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La Motte

La Motte, ANToINE_ Houdar DE, generally known as La MotteHoudar (1672–1731), French, poet and playright, born in Paris; was the author of Inês de Castro (1723), a tragedy; Le Magnifique, a comedy; and L'Europe Galante (1697), a ballet, all of which acguired considerable contemporary fame. Other works, are a translation of the Iliad {{#; Réflexions sur la Critique (1715); Fables (1719); Odes (1707). His CEuvres were published in iO vols. }#}} Solo: Les Paradoxes ittéraires dela Motte (1859). Lamotte, JEANNE DE LUz DE St. REMY DE WALois, CoMTESSE DE (1756–91), French adventuress; married one Lamotte, and by la ing upon the Cardinal de É. s infatuation for Marie Antoinette, obtained through him a diamond necklace worth 1,800,000 francs, with which her husband absconded. Rohan was disgraced, and Lamotte whipped and branded. She fled to England, where she published her Mémoires (1788; Eng. trans. 1788). La Mo t t e Fouqué. See Fou QUf. Lamoureux, CHARLES (1834– 99), French violinist and conductor, born at Bordeaux. In issi he instituted the famous Concerts Lamoureux, and was the leader of the Wagnerian movement in France. Lampasas, th:, Tex., co., seat of Lampasas co., on the Gulf Čolorado" and Santa Fé, and Houston and Texas R. Rs. It has sulphur springs. . .There is a large trade in wool, hides, ;. cotton, eggs, d vegetables. Pop. (1900) 2,107. - Lampblack is a finely divided soot formed by the incomplete combustion of carbon compounds, such as heavy oils or pinewood. It consists chiefly of carbon with about 10 per cent. of complex hydrocarbons, and is mainly used in the preparation of printing ink. Lampedusa (anc. Lopadussa or Pelagia), isl. in the Mediterranean between Tunis and Malta. Area, 11% sq. m. Has belonged to Girgenti prov., Italy, since iš43.” Produces fruit and grain. Pop. 1,200. Lampman, ARCHIBALD (1861– 99), Canadian poet, was born at Morpeth, Canada, and graduated (1882) at Trinity Čoliegé, Canada. After a short experience in teaching he was appointed to a place in the civil service at Ottawa, 1883, which he held until his death. He began contributing verse to the periodicals in 1884. His first volume, Among the Millet (1888), was followed by Lyrics of Earth (1893) and by the , posthumous complete edition of his Poems $. edited, with a memoir, by uncan Campbell Scott. Lamprey, an animal which,

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though often regarded as a fish, differs from a fish in the absence of paired fins and scales, in the rounded suctorial mouth without supporting jaws, in the presence of gill-pockets in place of the gills of fish, as well as in numerous internal peculiarities. In consequence, the lamprey and the related hag are placed in a

Lamprey.

1. Sealamprey (Petromyzon marinus). 2. Enlarged view of mouth.

distinct class known as cyclostomes, or round mouths. The body is elongated and eel-like, its most conspicuous feature being the seven slits on either side of the neck which communicate with the ill-pockets. The mouth resemÉ. that of the hag in the presence of a muscular rasp known as the tongue. The f consists of all sorts of small animals, as well as of the dead bodies of larger ones and even of the flesh and bloo of living creatures, to which the lampreys attach themselves after the fashion of the hag. They also attach themselves by their mouths to stones, whence the generic name, “stone-sucker.” Internally there is much general resemblance to the of: ut the lamprey has well-developed eyes, and has a delicate series of cartilages known as the branchial basket-work, which supports the pharynx. The adults die soon after spawning near the heads of rivers or creeks; the young, which in many respects differ from their parents, were formerly placed in a #. genus as Ammocoetes. The great sea-lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), sometimes 3 ft. long, is found on both coasts of the N. Atlantic. Several smaller species inhabit the lakes and rivers of the United States. . See Goode, Fishery Industries (1884). Lamprophyres. . A group of igneous rocks, which are usually found filling dikes, and are characterized by their dark color and the presence of porphyritic crystals of biotite angite or hornblende. Lamps, from the point of view

