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Lamar

dependence of party machinery. He was secretary of the interior under President Cleveland from 1885 to 1888, when he was made an associate justice of the U. S. Supreme. Court. Aside from the high judicial qualities manifested by him in questions before the court, he displayed an unusual familiarity with mechanics that led his isio. justices to place the investigation of patent cases very largely in his hands. Lamar, MIRABEAU BUoNAPARTE (1798–1859), American political leader, was born in Louisville, Ga. e went to Texas in 1835, took sides with the revolutionists, and was commissioned major-general for , leading , the cavalry charge which decided the battle of San Jacinto. He was attorney-general, under President Burnett, and then secretary of war. and was elected first vicepresident when, Gen. Houston was chosen president. In 1838–41 he was president of the republic, and during this interval the independence of Texas was recognized by the European powers. He opposed annexation to the U. S. and was accused of extravagance, and of vindictiveness toward the Indians. He serve under Gen. Taylor (1846) at Monterey, and afterward had charge of a .."#. Texas rangers, stationed at Laredo, to check the invasions of the Comanches. He was appointed U. S. minister to the Argentine Republic in 1857, but did not serve, and the same year was appointed minister and then §§ minister-resident to Nicaragua and Costa Rica, which ts he filled only until the folowing spring, when he returned to Texas where he died

La marck, JEAN BAPTISTE

PIERRE ANToINE DE Mon NET, CHEvaLIER DE (1744–1829), a French naturalist and evolutionist, and the ablest precursor of Darwin, was born at Barentin. While working in a banker's office in Paris §e wrote his Flore Française (1778). As tutor to Buffon's son he travelled over Europe, visiting many of its famous gardens. . In 1788 he became custodian of the herbarium of the Jardin du Roi, , and later was associated with this garden as a rofessor of zoology, a post he É. for twenty-five years. In 1809 he published his famous Philosophie Zoologique, and betwcen 1815 and 1822 he published the seven volumes of his Histoire des Animaux sans Vertèbres. Lamarck was also a voluminous writer on other scientific subjects. Apart from his concrete observations, which were numerous, Lamarck placed biological science under a deep debt of Foo. by his clear statement of a doctrine

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of, evolution which, , though , it failed to satisfy Charles Darwin, yet paved the way for the English scientist's great work. He laid great stress upon the effects of use and disuse, upon the production of new organs as the result of new needs, and especially upon what is now known as the inherit. ance of acquired characters, believing that those changes produced in the individual as the result of its response to the environment are always transmitted to the offspring, and thus lead to progressive change. This is a position which perhaps the majority of living naturalists consider untenable since Weismann's criticisms; but there is, nevertheless, a considerable NeoLamarckian school in the U. S., and also in France. See Haeckel's Die Naturanschauung von Darwin, Goethe, und Lamarck (1882); Lamarck, par un Groupe de Trans{{...; ses Disciples (1887); errier's Lamarck et le Transjormisme Actuel (1893), and Packard's Lamarck the Founder of Evolution, etc. (1901). La Marmora, ALFonso FERRERO, CAVALIERE DEL (1804–78), Italian general and statesman born at Turin. He distinguished himself , during, the Sardinian war of independence (1848), and as minister of war (1849–55) reorganized the army. During the Crimean war he commanded the Sardinian forces, and on his return again became minister of war. e commanded the troops in the Austrian war, was defeated at Custozza, and severely censured. in "self-defence ho wrote Un po più di luce (1873), which irritated Bismarck, and exsed La Marmora to a charge of aving betrayed State secrets. Lamartine, ALPHoNSE MARIE Louis DE PRAt DE (1790–1869), French poet, was born at Mâcon. He received his education at the Jesuit, College of Belley, travelled in Italy, and after the second restoration was allowed to select his own career, though he had some employment in the king's household, and subsequently in diplomacy. In his thirtieth year Lamartine , published his first volume of poetry, Premières Méditations Poétiques . (1820), which achieved an immediate success. In 1823 and 1825 Lamartine ublished three more volumes, ouvelles Méditations Poétiques Ş. La Mort de Socrate, and Le ernier Chant de Childe-Harold (1825), the last of which proclaims clearly enough whence Lamartine drew his first inspiration in poetry. In 1829 he was elected a member of the Academy. In 1830 he published his Harmonies Poéliques et Religieuses, in 1835 (in prose) Voyage en Orient (his ex

