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case as yet is different; but in farming the tendency of a new country is towards moderatelysized farms, whose area is governed by the efficiency of the labor of the owner and his family. In England the discusion of the relative merits of large and small farming arose at the end of the 18th century. At that time, owing to the facility with which the
large farm adopted improved methods, large farming was generally, regarded as the better sys
tem; but during the 19th century the so depopulation of the rural districts, and the consequent scarcity of agricultural labor, produced a change of opinion. The political cry now is, “Back to the land'; and both from the political and the economic ". of view, the system of small holdings has found many advocates. In France, on the other hand, the small holdings which were the prevailing o 111 the early 19th century have been still further subdivided, with the result that in many cases the peasant is barely able to eke out a subsistence from his parcel of ground. French writers on rural economy are accordingly disposed to view with favor the merging of small holdings into larger estates. In the United States the small farm, operated by the owner is still the prevailing form, although in recent decades the proportion of farms operated by tenants has steadily increased. In 1880 74.5 per cent. of American farms were operated by the owners; in 1900 the percentage had fallen to 64.7.
The historical problems regarding the origin of o in land are discussed under the head VILLAGE CoMMUNITY, and regarding the beginnings of land tenure in England under MANor and FEUDAllis M. In England the manorial system was gradually yielding before a money, economy and being transformed into o tenancy when the Black Death, by creating a scarcity of labor, so altered economic conditions that the landowners endeavored to revert to the abandoned system, but without much success. The final result was the adoption of a transitional form of tenure. The landlord lacked labor, and the emancipated villein lacked capital to cultivate the land without help. The result was a stock and land lease which continued the system of tenure till a sufficiency of working capital had been amassed. #is system reappears in American agriculture as the “share’ system, where the tenant farmer pays the land-owner one-haif of the produce if the stock is provided with the land, and onethird when he himself provided the stock. In the older American
commonwealths the share system 1S §§ way to cash tenancy. he great epochs in English land history are the two agrarian revolutions which occurred in the 15th-16th century and in the 18th-19th century. The first was, due to the prosperity of the woollen industry, which induced the more enlightened to convert arable into pasture land, and to enclose great areas because of the greater clips of wool to be obtained from sheep fed in enclosed fields. ... This was the beginning of English capitalist tenant farming. ercantilism as a national policy in the 17th and 18th centuries, in consequence of an export duty on corn, diverted agriculture from its exclusive attention to wool; but this did not affect land, tenure to any great extent. The next agrarian revolution was also a period of enclosures, and it proved ruinous to small farmers, whose rights to commons were not always fully respected. The result was an enormous increase of produce from the land, due to improvements which became possible after enclosure. This revolution finall ave the character to Englis and-owning and farming. ngland is the classical home of the large farm and of the capitalist farmer. Land, legislation as applicable to England and to the fertile parts of Scotland has differed in character, from that passed for the benefit of Ireland. Rackrenting has never been ssible in England; it has in Ireland. Irish land legislation has taken up much of the time of Parliament, and much of the legislation has been passed to remedy evils created earlier acts. Thus the great irii; Land Bill of 1881 endeavored to give legal form to Ulster tenant right, and Create a form of dual ownership. The Land Bill of 1903 com i. wipes out all traces of dual ownership in favor of complete, purchase at the guarantee of the state. At first the principle of
land purchase was limited to the
facilitating of voluntary transers. en the credit of the state was introduced to facilitate the transaction, and Irish tenants could purchase at an annual payment of much less than the rent that had been paid. Landau, th:, Bavaria, Germany, in the prov. palatine, 32 mby rail s.w.. of Mannheim. Has breweries, tanneries, and dyeing industries, and trades in tobacco, wine, and grain. The town gives its name to a four-wheeled carriage which was originally made there. Pop. (1900) 15,824. Land Crab, a member of the family Gecarcinidae, and remarkable i. the curious modification
of the carapace in the region of the gills, which enables it to lead a terrestrial existence. The land crab occurs in the warmer refloo of both hemispheres, but the best known one is the large black. Gecarcinus ruricola of Jamaica and the West Indian islands generally. It inhabits burrows on the hills a short dis
tance from the coast, wanders about at night or during rains, in search of vegetable food, and makes an annual migration to the shore to spawn, often passing through houses instead of going around them. They are sometimes eaten. No. other crabs are largely terrestrial, as the oriental Cocoa-nut crabs; and a species of Ocypoda very troublesome in Ceylon, by burrowing in lawns, arden paths and the like. See osse, A Naturalist's Sojourn in Jamaica (1851). Landed Estates Court. a court onstitutoi in Ioson’s b the Salc and Transfer of £a. (Ireland) Act, 1858, s. 2, to which . was transferred all the business of the Commissioners for the Sale of Incumbered Estates in Ireland. The court was merged in the Supreme Court. by the Supreme Court of Judicature . (Ireland) Act, 1877, and the judges of the fanded Estates Côurt became the land judges of the Supreme Court. Lander, FREDERICK WILLIAM (1821–62), American engineer and soldier, was born at Salem, Mass. He studied engineering under Maj. Barton at South Andover, Vt., and practised his profession as engineer for New England railroads until his appointment (1853) as chief engineer of the Northern Pacific Railroad survey which he completed, as also another route to Puget Sound the following year. He was also chief engineer of the great overland wagon route. Lander fought with great bravery in the Federal army during the Civil War, and rose to be "#. dier-general of , volunteers. He died in the field of congestion of the brain. Lan der, RICHARD LEMON (1804–34), English explorer, born at Truro; accompanied Clapperton's Niger expedition (1825), and on his return wrote accounts of it in his Journal of Richard Lander from Kano, to the Coast (1829), and Records, of Captain Clapperton's Last Expedition to