Lamps

of this article, will be taken as including the more or less portable ; self-contained devices in use at the present day for producing light, and to a less extent heat, by combustion; thus excluding electric lamps (see ELECTRIC LAMPs) and burners in which coal gas is consumed. Wick Lamps.-Whilst formerly lamps of this type were almost invariably fed by oils of animal or vegetable origin, such as sperm and rape or olive oils, consumed at loose cotton wicks, lamps using these oils are now nearly obsolete. Such oils have been largely supFlood by mineral oils, derived rom petroleum, which are of about . .80 to .82 sp. gr., and should not be of lower flash-point than 100° F., are very cheap and yield a good light, so that they are not only almost the only illuminant in country places, but also still hold an important position in cities, where an illumination superior to gas for many purposes is desired. , Lamps for this type of oil should be so constructed as not to be fragile, not to allow the oil in the container to become heated, to go out and not allow the oil to escape when upset, and to be extinguishable without blowing. They are used with closely-woven wicks that are either flat or tubeshaped, often two and sometimes three of the former being used side by side, whilst the latter may be built up of a series of small round wicks arranged in a circle, or by a bent-up flat wick. . As kerosene oils require to be burned with a good supply of air in order to give as white a light as possible and prevent . a draught is usually provided by a glass tunnel or chimney of more or less cylindrical shape, and is guided by a dome over the wick-holders so as to flow in a current parallel to and round the flame from its base. With the circular wick lamp the air-draught is introduced on Argand's principle both to the inside and outside of the flame, which is also made more effective by being spread out into the shape of an inverted cone by fixing a circular disc of metal of about the diameter of the wick a short distance above the base of the flame. Large sizes of both circular and flat wick lamps are also used for heating as well as for lighting. Spray and . Vapor Lamps.-In the type of lamp, employed by contractors for temporary nightwork out of doors, the crude oil used is held in a strong iron cylinder. Air is, forced into the space above the oil by a hand pump to a pressure of about 25 lbs. per sq. in., thus driving the oil up a pipe that extends from the bottom of the tank to the burner. Here it passes through tubes heated, when the burner is in action, by the

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Lamps

flame itself, or when starting by burning some oily waste round them, so that it escapes from the jet partly as spray and partly as vapor, and burns, with a rough and roaring but brilliant flame; The lamps used by plumbers and painters are on a very similar plan, but the fuel, either gasolene or benzine, is op. vapor; ized, and the jet of vapor mixed with air, so that it burns with a o: |; o: of a low-pipe. apor lamps, for indoor Éting may be divided into two classes—viz. those that owe their light to the finely divided carbon particles set free by the decomposition of the hydrocarbon in the flame, and those in which the flame is on the bunsen rinciple, and consequently nonuminous, but which heats up a mantle of refractory oxides to incandescence. Examples of the former type are given in the benzine lamp, in which , the vapor from a volatile o spirit issues from small holes in the burner, and is ignited; and in the naphtha lamp used on , street stands and the like, in which a somewhat less volatile spirit is led from a tank by a pipe to a rforated burner at a lower evel, by which, after a little preliminary heating, the naphtha is vaporized, and burns with a rough and not readily extinguished blaze. The most successful vapor lamps in which a mantle, is used are those fed either with alcohol or light petroleum spirit. In some of these the spirit flows from a reservoir through a tube, which, when the lamp is in action, is heated by the flame, itself, but on starting requires to be warmed up by an auxiliary flame. . In its passage through this tube the alcohol is vaporized, the vapor being led to the jet of a bunsen burner similar to that of an incandescent gas burner, where it mixes with air, and ignites a mantle in the same way. Similar lamps are constructed to be used with gasolene. Many lamps using ordinary kerosene vapor to ignite a mantle have been devised, though without perfect success. In one of the most successful the oil is supplied to an annular wick, at which it is burnt for a few moments to heat a disc of metal. The wick is then turned up to the hot metal, with the result that the oil is converted into vapor, which when burnt, mixed with air, ignites a mantle, sufficient heat being given out to keep the metal hot and continue the process. The only lamps coming within the definition that consume what may be strictly called gas are those burning acetylene, as, although this gas is usually, supplied from a central installation