Lamb

periences of a yachting tour), in 1836, Jocelyn (the history of a country parson), in 1838 La Chute d'un Ange, and in 1839 Recueillements Poétiques—all s. It was about this time that Lamartine threw himself into politics #. the Moderate Liberal side.

rom 1835 to 1837 he was député for Bergues in the Nord, and from 1837 to 1848 député for Mâcon. In politics he played a conspicuous part, but, a less lasting one than in the field of literature. At the revolution of 1848, Lamartine rose to a very conspicuous

place, especially as the defender of the “tricosor' against the “rouges.”

Under the empire Lamartine gradually sank into comparative poverty, having squandered a considerable Fo the fortune of his wife, and large literary gains; and he was obliged to write rapidly and o a. reat number of works in prose, onne etry was intermingled Les Visions, 1854), not of the ighest quality. With a diminished lustre, Lamartine remained still one of the personages of French literature till his death. Lamartine was granted a pension by Parliament (1867), but his owers by that time were exausted, and he died two years later. In addition to the works mentioned, Lamartine wrote—in verse, Toussaint l’Ouverture, a tragedy (1850); and in prose, Trois mois au Pouvoir (1848), Raphaël (*): Confidences (1849), Histoire de Révolution, 1848 (1849), Geneviève (1850), Nouvelles Confidences (1851), Le Tailleur de Pierres de Saint-Point (1851), Graziella (1852), Histoire de la Restauration (1851–2), Histoire des Constituants (1854), Histoire de la Turquie (1855), and Histoire de la Russie (1856). , . His GEuvres Complètes were published by Didot in 14 vols. (1849–50). See Falconnet's Alphonse de Lamartine (1840); Lurine's Histoire Poétique et Politique d'Alphonse de martine (1848); inteBeuve's Portraits Contemporains, I., and Causeries du Lundi, I., iv.; Ronchaud's La Politique de Lamartine (1878); Alexandre's Souvenirs sur Lamartine (1884); Lady Domville's Life , of Lamartine (1888); and Deschänel's Lamartime (1893). Lamb, CHARLEs (1775–1834), English essayist, was born in the Temple, London. After some education at a little school off Fetter Lane, he was sent to Christ's Hospital, in 1782, among the other new boys at the same time bein Samuel Taylor, Coleridge, wit whom a friendship then began which ceased only with Coleridge's death in 1834. Lamb re; mained at Christ's Hospital until 1789, soon afterwards obtaining a Lamb

nomination to a small clerkship in the South Sea House, where his elder brother John held office —a post, which led thirty years later to the first of the Essays of Elia, entitled, ‘Recollections of the South Sea House.’ Leaving the South Sea House after only a brief sojourn there, Charles Lamb on §§ 5, 1792, entered the East India House, nominated thereto by his father's employer, Samuel Salt, M.P., one of the benchers of the Inner Temple, and remained in its service until 1825. The same year (1792) Mr. Salt died, causing the Lamb family to leave his quarters in the Temple for lodgings elsewhere. These

were found at 7 Little Queen

Charles Lamb.

Street (where Trinity Church now stands); and there, on Sept. 22, 1796, an incident occurred which changed the whole character of Charles Lamb's life. His sister Mary, who had long been strange in manner, o lost her reason and stabbed her mother fatally. At the inquest Mary Lamb was found to be insane, and ordered to be confined in a public asylum; but Charles on underto. to be responsible for her, was allowed to arrange for private restraint. From that day until his death the welfare of his sister was his first consideration. les Lamb's earliest literary efforts were in verse. In 1796 he contributed four sonnets to Coleridge's Poems on Various Subjects. In 1797 he contributed a whole section to the second edition of that work; and in 1798 he joined with Charles "illoyd, a. *g Quaker metaphysician, lately Coleridge's pupil, in the

