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NELSON'S ENCYCLOPAEDIA.

Joan of Arc (?1412–31) was born at Domrémy, some miles S.w.. of Nancy. From the o of thirteen she constantly heard voices, and believing herself called to be the deliverer of France from the English, she * out the Dauphin at Chinon. any, among whom were the Dominicans, showe hostility to her, and her patriotic enthusiasm. She secured, however, the confidence of soldiers like Dunois and Alençon, and the king allowed her to join a relief expedition to Orléans. The entry was made Apr. 29, 1429. Within two days under her orders a signal victory was won, and, by May 8, the English were in full retreat, and her military ability was established. Her insistence that the Dauphin go at once to Rheims, failed to receive acceptance, and she led the op. again to success at Jargeau and Patay. At length, Charles entered Rheims on July 15, and was crowned on the 17th. Thus in less than five months, Joan had accomplished her mission of expelling the English from France, and crowning Charles king. Enemies multiplied about her, and treachery to her plans involved even the king she had placed on the throne. It was her §. to secure Burgundy to Sharles, but at the moment of a parent success, he recalled the army from before Paris. She then attempted the relief of Compiègne, but was captured by the Burgundians May 24, 1430, and sold to the English "She was imprisoned at Rouen, and after much brutality brought to a mockery of a trial on {. 9, 1431. Pierre Couchon, bishop of Beauvais, engineered her condemnation as a sorceress and heretic, by infamous trickery, and on May 30, 1431, she was burned at the stake. On Apr. 18, 1909, in the basilica of St. Peter's at Rome, she was beatified by the Pope in the presence of a multitude, including 40,000 pilgrims from France. See Quicherat’s Proces de Condamnation et de Rehabilitation de Jeanne D'Arc (1841–50); Mrs. M. O. Oliphant's Yeone of Arc (1903); ndrew Lang's Jeanne d'Arc (1909); Anatole France's Life of Joan of Arc (Eng. tr. 1909).

Joash. or JEHoAsh. (1.) King

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of Judah (c. 836–796 B.g.), was the son of King Ahaziah. Sayed from the truculence of Athaliah, his grandmother, Joash was growned at her deposition, while only seven years of age. ... Under the guidance of Jehoiada the priest he was instrumental in restoring the temple, which had fallen into sad disrepair under the idolatrous queen... But, according to the Book of Chroni; cles, his later years were stained by a relapse into idolatry, and by the murder of the hi # priest Zechariah. , Penalty followed in the Syrian invasion, and in the king's assassination by two of his servants. See 2 Kings 11, 21; ? Chron. 22–24. (2.) King of Israel (c. 798–782 B.C.), the son and successor of Jehoahaz. He was one of the ablest rulers and most daring warriors in the royal line of the northern kingdom. After an interview with the §"; Elisha Joash thrice, defeated enhadad of Syria, and also repelled an invasión, led by Amaziah of Judah, took him prisoner, and pushed his victory as far as Jerusasem, which he captured. See, 2 Kings 13, 14. Job, Book of, forms part of the third division of the Hébrew Old Testament, and purports to narrate a lengthened, episode in the life of a non-Israelite, Job, “a man in the land of Uz” (either in Edom or in the Hauran). At Satan’s instigation, and with God's per; mission, he suffers first the loss of his possessions and his family, and thereafter grievous bodily in: fliction, as a test of his faith and integrity, which, however, is successfully borne (ch. 1, 2). He then holds three cycles of long collouies with his friends Eliphaz, ildad, and Zophar (4–14, 15–21, 22–31). After the intervention of a fifth debater, the youthful Elihu (32–37), and an answer from God with short interruptions from Job 38–42:6), the book closes with a escription of Job's ultimate prosrity, all his former possessions ing doubled, and a new family born to him. The first two chapters and the epilogue (42:7–17) are written in prose, all the rest in try. The design of the work is plain: it is an attempt to grapple with the problem of human suffering, more particularly that of the righteous..., Job’s... three friends advocate the traditional