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of greater or less size, it can also be prepared in a generator contained in a portable lamp, and is much used in this way to produce the brilliant light used on bicycles, automobiles, optical lanterns, small search lights, milita; signal lamps, etc. or these purposes the calcium carbide is usually contained in a gas-tight, receptacle, to which water is added drop by urop from a finely , adjustable needle , or other valve—a process , which, though less satisfactory than the method of o; the carbide to water, serves well enough for intermittent use. The gas is filtered and consumed at a special form of steatite burner which is so constructed as to cause two fine {. of the gas, issuing from fine oles some distance apart, to imo on each other and form, a at flame in a plane at right angles to their direction; or lamps used in mines, flour mills, oil warehouses and such laces where the atmosphere may Seconne explosive from admixture with inflammable gas or vapors, see SAFETY LAMP. Lighthouse lamps are of the circular wick type, usually with three or more concentric wicks. They burn paraffin or petroleum oil of high specific gravity and flash point which is pumped up to the wicks by a mechanism tiriven by, a falling weight, and burns with , a light of great intensity and fog-penetrating power. Candle, lamps are used for carriage lamps, reading lamps, and decorative purposes. They simply consist of a case containing a spring by which a hard candle is forced up to a perforated cap through which the wick passes. Lamps, ELECTRIC. See ELECTRIC LAMPs. Lampsacus, now LAPSAKI, imo city of ancient Phrygia sia Minor, on the s. coast of the Hellespont. It was a place of flourishing trade; and when it belonged to the Athenian emire during the 5th century B.C., it paid twice as much tribute as Ephesus. , See Murray's Handbook for Asia Minor (1895), and Wilson's Asia Minor. Lamp-shell. See BRACHIOPOld A. Lamu, isl. off the coast of, and included 'in, British E. Africa, about 23° S., separated from the mainland by a narrow channel, and front. Manda I., to the E., by a channel somewhat broader and deeper; 6% m. long by 3 m. broad. The town and port of Lamu, on the eastern shore, opposite Manda Island, is the headquarters of the administrator of Witu dis. trict. By regular lines of steamships it is in communication with Zanzibar, Europe, and India. Pop. 7,000.

Lancashire

Lanark, Co. th: r. (10,390 ac.), and roy. bor., S. Lanarkshire Scotland, on the high ground half a mile above the r. bk. of the Clyde, and close to the famous falls, 31 m. s. E. of Glasgow. The district is rich in Wallace associations. Manufactures drugget and linsey woolsey, and has large cattle and , sheep market. The racecourse is about 14 m. E.S.E. of the town. Pop. (1901) 6,640. At New Lanark, 14 m. s.w.. of Lanark, in 1785, David Dale and Arkwright founded a cotton mill of which Robert Owen, the social reformer, was long manager. Pop. 795. Lanarkshire, inland co. of S.W. Scotland. Area, 562,821 ac., or 879 sq. m. In population it ranks first among Scottish counties, having in 1901 a popuiation of 1,339,327, an increase of 912,355 over that of 1841. It is drained by the Clyde affluents. The surface is level in the N. more undulating but chiefly, lowland in the centre, and hilly in the s., which also contains much moorland. The N. part of the shire has shale, coal and ironstone mines, and fire clay beds that make it the richest mineral field in Scotland. The county produces oats and barley, and in the central valley is renowned for its orchards and small fruits. It is celebrated for its breed of working horses (Clydesdales). The large deposits of coal and the nearness of the Clyde ports have made possible the enormous development of the cotton, flax, and woollen manufactures, and of the iron - working and kindred industries in and around Glasgow (q.v.). Other manufacturing towns are Govan, Partick, Coatbridge, Airdrie, Hamilton, Motherwell, Wishaw, and Rutherglen. Lanark is the county town. Lancashire, large maritime co. in the W. of o lyin chiefly between the Mersey an Morecambe Bay, with a detached portion (Furness) N.W. of the latter, between Cumberland and Westmorland. In the W. the surface is generally low; in the centre, undulating, and in the E. and N., hilly. 'The Pool rivers are the No. Crake Leven, Douglas, Lune, Wyre, and Ribble. The county, is traversed § a network of railways. The Manchester Ship Canal, opened 1894, enables ocean vessels to ascend to Manchester. The principal crops are oats, wheat, and potatoes; cattle and sheep, are reared, and there are many dairy farms. The chief coal fields are S. Lancashire and Burnley, with an output, in 1902 of 24,440,719 tons, while the , production of § -iron exceeded 640,000 tons ther mineral industries give emLancaster