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composition of a volume called Blank. Verse, in which “The Old Familiar Faces' and the most personal and feeling of all his poetical work is to be found. In the same #. (1798) was Å. lished his first prose work, Rosamund Gray, a story **ś with the simplicity of Wordsworth in the Lyrical Ballads, very charmingly done, but continuing more in the manner of Mackenzie, whose novel in letters, Julie de Roubigné, Lamb had been reading. . Another experiment, this time in irregular blank verse, followed in John Woodvil, an attempt to , recapture, the Elizabethan *F. seriously just as in 1795–6 Lamb joined with ames White, an old schoolfellow, in recapturing its comic spirit in Falstaff's Letters. John Woodvil was published in 1802, at Lamb's own expense, but it met with little favor. Between 1800 and 1805 Lamb contributed paragraphs and epigrams to newspapers, but wrote nothing remarkable. Between 1805 and 1810, however, came a period of great productivity. Besides his India House work, he found time to write an unsuccessful farce, Mr. H., produced at Drury Lane; Dec. 10, 1806, for one night only; to begin his children's books for Mrs. William Godwin with The King and Queen % Hearts (1805), followed b ales from Shakespeare (wit Mary Lamb, 1807), The Adventures of *ś. (1808), Mrs. Leicester's School (with . Mary Lamb, 1809), Poetry for Children Ş. Mary Lamb, 1809), and rince Dorus (1811, or earlier); to select his Specimens of English Dramatic Poets who lived about the Time of $o (1808); and to write a number of humorous letters and critical essays for Leigh Hunt's magazine, the . Reflector (1810–11). Of these the best were the essays On the Genius of Hoarth and . On Shakespeare's ragedies, which, taken in connection, with the Dramatic Specimens, showed the discerning that a new, courageous, and very discriminating Critical mind was at work. Then followed, however, a curiously empty ten years, in which Lamb, to the best of our knowledge, wrote nothing but two or three essays, including the Con(..."; ; a Drunkard, a few rief notes and theatrical criticisms in the Examiner, and a few epigrams in the Champion. In 1818, he collected his Works, which contained, however, very little that was new. But in 1820 came a change. In that year was founded the London Magazine. John, Scott, the editor, .# it is said, upon the suggestion o Hazlitt, asked Lamb

Lamb

to contribute. Lamb accepted the invitation, the essay on the South Sea House, signed “Elia’ the name of an old South Sea ouse clerk in Lamb's day), appeared in the August number, and Lamb's ripest and best known work had begun—in his forty-sixth year. Almost everything by which he is best known was written between 1820 and 1823. For five years Lamb continued with the London Magazine. He then moved to the New Monthly Magazine for a while, and contributed to it the Popular Fallacies. He also gave William Hone, for his Table Book (1827), the fruit of his researches for notable passages in the Garrick collection of old plays in the British Museum; and in 1830 he collected his later poems to form a book, Album Verses, with which his young friend Edward Moxon (who married his ward, or adopted daughter, Emma Isola), might make a start as a publisher. A year later he issued a burlesque poem, Satan in Search of a Wife and in is 33 a second colléction of Elia essays. Lamb remains in our minds first and foremost as an essayist. His Elia §§ and the Last Essays of Elia (1833) are two volumes which stand quite alone in English literature. Lamb was pensioned off by the East India directors in 1825. He was then living at Islington, in a cottage in Colebroke Row that still stands, and, internally, is practically as he left it. . Later he moved to Enfield, and thence to Edmonton, where he died. Crabb Robinson's Diary gives us many glimpses of this rare #. but it is upon Talfourd's emorials of Charles Lamb (1837) and Final Memorials of Charles Lamb (1848) that all later biog. raphies have been based. Other valuable character sketches are found in Hazlitt's essays, Wordsworth's poem on Lamb's death, Fitzgerald's Charles Lamb (1866), De Quincey’s London Recollections, Barry Cornwall's Memoir g;} and E. V. Lucas's Life of Charles Lamb (1905). The best editions of Lamb's writings are Life and Works, ed. by Canon Ainger—edition de luxe —(12 vols. 1899–1900); Works of Charles and #. Lamb, ed. by E. V. Lucas (7 vols. 1903). Lamb, MARTHA JoANNA READE (1829–93), American historian, was born (Nash) at Plainfield, Mass., of Mayflower descent, and showed unusual proficiency in her studies during youth. She was married to Charles A. Lamb, 1852, and after some years' residence in the Middle West, removed to New York, 1866, where she afterward resided and became a "favorite Lamb