Africa (1830). In 1830 Lander and his brother John (1807–39) were sent by the government to explore the lower course of the Niger. This they surveyed and roved that it do into the ulf of Guinea. During a later expedition to the Niger, Lander was killed by the natives. See his Journal of an Expedition to Explore the Niger (1832). Landerneau, Seapt., provFinistère, France, on river Elorn, 12 m. N.E. of Brest; has shipbuilding, tanning, woollen, linen, candles, paper. Pop. of comm. (1900) 22,745. Landes, maritime dep., S. W. France, bordering on the Atlantic. The portion to the N, of the Adour, three-fifths, of the department, is known as the landes, and consists of tracts of sand, interspersed with marshes, and forests of cork, pine, and oak. The part to the S., known as Chalosse, is hilly, and covered in large part § vineyards and plantations of oak; while, along the river valleys maize, wheat, and timber are grown. Mining is extensively carried on, iron ore being the , principal source of , wealth; Rock salt is obtained at Dax and Lescourre. Area, 3,615 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 291,586. There are three arrondissements—Mont-deMarsan (cap.), St. Sever, and Dax. Landgrave, or Count, was originally an official sent out by the central authority to administer a country district or gau. He acted as military leader, also as judge. After the break-up of the Carlovingian empire the counts often became powerful local magnates, and from their castles frequently defied the royal authority. Landis, KENESAW MoUNTAIN (1866) American jurist, was born at Millville, O., graduated at the Union College of Law, and was admitted to the bar in 1891. Excepting an interval of two years, during which he was private secretary to Walter Q. Gresham when he was Secretary of State, he practised law at Chicago from 1891 to 1905, when he became judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Ill. He was presiding judge at the trial in Chicago (June–July, 1907) of the Standard Oil Company of Indiana for accepting rebates from railroads. After the verdict finding the company guilty on 1,462 counts, Judge Landis issued a subpoena under which, John D. Rockefeller apo in court (July 6) and testied concerning his knowledge of the relation of the defendant com§ to the main corporation. atisfied that the defendant com§. constituted a part of the tandard Oil Company F.P., Judge Landis assessed (Aug. 3) the maximum fine under the verdict, $29,240,000.
Land Laws. An expression commonly employed to describe certain legislative acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Congress of the United States radically altering the common law conception of tenure of lands or providing for the acquisition of §§ therein by the people. f this character are the homestead laws of the United States and the Irish Land Laws enacted by Mr. Gladstone's government in 1870 and 1881 and by that of Lord also in 1887. For an account of this legislation see IRISH LAND LEGIslation. For the ordinary law of property in land see ProPERTY; REAL PROPERTY. Land League, THE, established in October, 1879, and suppressed in 1881, was perhaps the most powerful of , the many organizations to which agrarian agitation in Ireland has given birth. The principles of the organization were set forth in the following resolutions:—(1) “That the objects of the league are, first, to bring about a reduction of rackrents; second, to facilitate the obtaining of the ownership of the soil # the occupiers of the soil.’ (2) That the objects of the league can be best obtained (a) by promoting organization among the tenant farmers; (b) by defending, those who may be threatened with eviction for refusing to pay unjust rents; (c) by facilitating the working of the “Bright clauses” of the Land Act (1870) during the winter; and o by obtaining such, reform in the laws relating to land as will enable every tenant to become the owner of his holding by paying a fair rent for a limited number of years.” Among the names prominently associated with the Land League were those of Charles S. Parnell, Michael Davitt (the real founder), John Dillon, Thomas Sexton, J. . Biggar, James O'Kelly, and Patrick Egan. Under the Coercion Act of 1881, Parnell and other officials were arrested and confined in Kilmainham prison, and the league was proclaimed as an unlawful association. Landlord and Tenant. The relation subsisting between the lessor and the lessee of land. Any estate in land , which is capable of subdivision may furnish material for the creation of a tenancy, the only requisite being that the lessor shall retain an interest in the land conveyed. Under the feudal system of land holding, which formerly prevailed throughout western Europe, and to a fimited extent in the United States, it was possible for one to grant land to another in fee simF. and yet retain, an interest, nown as a possibility of reverter, in the land conveyed which gave the former the status of a
Landlord and Tenant
