of iron, copper, and lead. The division contains numerous pilgrim resorts, such as Deoprayåg and Vishnuprayag. Seized by the Ghurkas at the end of the 18th century, it was annexed by the British in 1815. The inhabitants are Khasias. Cap. Almora. Pop. (1901), 7,500. Area, of div., 13,743 sq.m.; pop., (1901) 1,156,750, Kümmel, à liqueur imported chiefly from Riga, is produced from bruised caraway, seeds, cumin, and other flavoring bodies. Grain alcohol is usually the base of this liqueur. It contains about 34 per cent, of alcohol. Kundt, AUGUST (1839–94), German physicist, born at Schwerin. After holdin rofessorships at Zürich (1868), urzburg (1870), and jo, ; he succeeded (1888) Helmholtz as professor of physics in , the Berlin Physical Institute, where he remained till his death. His name is principally connected with the dust figures produced by sound vibrations—an investigation that led to his determination, along with Warburg, of the ratio of the two specific #. of a gas; the method being recently of the utmost value in deciding the nature of the gases helium and argon. His optical work is also of the highest importance. He wrote De Lumini Depolarisato (1864). Kunene. See CUNENE. Kunersdorf, vil., Brandenburg, Prussia, 6 m. E. of Frankfurt-on-Oder, where, on Aug. 12 1759, Frederick the Great of Prussia was defeated by the Russians under Soltikoff and the Austrians under Laudon with tremendous loss. Kunguer, tm., Perm gov., N.E. Russia, 58 m. s.s.E. of Perm city. It has copper and iron, mines, and carries on tanning, leatherwork, soap and shoe making, ironfoundin , locksmiths' work, farriery, and engineering. It has an important fair. Near, the town are famous caverns hollowed out of alabaster, which is quarried. Pop. (1897) 14,324. Kunigunde, ST. (d. c. 1030), canonized by Innocent III.; was the daughter of Siegfried, Count of Luxemburg,_and the wife of the Emperor Henry II. After her husband's death (1024), she entered a convent, founded by herself at Kaufungen, near Kassel. Her day is March 3. Kunszentmárton, th:, Hungary, CO: jāśNagykun-Szolnok, on the Körös, 53 m. N. of Szegedin. Pop. (1900) 10,764. Kunz, EORGE | FREDERICK (1856). American ... mineralogist was born in New York, receiv


a common-school education, and studied under Prof. Henry Wurtz. He early developed an interest in mineralogy, and made several collections which he disposed of

to colleges. . His , increasing knowledge of precious stones secured him the position of chief

iffany in N. Y.

o expert for ity. e served the U. S. government in many capacities as expert and as special agent at world's fairs. Besides , much encyclopaedia work, and numerous, technical contributions to periodicals, he published Gems and Precious Stones of North America (1890). Kuopio. (1.) Province, Central Finland, with an area of 16,500 sq. m., of which 30 per cent. is marshes and 15 per cent. lakes, while less than 3 per cent. is under cultivation. Iron is obtained. Pop, (1897) 311,539. (2.) Town, cap of above prov., 285 m. N.N.E. of Helsingfors. It stands on a peninsula in Lake Kallavesi, and is the terminus of a railway from Kotka and the Gulf of Finland. . It has several, colleges, a cathedral, and public gardens. Pop. (1897) 9,688. Kupferschiefer, a black bituminous shale, not over two feet in thickness, which occurs at the base of the o or Zechstein §§ of the Permian rocks of ermany. It is an important . source of copper, being mined near Mansfeld. Kura, or KUR, riv., Russia, the largest of the Caucasus, with a drainage basin of 60,000 sq. m. It rises on N. side of Chaldyr ridge and enters the Caspian Sea after a course of 700 m., and with an average fall of about nine feet er mile. Below Tiflis it deposits arge quantities of silt, and at high water floods the surrounding country. Steamers ply up it as far as Piraza. Sturgeon, salmon, shad, and other fish abound. Its chief tributary is the Aras (anc. Araxas), 540 m. long. Kurdistan, the mountainous

i.o. stretching southward from the riv. Araxes to the plains of Mesopotamia and the moun

tains of Luristan, and from the Euphrates E. to Ürmia in Persia. The Kurds, probably over two oilo in o". co". . ranian people, su s to

§§ #, *P*Medes or the Carduchi; but the admixture of Turkish, Armenian and Persian blood has 8.

a variety of o enerally they are of middle stature, gracefully, and powerfully, built, with regular features and abundant hair, brown, or occasionally black in color. They are barbarous and cruel, and are notorious for their massacres of Armenians. The Kurds are divided into a large number of small tribes, each governed by a hereditary chief.