ployment to nearly 100,000 persons. Lancashire is the seat of the cotton manufacture (Manchester the centre;), other industries include iron works (Ulverston, Warrington, Manchester), chemicals (Widnes, ou's "h late, and other glass (St. He i. leather and tanning (Warrington), shipbuilding (Liverpool, Barrow, etc.). incashire was constituted a palatinate by Edward III. (1363) and for a song time it enjoyed almost sovereign privileges. Area, 1,887 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 4,406,787. See Croston's Historic Sites 1883); Industrial ncashire (1897). Lan caster. (1) City, Pa., co. seat of Lancaster co., on the Conestoga R., and on the Pa., the Phila. and Read., and the Lan. Oxf. and S. R. Rs. 62 m. w of Philadelphia, 59 m. by rail. The so. district is rich in agricultural products, especially wheat. The manufactures are varied and extensive, among the most important being cigars, umbrellas and canes, caramels, cocoa, watches, silk and cotton. Tobacco packing is a large in: dustry. here are also several iron works and machine shops. According to the Federal census of 1900 there were $10,803,464 invested in manufacturing industries, 9,349 hands of oyed, and the products were valued at $16,370,281. Of the products the most important were umbrellas and canes, , $2,694,200; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $2,557,787, and confectionery, $885,446. The leading educational and charitable institutions are the Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church of America, Franklin and Marshall College (German . Reformed), Yeates Institute, three public libraries, Academy of the Sacred Heart (R. C.), St. Joseph's and Lancaster enera ospitals homes for single and for aged women and friendless children. The most notable public buildings are the court house, Y. M. C. A. building and Masonic Hall (1785). There is a soldiers' monument, Witmer's Bridge, with fine stone arches, crosses the Conestoga at this point. There are two parks. Lancaster was first settled in 1718, incorporated as a borough in 1742, and as a city in 1818. It was the capital of the state from 1799 to 1812. Pop. (1900), 41,459; est: (o) 44.293. (3) Municipai r. and port, Lancashire, England, 21 m. N.w.. of Preston. The castle, now the assize and county court and jail, on the site of a Roman station, was erected dur;

Mortiner's

ing the Norman riod, and restored by John of Gaunt. The church o t. Mary is ancient.

Manufactures furniture, linoleum, Wol. Wii.-13

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and railway plant. Area, 3,160 ac. Pop. (1901) 40,329. See Fleury's Time-Honored Lancaster (1891), and Roper's Guide to Lancaster (1900). (3.) City, Fairfield co., O., 28 m. S.E. of Čolumbus, on the Hocking R. and on the Pa. and the Hocking Valley R. Rs. The district is o agricultural, and is supplied wit natural gas. The natural gas works and water works are owned by the city. Lancaster manufactures shoes, glass and agricultural implements. It contains a public library, a children's home, a boys' industrial school and a commercial college. It was settled in 1798 and incorporated as a city in 1851. General Sherman and Senator Sherman were born here. opogo) 8,991. (4.) Wil., Erie co., N. Y., on the N. Y. C., the Erie and the D., L. and W. R. Rs., 10 m. E. of Buffalo. There are foundries, glass works, flour mills, malleable iron works and machine shops. Pop. townshi (1905) 8,958; vil. 3,853. (5.) Th., N. H., co. seat of Coos co., on the con: necticut R. and on the Bost. and Me... and Me. Cen. R. Rs., 130 m. N. of Concord. It is a summer resort with some manufacturin interests, and has manufactures o lumber, drugs, and woodwork. Dark green, granite, of excellent uality, is found in the vicinity. he town has a public library.

It was incorporated in 1763. Pop. (1900) 3,190. (6.) City, Wis., co. seat of Grant co.,

on the Chic. and N.W. R. R. In the vicinity are lead mines. Zinc is also found. The city is a shipping point, for agricultural products and live stock. It has a public library. ... Pop. (1905) 2,555. (7.) Tn., Worcester co., Mass., on the Nashua R., and on the Bost. and Me. R. R., 15 m. N.N.E. of Worcester. Poultry raising is extensively carried on. Cotton yarn is manufactured. The town is the seat of the state industrial school for girls, and possesses a public library of 34,000 vols. It was first settled in 1643 and incorporated in 1653. It was twice raided and its inhabitants massacred by the Indians during the early Indian wars. Pop. (1905) 2,406. Lancaster, DUCHY of AND House of. Henry III.'s second son, Edmund, was the founder of the house of Lancaster. His son, Earl Thomas, took a leading part with the barons in checking the misgovernment of Edward II., and after, beheading Gaveston and , banishing the Despensers, was himself executed at Borough: bridge (1322). His nephew's second daughter , and co-heiress, Blanche. married her cousin ohn of Gaunt, fourth , son of award III., in 1359, when the king formed Lancaster into a