landlord with reference to the latter. This process, known as subinfeudation, was abolished by the famous statute Quia emptores (1290), and, though a few tenancies of this kind still exist in England, they are mere survivals and play no rôle in the modern law of real property. At the present time the relation of landlord and tenant is usually created by a form of conveyance known as a lease. This may within certain limits be by parol, but if for more than one year (in England and some of our states if for more than three years) is required by the Statute of Frauds to be in writing. The lease may be nothing more than a plain conveyance to the lessee of his limited estate in the premises, but it usually contains covenants or stipulations respecting the use to which the land may be put, the rent to be paid, the making of repairs, etc. In the absence of any such stipulations, however
the law regulates the relations of the parties to one another, in some important respects. The landlord is bound to protect the tenant against eviction, whether by the landlord himself or by any one claiming under him or resulting from any defect in his title. The tenant on his part is under a strict legal obligation to do no act inconsistent with the landlord's claim of title, to make all needed repairs and to refrain from committing waste or destruction on the premises. Accordingly he cannot refuse to pay rent, if reserved in the lease, on the ground that his lessor is not really the owner of the property. The only thing that will free him from his obligations as tenant is an eviction by the landlord or by one having paramount title. At common law the landlord could not make an effectual conveyance of his reserved interest in the property, known as the reversion,” without the tenant's consent, expressed in the act of attornment, but this restriction has been removed by statute. The tenant, on the other hand, has always had the power to alienate his leasehold estate either by an out and out assignment or by subletting, unless restrained by the terms of the lease. A lease, for however long a time and whether for life or for years, may be brought to an end by a reconveyance of the tenant's estate to the landlord, technically known as a surrender, or by the breach of a condition inserted in the lease. The mere failure to pay rent or to perform any other of the obli: gations imposed upon the tenant by the lease will not, however, affect his estate unless their performance be made a condition of the lease. Under ordinary cirLandon
cumstances the relation of landlord and tenant comes to an end without ceremony or notice, except in the case of the indefinite tenancies known as tenancies from year to year, which require a notice of six months to terminate them at the end of a current year. In a few jurisdictions tenants at will are also deemed to be entitled to notice. Generally a tenant staying over without authority after the expiration of his term becomes a tenant from year to year, if the landlord so elects and may be held for another year. See Ev1CTION, EMBLEMENTs, FixTUREs, LEASE, RELEASE, SURRENDER, TENURE, WASTE. Landon, LETITIA ELIZABETH (1892-38), English poet, born at Chelsea, early contributed to the Literary Gazette and other journals. Her poetry, somewhat Byronic, written under the initials : L. E. L. is often pleasing; and her novels showed great promise. See Life and Literary Remains, by S. L. Blanchard (1841); and Poetical Works, edited by W. B. Scott (1873). - Landor, ARNoLD HENRY SAVAGE, English artist and traveller, grandson of Walter Savage Landor, was born in Florence, and educated there and at Paris. ... He spent several years in visiting Japan, China, S. Mongolia, Korea, and other countries, and his name is associated with the two expeditions which took him into the Kurile Islands (1893) and into Tibet (1897): . The story of his visit to and his stay among the primitive inhabitants of Yezo and the Kurile Is. he told in his interesting book, Alone, with the Hairy Ainu (1893). The expedition into Tibet, with the object of penetrating Lhassa both in its scientific and personal aspects, fixed public attention upon Landor in a very special way. Landor wrote an account of the expedition together with a description of his alleged experiences, published in In the Forbidden nd (1898). His other_publications include Korea, or Chosen, the Land of the Morning Calm (1895); China and the Allies (1901); Across Coveted Lands (1902); The Gems of the East (1904); and Tibet and Nepal (1905). L and or, WALTER SAVAGE (1775-1864), English poet and prose writer, born at Warwick, was educated at Knowle, Rugby and finity coil.” Öxford (1793). Landor lived a wandering and unsettled life for some years, mainly at Bath, Bristol, or in Wales, with a visit to Paris in 1802. In 1805 he inherited some property from his father, and began to live in style at Bath. In 1808 he joined Blake's expedition_to assist the Spanish rising
against the French. This ended in the . Convention of Cintra, which Landor denounced. His residence, first at Como, then at Pisa, Pistoja, and Florence, was chequered by disputes with the local authorities; but he struck, in his Imaginary Conversations, upon a fertile literary, vein, of dialogued essay, which yielded many volumes. About 1857 his brain began to fail him. . His quarrels me pitiful, and after an attack of unconsciousness in 1858, he returned once more to Italy. Here he received attentions from Robert Browning and other men of note, and for a time lived with the sculptor W. W. Story at Siena. With many faults of temper and of character, Landor was capable of generosity and of distinguished courtesy. Poems : Miscellaneous Poems (1795, 1800, isoz, isãì), Gcbir (iişş); Si. monides (1806); Count Julian #}; ellenics (1847); Italics 1848); Collected Poems, ed. rump (1892). Prose Works: Imaginary Conversations, vols. i., ii. (1824); vol. iii. (1828); vols. iv., v. (1829); Citation and Eramination of illiam . Shakespeare (1834); Pericles and Aspasia (1836); The Pentameron (1837); The Last Fruit off an Old Tree (1853); Imaginary Conversations of Greeks and Romans (1853); Dry Sticks Fagoted (1858); Collected Works (1846), ed. Forster (1876), ed. Ellis (1886 - 90), ed. Crump 1890-2). See Life, by Forster 1869); Landor, by Colvin, in nglish Men of Letters (1884); Letters and Unpublished. Writings, by Wheeler (1897); Letters, Public and Private, by Wheeler (1899); Walter Savage Landor, by Evans (1892).