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socially. Mrs. Lamb was secre.# of the first Sanitary Fair and held membership in many learned societies. She was editor of the Magazine of American History from 1883 until her death. Besides her principal work, The History of the City of New York o she wrote several books for children, and contributed a vast amount of both historical and pictorial matter to the magazines. Lamb, MARY ANNE (1764– 1847), writer for children, and sister of Charles Lamb, was born in the Temple. Like her brother, she came to her own slowly. Mary Lamb was forty-two before, in 1806, she began the Tales from Shakespeare, her first book. After 1800 she lived with her brother, and shared his intellectual life until his death in 1834—a companionship broken only by almost annually recurring attacks of insanity of some weeks' duration. o the twenty Tales so Shakespeare Mary wrote fourteen, the comedies and Pericles; her brother, the six tragedies: The sweet reasonableness and narrative charm of these tales has carried them into numberless editions, not only in English, but in many other, languages, and they seem likely to endure as long as any children's book. Mrs. Leicester's School, to which Charles contributed only three stories (“Maria Howe,’ ‘Arabella Hardy,' and ‘Susan Yates) followed in 1809, a little work o rare and delicate charm, which contains Ma Lamb's prose masterpiece, “The Young. Ma: hometan.' This book also is still steadily reprinted, and will continue to be. The same year saw the publication of Poetry for Children, two tiny volumes of simple verses drawn from every day incidents by Mary Lamb and her brother. With these three books Mary Lamb's career as an author began and ended; but in 1815 she contributed an essay on ‘Needlework' to the British Lady's Magazine, and in her, brother's Works (1818) are several beautiful and striking little poems from her pen. The principal authorities for information concerning Mary Lamb are Mrs. Gilchrist's Mary Lamb (Eminent Women Series, 1883) and W. C. Hazlitt's Mary a

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to the queen, was killed by the Paris mob. See Bertin's Mademoiselle de la Lamballe (1888). Lambayeque, maritime dep. of N.W. Peru, S. America, divided into three provinces—Lambayeque, Chiclayo, and Pecasmayu; produces sugar, rice, tobacco, an cotton. Area, 17,939 sq. m. Pop. 124,000. Its cap. Lambayeque, 6 m. from mouth of Lambayeque R., exports cotton and woollen goods and soap. Pop. c. 8,000. Lambert, ALEXANDER (1862), Polish American musician, was born in Warsaw, Poland, graduated (1878) as pianist at the Vienna conservatory of music, and studied under Liszt. After successful concert work in Germany, he came to N. Y., where he was appointed director of the N. Y. college of music. Some of his bestknown compositions are Etude and Bourrée, Valse. Impromptu, and his Ave Maria for soprano voices. Lambert, Johan N HEINRICH (1728–77), German, philosopher and mathematician, born at Mülhausen; devoted himself to varied scientific studies, and published his Photometria, an important work dealing with the measurement of light (1760). Besides numerous mathematical and philosophical treatises, he wrote Neues Organon (1764), and Anlage zur Architektonik. (1771). ... See Lepsius's Johann Heinrich Hambert (1881). La m bert, John (1619–83), British soldier, was born at Calton, near Malham Tarn, Yorkshire. On the outbreak of the Civil War he threw in his lot with Cromwell, led the parliamentary right wing at Marston, Moor, became maior-general of the north (1647), .# t at Preston and Dunbar, and shared in the victory of Worcester. Having crushed Booth's royalist rising fié. he was for a time paramount as chief of the ‘Committee of Safety.’ But the ‘Rump' and Monk's deeper policy proved, too much for him; and after the restoration he was arrested, and was banished to Guernsey. . See Life in Whitaker's Hist. of Craven, ed. by Morant (1878). Lambert,...John (c. 1775 - ?), British traveller. He visited Canada in 1806, with the approval of * Hill. board ? #. and with the purpose of developin the cio of hemp in o; country. He , was, unsuccessful in his efforts, but decided to stay in America, and visit “those parts rendered interesting by the glories of a Wolfe and a Washington.’ He travelled for a year in Canada and a year in the U. S., and returning to England (1809) published Travels through Lower Canada and the United States of North America (1810). In this work Lambert quotes from

Lamego

Irving's Salmagundi, and in 1811 he issued a two - volume edition of Irving's Essays, with an introduction by himself in praise of American manners. Lambertville, city, Hunterdon co., J., on the Delaware R., and Del. and Raritan Canal, and on the Pa. R. R., 16 m. from Trenton. It manufactures spokes, aper, and flour and rubber goods. t was incorporated in 1849. Pop. (1900) 4,637. Lambessa, or LAMBESE, th: of Algeria, N. Africa, 65 m. s.s.w. of Constantine, 5 m. S.E. of Batna, is supposed to occupy the

site of Lambesis, the ancient milita capital of Numidia. Pop. about 2,000.