The majority are Mohammedans of the Sunnite sect. The Yezids, most numerous in the Singar range, are generally regarded as devil-worshippers. Formerly all were nomads. Those who have taken to agricultural pursuits still often migrate to distant pastures in summer. They keep cattle, goats, and horses, but their chief wealth consists in sheep. Kurgan, tho, Tobolsk gov., Sibo. o. 1 #. of Tobol. 206 m. S.E. of Ekaterinburg, and the first station of the Siberian railway. Pop. (1897) 10,579. Kurgans are ancient sepulchres and grave mounds found in various parts of European Russia and Siberia. Kurla-Muria, a group of rocky barren islets off S.E. coast of Arabia, ceded in 1854 to Britian by the sultan of Muscat for a Red Sea cable station. They are now attached to Aden, and are leased for guano collection. Kuriles (Japanese, Chishima), chain of small, volcánic, barren, fog-infested islands, belonging to Japan, and stretching N.E. #o the N. of Yezo to the s. of Kamchatka. They cover, an area of 6,153 sq. m., the chief islands being Künashiri, Iturup (formerly Staten), Paramushiri, and Shamshu. The highest summit is Chacha-nobiri (7,900ft.), in Kunashiri. , Tomari, in the same island, is the nearest port to Japan. The inhabitants (Ainus and Kamchadales) are joined by hunters and fishermen during the summer. The northern islands were ceded to !. by Russia in 1875, in exchange for part of Sakhalin. Pop. (1901) 4,413. Kurla, munic. th:, Thana dist., Bombay Presidency, India, on Salsette, 8 m. , N.E. of Bombay. with which it is connected by a causeway. It has cotton mills. Po (1901) 14,831. Kurland, or CourLAND, Baltic prov. of Russia, between the Gulf of Riga on the N. and the prov. of Kovno on the s. . It is 10,535 . m. in area, and its surface is mostly level. It has many small scattered lakes, and almost onethird of the surface is covered with forest. A. cattlebreeding, and sheep-rearing occupy most of the inhabitants. Cotton, iron, goods, agricultural implements, leather, and matches are made, chiefly at Libau (chief rt) and Mitau (the capital). The inhabitants are chiefly Letts, and mostly Protestants. A possession of the Teutonic knights since the 13th century, Kurland came under Polish rule in 1561, and was finally united to Russia in 1795. Pop. (1897) 672,634. Kuroki, BARon (1842), Japanese general, distinguished himself in the Chino-Japanese war of 1894. At first he was superin

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Kursk. (1.) Government, Central Russia; area, 17,937 sq. m., p. slo) 2,603,205. It is o at plain, There are many, small streams belonging, to the basins of the Don and Dnieper. Most of the soil is black earth. Wheat, millet, hemp, tobacco, beetroot * raised.” The cattle are celebrated. No part of Russia is more noted for its orchards and honey. The industries include distilleries and breweries, sugar refineries, tanneries, soap, candle, and tobacco manufactures, brick works, flour mills, copper and iron foundries, woollen manufactures, and ... potteries. . The government of Kürsk was formed in 1707. It is now divided into fifteen districts—those of Kursk, Bielgorod, Graivoron, Dmitriev, Korocha, LGov, Novii - Oskol, Qboyan, Putiol, , Rilski, Tim, Starii-Oskol, Suja, Fatej, Shchigri. Almost all the people belong to the Russian race and to the Orthodox church; there are 15 district towns, 3 lesser towns, 937 villages, 1,564 hamlets. The free peasant emigration from this government to Siberia has been very extensive of late years. (2.) Town, cap. of above gov., 330 m. S. of Moscow, The industries include carriage works, tobacco, soap, and waxcandle manufactures, distilleries, and breweries, tanneries, iron foundries, and flour mills. "Kursk suffered much from the rioting and outbreaks which followed the close of the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. Pop. (1897) 52,910. Kurtz, Johan N. HEINRICH (1809–90), German church historian, was born at Montjoie, near Aachen. From 1850 to 1870 he was professor ordinarius of church history at the Universities of Halle and Bonn. His works have enjoyed great popularity as academic text-books ; the Lehrbuch der Kirchonges: ichte o: new Eng., trans. 1888–90). e also published Astronomie und Bibel (1842; New York, 1857); Lehrbuch der heiligen Geschichte (1843; trans. 1855); Biblische Geschichte (1847; Eng. trans. 1867); Geschichte des alten Bundes (1848– 55; trans. 1863); Der A. T. Opferrulius (1862; trans. 1863); Abriss der soon. (15th ed. 1901). Kusi, Koss, or Koosy, riv., N. Bengal; has its source in the Himalayas of Nepal, runs S.W., S.E., and finally s., and enters the Ganges. It has a rapid flow, and is liable to floods. Length, 325 m. o: second largest river in Alaska, between 500 and 700 m. long, flows S.w.. into Kuskoquim Bay. It is navigable for 300 m