Lancaster

county palatine. The duchy was far more extensive than the county palatine, and had estates belonging to it in many other counties. Edward III. hoped, by adopting this family-settlement É. to gradually annex to the nglish crown all the great, estates in England. Possessed of a vast extent of territo ohn of Gaunt, it was suspected, aimed at securing the English crown on the death of Edward III. His son, Henry of Lancaster (Bolingbroke) however, deposed Richard II., and was the first of the famous. trian o, With Henry VI. England’s troubles began. The wars of the Roses broke out, and ‘the lack of governance’ became so evident that the trading classes advocated the succession to the throne, on the death of Henry VI. of Duke Richard of York. The death of the latter, however, at the battle of Wakefield rendered a compromise impossible, and after the battle of Towton Edward of York (son of Richard) was able to maintain himself on the throne as Edward Iv. The house of Lancaster fell, not on account of any better, title brought forward by the Yorkist house, but, because Henry VI. was, incapable, and unable to give the country' order and good government. The duchy of Lancaster is now annexed to the crown, and the chancellorship of the duchy is a political appointment, and usually held by a cabinet minister. The revenue of the duchy in 1903 was c. $500,000. See Stubbs’s Constitutional Hist. of England; Baines's Hist. of Lancashire. Lancaster, SIR JAMEs (d. 1618) navigator, sailed with an unsuccessful expedition to the E. Indies (1591). In 1596 he captured Pernambuco in Brazil: and in 1601 gave the new East India Company its first footing at Acheen and Java. He was knighted by Elizabeth, and having suggested the North-west Passage, Lancaster Sound was named by Baffin in his honor. See of . of Sir James Lancaster, edited for the Hakluyt Society b Sir Clements R. Markham (1877). Lancasters Joseph 1778– 1838), British edutator, was born in London, England, and became a member of the Society of Friends. He spent some years in promoting the pupil-teacher system of education in England and came to the U. S. in 181 with the object of introducing it here, but found it in operation already. He made journeys to South America, the West Indies, and Canada with the same purpose, but was not financially successful. . The Lancasterian syssystem has been carried to success in Mexico and countries of S. America since his death.

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Bay and Barrow Strait; was dis; covered by Baffin (1616) and traver

by Fox (1819). Lancelet. See AMPHIOxUS. Lancelot du Lac, the son of King Ban of Benoyc, a knight of the Round Table and lover of o Guinevere. Though probably better known to modern readers than any other hero of the cycle, Lancelot belongs ex: clusively to the later stage of Arthurian romantic evolution. Lancelot became, by the daughter of King Pelles, the father of , a son, Galahad, who should be the winner of the Grail—a feat which, as the unlawful but faithful lover of Guinevere, Lancelot himself could not achieve. So far as we can tell, , we possess the story only in a late and over-elaborated form; traces of an earlier, redaction, in which it was closely connected with the Perceval story, are, however, apparent: Prose Ländeloft printed editions, }. le Bourgois, and Jehan upré (1488); Ant. Verard {{!!}. Philippe Lenoire (1513, 1533); Jehan Petit (1533), , Roman van oi.e. songkhloet (2 vols. 1850), Butch verse translation

of the latter part of the prose Lancelot; Romans de la Table Ronde, M. Paulin Paris; Lan

zelet, (lrich von Zatzikhoven, ed. Hahn (1845); Le Chevalier de la Charrette, Chrétien de Troyes ed. Förster (1899); The Legend o Sir Lancelot du Lac, J. L. Weston, in Grimm Library, vol. xii. See also Rhūs's Studies in the Arthurian Legend (1891); and Newell's King Arthur and the Round Table (1897). Lancers, cavalry regiments carrying light lances are variously called Lancers, Dragoons, Uhlans etc., and were originally ji. in the Cossack regiments of Russia whence they were introduced into European warfare by, Naleon in the beginning of the ast century. . The lance is from 8 to 11 ft. o made of ash bamboo, or tubular steel, and carries a small pennon just below the point, the color of the pennon indicating the regiment. In case of wooden staves the point is a spear-shaped piece of steel, while #. heel is a rounded piece of the same metal. Lancers are not employed in the U. S. service, although steadily growing , in favor in European armies in the past ten years. The comparative value of the lance, as compared with the sabre and pistos is the important uestion of". future of cavalry. W. few opportunities of test