Lambeth, metropolitan bor., London, on the Thames, opposite Westminster. Lambeth Fo the residence of the archbishops of Canterbury, was founded in the 12th century; but the present buildings belong to the 13th century and later periods. The great hall, containing the valuable library, chapel, and crypt, is of special interest. Area, 4,194 ac. op. (1901) 301,895. See Tanswell's Hist. and Antiquities of Lambeth (1858); Cave - Browne's Lambeth Palace and its Associations (1882); Pim's The Builders of Lambeth Palace (1898). Lambeth Conferences. The desire for fellowship and cooperation between, the different branches of the Anglican communion o: the British colonies and America found exression as early as 1851, when

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In 1865 a request of the same kind reached Archbishop Longley from Canada. After consultation with the houses of convocation -he convened a meeting of all bishops of the Anglican communion to be held at Lambeth in 1867. It was attended by 76 bishops, while the fourth conference §§ was attended by 194. At the first the Colenso case formed the principal subject for discussion, while the third (1888) was of special interest as considering the position of Christian communities which do not ssess the historic episcopate. he famous “Lambeth Quadrilateral' was then formulated as a basis for home reunion—i.e. the Holy Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself, and the historic episcopate. See Davidson's The Lambeth Conferences of 1867, 1878, 1888 (1896); Conference of Bishops of the Anlican Communion, Encyc. Letter 1897). Lamego, th:, Beira prov. Vizeu dist., Portugal, 42 m. E.; Q

Oporto; has a cathedral, and is

Lamellibranchiata

the seat of an op. bishop. Has large vineyards. Pop. (1900) 9,179. Lamellibranchiata, a groupname for bivalve molluses on account of the structure of the gills, which form flat, membranous plates or lamellae. See BIVALVES, and MolluscA. Lamellicornia, or LAMELLIcorn BEETLEs, a tribe of beetles in which the antennae have their terminal joints leaflike, and capable of separation and apposi: tion—a character by means of which the inscots are very readily recognized. The tarsus in Lamellicorn beetles has always five ioints. The series includes three amilies—(1) the Passalidae, which are N. American beetles, quite absent from Europe; (2) the Lucanidae, or stag-beetles, which are very widely distributed; and (3) the Scarabaeidae, or chafers, a 'very large family, includin some 13,000 species, many 9 which are Yo handsome. In all cases the sarvae live on decaying vegetable matter, roots, or dung, and are large, clumsy rubs, with curved bodies adapted or an underground or concealed mode of life. For examples and further particulars, see RoseCHAFER, STAG-BEETLE, etc. Lameness may result. from disease or injury of bones, joints, ligaments, muscles, brain, or nerves, but usually more than one tissue is concerned in its production. Thus, in infantile paralysis the primary seat of disease is the nervous system; but, as a result of changes there, the paralyzed, muscles... become atrophied, and, the ligaments contracted, the bones undergoing such distortion as to destroy the mobility of one, or more joints which are normally movable. Paralytic conditions produce lameness, in the first place, by disabling a muscle or a group of muscles. , Should one group, be aralyzed, the opposing muscles, É. lack of the normal resistance, may pass into continuous strong contraction, and finally produce fixation of the bones in an abnormal position. f bones, and joints, the chief injuries which produce lameness are fractures and dislocations. As a consequence of such a disease as tubercle, a joint may become disorganized and useless. Some rheumatic and rheumatoid affections, especially in old people, are progressive, and cripple the patient, permanently. Apart from paralysis, many mervous diseases, such as locomotor ataxia produce a characteristic abnorma gait; while hysteria and other neuroses must kept in mind as ible causes of lameness. In the treatment of lameness, the cause of the condition must first be