Küssnacht, vil., Switzerland 6 m. E.N.E. of Lucerne, at N. end of Lake Lucerne; is associated with the romance of William Tell


and Gessler. Pop. (1900) 3,562. Kustanaisk, th:, Turgai prov. Russian Central Asia, on “obol R. R., 600 m., E., of Orenburg. First called Nikolaievsk, it has grown up since 1871. Its industries include tanneries, potteries and the manufacture of tallow. Pop. (1897) 14,065. Küstenji. See Constanta. Küstrin, fort. th:, Prussian rov. Brandenburg, on r. bk. of der, at confluence of Warthe, 52 m. by rail E. of Berlin. Beer, hardware, machinery, and cigars

are manufactured. Pop. (1900) 16,473. Kutaiah, or, KUTAYA, th:,

Turkish prov. Brusa, Asia Minor, 70 m. S.E. of Brusa; is surrounded by gardens and orchards. Carpets and pottery are manufactured, and opium is grown; has an ancient Byzantine fortress. Pop. (1904) c. 23,000. Ku ta is . (1.) Russian gov., Transcaucasia, extends N. from the Turkish frontier round the E. end of the Black Sea. The interior is exceedingly mountainous, while the coast is marshy and unhealthy. Manganese ore, coal, copper, and galena are mined. Forests cover a large part of the suface, and timber, especially walnut, is exported. Good tobacco is grown, and fruit is abundant; olives in the south. Tea has been cultivated during the last ten years. . The ports are Batum, Poti, and Sukhum Kali. Area, 14,084 sq. m. Pop, (1897) 1,075,861, (2.) Town of above gov., on the Rion, 110 m. w; by N. of Tiflis; is supposed to be the Kutatisión of the Argonauts. In the 5th century A.D. it was destroyed by the Persians. The present town has been built within the last half-century. There are

remains of the golden palace of the kings of Imeritia, Gardening is carried on. Pop. (1897) 32,492.

Kutch. See CUTCH.

Kuttenberg, th:, ... Bohemia Austria, 30 m. by rail E.S.E. of Prague. It has a former royal

castle (13th century), and manufactures tobacco, sugar, liqueur, cotton, and calico. . In the middle ages silver was mined here, and uttenberg was often a royal residence. Pop. (1900) 14,799. Kutusoff, MICHAEL ILARIONOviTCH (1745–1813), Russian fieldmarshal, served in the Turkish wars (1770, 1788–92), distinguishing himself at Shumsa Otchakov, Hadji-Bei, Bender, and Ismail; and in 1805 commanded an army corps against the French, leading at Austerlitz. In 1812 he was commander-in-chief of the Russian army, and was defeated by Napoleon at Boroding, but defeated Ney and Davost at Smolensk. See Life, in French, b Michailovsky-Danielevsky §§

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Kuvera, the Hindu god of wealth.

Kuyper, ABRAHAM (1837),

Dutch statesman and author, born at Maassluis; became pastor of the Reformed Dutch Church (1863). He also took an active part in politics, and in 1901 was appointed prime minister, as leader of a coalition of Calvinists and Roman Catholics. He has edited De Standaard (1872) and Heraul; founded the Free University of Amsterdam (1880), and in 1886 the Free Reformed Church. His chief work is floo of Sacred Theology (1901); he edited the works of John a Laska (1866).

Kuznetsk... (1.) Town, Saratov ov., E. Russia, 150 m. N.N.E. of aratov city. 'the industries in: clude tanneries, boot and glove factories, leather-dressing, harness-makers', wheelwrights', joiners', and bushel-makers' workshops. Pop., (1897) 20,555. (2.) Town, Tomsk gov., Siberia, over 200 m. s.E. of Tomsk, in the mining region of the Kuznetski

Ala-tau. Pop. c. 3,000.
Kwala Lumpur. See KUALA

Kwang-chau-fu. See CANTON.

Kwang-chau-wan, bay on E. coast of Lei-chau peninsula, Kwang-tung, China; the harbor, 20 m. long and from 1% to 6 m. broad, is completely landlocked. It was made a free port in 1902. The bay, with , the adjoining coast, was leased to France by China in 1898. )

Kwang-hsu (1871), emperor of China, born o oil.’”. ceeded to the throne in 1875. He owes his position to the intrigues of the Empress Tsu-hsi, his aunt, who held the regency during, his minority. She again made herself regent in September 1898, and since then Kwang-hsu has been a mere puppet in her hands.

Kwang-si, inland K. of S. China, borders with Kwang-tun and Tong-king on the S., an Yün-nan on the w: Area, 78,250 sq. m.; 480 m. long by 300 m. broad. The province has suffered greatly from rebellions and famines. Its eastern half is by far the more important. The chief exports are cassia, sugar, tobacco, and rice. Part of the province is inhabited by Shans. wei-lin-fu is the capital, and Wu-chau and Nanning are treaty ports. Lungchau is opened to trade wit Tong-king. Pop. (1902) 5,250,000.