Land Registry. See REGISTRATION of TITLE. Landsberg, or L. AN DER
WARTHE, tr., prov. Brandenburg, Prussia, on the Warthe, 45 m. N.E. of Frankfort-on-the-Oder. Manufactures of machinery, sawmilling, brick-making, and the making of furniture. Pop. (1900) 33,598. Landscape, from the scientific standpoint, is the complex of the phenomena seen from any place. Eliminating atmospheric or marine effects, the various landscapes are controlled by the composition and structure of the rocks (soluble, porous, impervious, homogeneous, layered, horizontal, twisted, vertical), by the agents wearing them away or forming them (running water, sea, ice, wind), and by their covering of plant and animal life. See GEoMoRPHology, GeoGRAPHICAL Distribution of PLANts. Landscape - garden ing. Gardening on an artistic scale
was practised by the Assyrians,
the Greeks and Romans, and throughout Europe during the middle ages, yet the birth of landscape-gardening proper may be ascribed to Italy in the 15th century; and the most characteristic example now existing is the . Boboli garden, at Flor: ence, laid out by Cosmo de' Medici. Following this come the splendid gardens of the Q#. inal Palace, the Vatican, the Villa Borghese, the Villa PamfilaDoria, the Villa’i udovici, the Villa Medici, the Villa Albani, and the Villa d'Este, Tivoli, with the more modern public garden on the Pincian Hill. France next showed its interest in landscape-gardening in the gardens laid out by Francis I. at Fontainebleau, after his return from Italy. This was subsequently altered beyond recognition by Henry Iv., Louis xiv., and Napoleon. St. Germain was the next attempt in France, with a landscape garden originally designed for Henry Iv., and altered for Louis xiv. and Louis xv. Then followed the Jardin des Tuileries; but all the French gardens were soon eclipsed by
those of Versailles, where Louis
xiv. commanded Le Nôtre to create for him “a wonder of art such as the world had never seen.’ This led to the designer's employment by William and Mary to emulate Versailles on a smaller scale at Hampton Court, St. James's, and Kensington Gardens. About this time the landscapegarden hobby reached England; and William Kent, a landscape painter, who, like Le Nôtre, had been educated in Rome, was employed to plan the parks of Richmond, Esher, Claremont, Stowe, and Rowstham ; while his able follower, “Capability Brown,” remodelled Blenheim, the greatest of all landscape gardens, and designed Longleat and Wilton. Since those days England has shown the lead in the matter of landscape-gardening, and nothing finer has been produced than the gardens of Chatsworth and Trentham. Large estates and elaborate villas in the United States, however, have afforded ample opportunity for landscape - gardening which has been generally availed of, and the country seats at Lenox, Mass., and Newport, R.I., while lacking the age of the English country residences, have been developed to a high degree of artistic , beauty. The parks, of American cities, most of which possessed but little original natural beauty, are perhaps the best examples of American landscapegardening, and such work as that of Frederick Law Olmstead and Calvert Vaux has received uniyersal appreciation. In the laying out of cemeteries the Amer
LANDSCAPE-GARDENING—SOME NOTED EUROPEAN EXAMPLES.
1. Gardens of the Villa Borghese, Rome. 2. Villa Medici, Rome. 3. Blenheim. (Photo by Taunt.) 4. Fontainebleau, 5. The Pincio, Rome, 6, Villa d'Este, Tivoli. 7. Boboli Gardens, Florence.