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ascertained, and, as far as possible, removed. Much may often done to mitigate lameness by skilfully-contrived apparatus to counteract the existing defects. Lamennais, Fflicité Robert DE (1782–1854), French abbé and philosopher, belonged to a very old family of the bourgeoisie at St. Malo. He was brought up by an affectionate closer brother who was a priest. They lived together at La Chesnaie, near Dinan, till, in 1814, the younger brother went to Paris. In 1815 he spent the “Hundred Days' in songland where the Ab Carron foun work for him in London, and had immense influence over him during this period of his life. This influence he used to make Lamennais take orders. After the revolution of 1830 he assisted in founding I. Avenir, with its motto, Dieu et Liberté; and when it was condemned by ecclesiastical authority, he went to Rome with its co-founders, Montalembert and Lacordaire, to plead the cause of liberty. The Pope declared against him; and while his two colleagues, submitted, he resisted, and soon broke all connection with the church. His most remarkable, production, the small but tremendous Paroles d'un Croyant, appeared. in 1834, a masterpiece of , religious fervor, For the rest of his life he belonged to the democratic party, and fiercely attacked the opinions of which he had been hitherto the foremost champion. Renan, who wrote in his fois ic iforni. et de Critique (1859) a masterly paper about Lamennais, declares that his life might be summarized in the words, “The same system of eloquent hatred aplied to the most diverse objects.” ook after book he wrote, for one of which he underwent a ear's imprisonment in Sainte élagie. aper, after paper he started o the 1848 revolution, when he was elected a representative in the Assembly, and took his place, on the extreme left. His CEuvres Completes were published in 1836 and 1844, and were followed b his (Euvres Posthumes (1855–8 his Correspondance (1866), an his Confidences and ‘gos. dance Inédite (1886). See Dowden's Studies in Literature o; Lilly's ‘Lamennais’ in Fortnightly Review (1899); Brandes's a in Currents of Nineteenth Centur Literature (Eng. trans. vol. #% ‘The French Reaction, 1903; Sainte-Beuve's Portraits Contemporains (1846); Quérard's Notice Bibliographique des Ouvrages de Lamennais . (1849); Blaize's Essai Biographique sur Lamennais (1858); Janet's La Philosophie de mennais (1890); Mercier's Lamennais (1894).

Lamia

Lamentations. THE Book of a short poetical book of the did Testament, called in Heb. "Ekhah (i.e.: “How'), from its first word, and consisting of elegies expressive of the sufferings of the peoplc of Jerusalent during and after the #. (587 B.C.). In the English Bible, as in the Septuagint, it follows jeremiah, in accordance with the tradition that it was written by that prophet; in the Hebrew canon it forms one of the five Megilloth, or ‘Rolls.' The tradition which attributes the booklet o is of long standing; and, indeed, the Septuagint version opens with a verse (not in the IIebrew), expressly affirming his authorship. It certainly reveals not a few affinities of thought and language with the Book of Jeremiah, and if , the divergences are still more evident, these might be explained by the diversity of theme and of form. Yet the artificiality of , construction consorts but ill with what we know of Jeremiah's disposition and circumstances; and as strikin linguistic parallels can be trace. with Ezekiel, Deutero-Isaiah, and Job, and the unity of the book is tioubtful, the critics have reversed the judgment of tradition, placing its date about half a century after the destruction of Jerusalem. See Driver's Introduction o ed.), and, commentaries by 'wald, Oettli, Reuss, Löhr, Budde, Cheyne !'"; Com.), Streane (Cambridge Bible), and Adeney (Expos. Bible). La Mesa, th:, dep. Cundinamarca, Colombia; Centre of trade in cacao, salt, and grain between the towns of Cundinamarca and Tolima. Alt. 4,200 ft. Pop. 11,000. La Mettrie, JULIENT OFFRoy DE (1709–51), French philosopher, born, at St. Malo. After studying for the church, he adopted mediçine as a profession, and served for some time in the army; but on publishing two strong works on materialism, he had to leave France and take refuge in Berlin under the protection of Frederick the Great, who gave him every encouragement in his extreme views, . When La Mettrie dicol, the king wrote his memoir and prefixcol it to an cdition of his protégé's Works lso See Lange's Geschichte aterialismus (new ed. 1887). Lamia, L. A.LIUS (d. 33 A.D.) a friend of Horace, who dedicate

to him two of his odes. He was

consul in 3 A.D., and prefect of the city in 32. See. Horace's Odes, iii. 17; and Merivale's Romans under the Empire. Lamia, a female phantom or ogress, in ancient Greek legend, said to have been a Libyan queen, whom Zeus loved. era, from jealousy, deprived her of her children; and Lamia, in revenge,