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ing the question in actual warfare have occurred in recent years, but the British Lancers gave a

ood account of themselves on

the two or three occasions when

the circumstances permitted their use in the S. African o: In general the lance may said to be particularly, effective against infantry which has been demoralized by artillery fire or by a defeat. CAVALRY. Lancet, THF, one of the leading British medical journals, was founded in 1823 by Thomas Wakley, surgeon, who, zealously set himself to attack the grosser abuses of practice and administration in connection with the hospitals. Wakley began by reporting the medical lectures at the hospitals, and describing the important cases that occurred there. He also devoted his attention to the Royal College of Surgeons, and, later, the relations of insurance companies to medical men. Wakley was assisted in the early days of the Lancet by William Cobbett, James Wardrop, and Sir William Lawrence, ands later by Dr. Arthur Hill Hassall. The paper is at present edited by his son, Mr. Thomas H. Wakley, and by his grandson, Mr. Thomas H. Wakley, jun. Lancewood is the wood of certain trees belonging to the enus Oxandra (Bocagea), a subivision of the order Anonaceae. The so-called white lancewood is the product of O. laurifolia, but the bulk of the lancewood used coachbuilders for shafts of traps consists of the main stems of the W. Indian O. virgata. It is very tough and elastic. Lan-chou-fu, cap. of prov. of Kan-su, China, on r. bk. of Yellow R." it is the residence of the viceroy of Shen-si and Kan-su. Manufactures cloth and camel'shair goods. Trade in silk, fur, metal, and wooden articles, grain, and tea. Pop. about/80,000, c isily Mohammedans. See Rockhill's Land of the Lamas (1891). Lan ci an i, CoMMENDATORE Rodolfo AMADEo (1847), Italian archaeologist, born at Rome. He became secretary to the Roman Archaeological Commission §§ director of excavations (1878), and professor of ancient topography, University of Rome (1883). He has superintended all recent Roman researches of im#. and in the U. S. (which evisited in 1886), he is especially known for this work. His great work, Forma Urbis Roma, a plan of classic Rome in 46 plates, with historical text, was begun in 1892. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries (1888), comprises his lectures in this country, and other translations of his works are: Pagan and Christian Rome (1893), The Destruction of Ancient Rome

Tand

1899), and New Tales of Old ome (1901). Among his other publications are I Commentarii di Frontino intorno le acque et gli Acquédotti (1880), and L'Itiner: ario di Einsiedlen (1891). Several of his books have been translated into English. Lanciano (anc. Anxenusa or Anxanum), th:, Chieti prov., Abruzzi e Molise, Italy, 15 m. S.E. of Chieti; the seat ion archbishop. Produces grain, fruit, and oil, and has silk, linen, and hemp factories. Pop. of comm. (1901) 18,528. Land. Economists have generally employed the term land in a technical sense, differing more or less from the ordinary usage. hey have, on the one hand, extended the meaning to include all the resources which nature offers to man. Thus land includes the mines as well as the soil, the fisheries and the navio rivers, the water power and the trade situation, as well as the natural properties of the soil. On the other hand, they have limited the term to the original and indestructible, qualities of the soil, and with this usage we now deal. Land as a factor in production is subject to a peculiar law which has been of enormous importance in determining the course of human development. This is the law of diminishing returns, which enunciates the fact that land will not go on indefinitely yielding returns to human labor. This law, however, is not peculiar to agriculture. The condition that makes the law peculiarly the law of agricultural industry is that the quantity of land available is at any given time limited. When the extension of a given factory becomes unprofitable, a new faco can be built which will be at least as good as the original; but in ore good land is strictly limited, and recourse must be had to inferior land if it is desired to continue producing. and, as men estimate it, according to their knowledge and their market, will always §. first occupied, and as population increases recourse must be had to inferior land. But ‘inferior’ means nothing but “less productive in yoportion to the labor expended.” Agriculture, which we take as typical of the various extractive industries connected with land, is also peculiar in this respect as an industry, that the advantages of large-scale production over small-scale production are by no means proved beyond doubt. In new countries the large farm has failed in most cases, and been broken up into manageable areas. With cattle and sheep ranches the

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