Kwang-tung, maritime prov. of S. China, borders on the E. with the China Sea, and on the s. with the Gulf of Tong-king. Area, 79,456 sq. m. Greatest length, from N. to S., about 420 m.; from E. to w., 370 m. It is a semi-tropical country, containing the lower basin of the west, north,

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and south rivers, which combine to form the delta of Canton, together with the basin of the Han R., which has its mouth at Swatow. A rich alluvial soil, heavy rainfall, and good network of waterways, combined with its

ition at the entrance to the É. Sea and with a , deeplyindented coast and good harbors, give Kwang-tung great natural advantages. Rice, tea, sugar, silk, porcelain, wood and ivory carvings, furniture, grass mats, paper, and embroideries constitute its chief industries. Oranges, bananas, and subtropical fruits, salt and fresh water fish, shellfish, tobacco and vegetables, coal and iron, are among its other

roducts. The open ports are anton, Swatow, Sam-shui and Pakhoi. Cap. Canton. Pop. (1902) 31,865,251. Kwang-yen, cap. of prov. Kwang-yen, French Indo-China,

70 m. E. of Hanoi, and 6 m. from the sea, on the N. arm of Song-koi delta. It is accessible to the largest vessels at all states of the tide, and commands the coast route between Tong-king and Kwang-tung. It is the sanatorium of Tong-king. Pop. est. 20,000. Kwanza. See CoANZA. Kwei-chau, inland prov., China, borders with Sze-chuen on the N. and Yün-nan on the w. Area, 64,554 sq. m.; a limestone region, with an altitude of 5,000 ft. in the w:, falling gradually to 2,000 ft. in the #.” The deep ravines in which the numerous rivers lie occasion frequent descents and ascents on almost all routes. The population is very sparse, in consequence of rebellions and their results, and much land is uncultivated. Mineral resources are rumored to very, great, and to include gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, uicksilver, and coal. esides the Chinese population, there are Lolos in the N.w.., Shans in the S., and Miaotzu in the E. Opium is the all-important product, serving as currency, for export. The soloing insect is exported to Hu-nan. A sturdy breed of diminutive ponies, well suited for

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preserving timber by boiling in a solution of bichloride of mercury (corrosive sublimate) to destroy the organisms of decay. It is extensively, employed for preserving railroad ties. Kyauk se, dist., Meiktila, Upper Burma, with area, 1,274 sq. m. It is mainly a level strip at the foot of the Shan Hills, but reaches 5,000 ft. in the E. From the original nine canals of the district, it is also known as Ko-Kayaing. Pop. (1901) 141,296. Kyaukse, the cap., is a munic. tn., 360 m. by rail N. of Rangoon. Pop. (1901), 7,201. Kyd, or KID, THoMAs (?1557– P95), English dramatist, was born probably in London, and was the author of several successful tragedies of the blood-and-thunder school. The best known is The Spanish Tragedy (printed 1594), one of two plays dealing wit the life of Hieronimo (Jeronimo), a Spanish marshal. He also adapted several plays from French sources. Ben jo and others ridiculed his bombastic style. The Ur Hamlet is attributed to him. See Works, ed. by Boas (1901). Kyffhäuser, wooded hill (1,450 ft.) in German principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, 35 m. by rail N. of Erfurt, with ruins o a 10th-century castle. German legend tells how the Emperor Barbarossa (Frederick I.; though

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Japanese painter, who excelled in political caricature; this led to his frequent imprisonment during the revolutionary period of 1867. number of his works dealing with Japanese life are in the British Museum. He published several books of , drawings; the last, Kyösai Gwaden (1887), contains an autobiography. See Mortimer Menpes's orso. View of Japanese Art,” in Magazine of Art (1888). Kyoto. See KIoTo. Kyrie Eléison (“Lord, have mercy'), liturgical phrase used in the worship of the Roman Catholic Church. It follows immediately after the introit, and is sung three trimes, then Christe eleison three times, followed again by Kyrie eleison three times its Anglican equivalent is used in morning and evening prayers, the Litany, and after the recitation of each of the ten commandments. Kyrle, JoHN ''...}} ‘the Man of Ross,’ as Pope calls him in his Moral Essays, was born at Dymock, Gloucestshire, and lived nearly all his life at Ross. Herefordshire. He devoted the ; part of his income to the uilding of churches and hospitals, and his time to the welfare of his neighbors. . The Kyrle Society was founded by the Misses Hill in 1877, for the purÉ. of bringing “sweetness and ight’ into the lives of the poo Kyshtym, mining and ironworking centre of Perm gov., E. Russia, on E. side of Urals, 55 m. E. of Chelyabinsk; is composed of two settlements, Upper and Lower. Pop. (1897) 12,331.

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