Lamia

seized other people's children, and murdered them. In later writers Lamiae are represented as ogresses which took a beautiful form, and enticed young men into their embraces in order to feed on their flesh and blood. See iodorus; Plutarch, De Curiosis; Philostratus; Apuleius; and Keats's Lamia. Lamia, cap. nomarchy PhocisPhthiotis, Greece, 28 m. s.E. of Pharsalos, on the side of a hill near the head of the Gulf o Lamia; contains a mediaeval fortress, a mosque, and remains of the ancient city from which the Lamian war took its name. Camels are reared. Pop. (1896), 7,414. Laminarieae, a group of Algae belonging to the Phaeosporeae, a subdivision of the Phaeosphyceae, or brown seaweeds. The propagative cells are always swarmspores of similar form and size;

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and these are produced in unilocular sporangia. The thallus has a stalk, often of considerable thickness, which is attached below to rocks or other substratum by means of rootlike growths, and ends above in a flat lamina, which may be divided or undivided. Lamination. Beds of sandstone and shale are frequently divided into thin layers parallèl to the bedding planes, and in shales these layers or laminae separate readily when exposed to the weather. Probably they represent successive interruptions, in the process of deposition; they may, however, to some extent be due to the action of the pressure of superincumbent accumulations after deposit. Lamium, a genus of Labiatae, whose flowers are marked by possessing four stamens longer than the corolla tube, a bell-shaped i. with i. i. o: a.to: 1p corolla, the upper li *in lo the 'iower" trifid an spreading. The white dead-nettle, or archangel, L. album, with square, stem and white flowers with black stamens, and the pur

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Lamoricière

ing appearance. It does not a pear that the bird ever attacks man; it probably feeds, entirely on carrion, although it is stated to carry off lambs, kids, and fowls 9ccasionally. The flight is powerful and ...io, and the cry weak and querulous. Lammermoors, or LAMMERMuir Hos. tood range of hills in the s of Scotland, stretchin E.N.E. in the shires of Berwic and Haddington, from the valle of the Gala to St. Abb's Head. Highest summits, 1,750 ft. La Moin, riv., iii. flows into the Illinois, R., 10 m. from Rushville; length about 100 m. Lamont, DANIEL Scott (1851– 1905), American cabinet officer, was born in Cortlandtville, N. Y., and was educated at Union College. He was at first in newspaper work, in 1883 became secretary to Grover Cleveland, and continued in that capacit during Mr. Cleveland’s pressdency (1885–89). From March 6, 1893, to March 6, 1897, he was secretary of war in Mr. Cleveland's second administration. He had been connected with street railway interests in New York, in 1889–93, and in 1897 became vice-president of the Northern Pacific Railway Company. Lamont, JóHANN voN (1805– 79), astronomer and magnetician, was born at Braemar, Aberdeenshire. Educated at a Scottish Benedictine monastery in Ratisbon, he entered the observatory of o near Munich in 1828, became its director in 1835, and established there in 1840 a magnetic observatory. His discovery of a decennial magnetic period was announced in September 1850; and the results of his magnetic surveys of Bavaria, France, Spain, North Germany, and Denmark were published in three separate works |*|†. His chief astronomical labor was the preparation of eleven catalogues (1866–74), founded on zone-observations of 34,674 stars. He was appointed in 1852 professor of astronomy in the University of Munich. Lamoricière, Louis CHRISToPHE Léon JuchAULT DE (1806– 65), French general and politician, born at Nantes; fought through the Algerian wars (1833–47), taking a leading part in Abd-elKader's defeat. He directed the attack on the Paris barricades 1848), became war minister under avaignac (1848), and was exiled by Napoleon III. (1852). In 1860, during the Italian war of independence, Lamoricière led the papal troops. , Permitted to return to France, he died at Prousel, near Amiens. See Keller's Le Général de Lamoricière (new ed. 1901), and Rastoul's Le Général Ilamoricière (1894).

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