view that suffering is penalty for sin. and therefore maintain that his calamities are the consequence and unmistakable evidence of an ungodly life. There is sufficient truth about such a theory to make it tenable. . . In spite of the reroaches of his friends, however, }. continues to assert his integrity, and is conyinced that even if the pure eye of God were to try him, he would come forth as gold (23:10), though in his defence he ls o into something perilously like an indictment of the Divine government. Theoretical solution of the difficulty there is none, but a sufficient practical one is found in Job's eventual submission to God's dealings, and the confession of his temerity. Isaiah 53 should be compared with the Book of Job, as throwing a fresh gleam of o: upon the problem. Of the author (or authors) of the work we know nothing, but Sayce has made out a good case for }. as of Moabitic origin (Higher Criticism and the Monuments). According to Jewish tradition, it was written by Moses; , modern critics assign various dates between the 9th and 4th centuries B.c. The general tone of the etical portions agrees well Willo, period shortly after the captivity, when men were asking why those born in exile, and therefore not responsible for the eyils of which it was the penalty, should yet continue to suffer. The specch of Elihu, is generally o as a later insertion; and some critics suppose the prose prologue and epilogue to be earlier than the rest of the work (contrast the patience of Job in the second chapter with the murmuring spirit of the third), and that the great unknown poet and prophet used the ancient legend as the medium of his speculations. Note that none of the dramatis persona, not even God, makes any reference to the part played by Satan, and that the concluding, story, with its ultra-poetic justice, is really irrelevant to the point in debate. . See Froude's Short Studies, vol. I. 1878); W. T. Davison, Wisdom iterature (1893). Best commentary is avidson Camb. Bible (1884); others are Delitzsch (1864, trans. 1876); Dillmann (1869); Budde (1876, 1896);

"JOAN OF ARC: THE CORONATION OF CHARLES VII. AT RHEIMS.” (From the painting by J. E. Lenepven in the Pantheon, Paris.)

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Wilkinson (1901); , Fried. Delitzsch (1902); Peake, Century Bible (1905).

Job’s Tears (Coix LachrymaTobi), a grass of the East Indies, deriving its name. from its large bluish-white, tear-like seeds, whi are used for food, and strung as jewelry. Jocelin, or Joscelin (fl. 1200), a Cistercian monk, who lived at Furness, and then at . Down in Ireland. He wrote Lives of St. Patrick, St. Kentigern and St. Waltheof of Melrose. Extracts also exist of his Life of David of Scotland, and of a Life of St. Helen, attributed to Jocelin. Jocelin de Brakelonde (d. c. 1211), chronicler, a Benedictine monk of Bury Št. Edmunds. In his Chronica he gives the history of the abbey while he was an inmate. It was edited for the Camden Society by J. G. Rokewood in 1840, and was translated as Monastic and Social Life in the Twelfth Century (1843). See Carlyle's Past and Present. Jockey Club. See HoRSEracing. Jodel, or JoDELN, a manner of singing which consists of changing suddenly from_the chest voice to the falsetto. It is much used by the Tyrolese in singing their native melodies, and is frequently introduced as a form of refrain after each verse of a song. Jodelle, FTIENNE §32-73), French t, born at Paris. The friend of Ronsard and Du Bellay, he substituted classic plays for the mysteries and mora % plays of the middle ages. His Cléopâtre (1552) brought him, into connection with the French court. He

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the N.E. Hardware and ivory are manufactured. Pop. (1901) 60,437.

Joel, whose book is the second of the “minor prophets,’ was the son of Pethuel. Nothing is known of his personality, but it is com: monly accepted that he belonged

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to Judah; his thoughts centre around Jerusalem. e contents of his slight book may be grouped as follows: (1) ch. 1 to 2:17, description of a calamitous plague of socusts, and a call to repentance and prayer; (2) 2:18 to 3:21, Yahweh’s promise of restitution at the ‘day of the Lord,” which, however, will, bring disaster to Israel's enemies. Some have understood the locusts in a figurative sense—i.e. as representing some invading enemy—but the fact that the prophet compares them to men, and that their ravages, are among the crops, not the people, rather favors a literal interpretation. . The date is much canvassed: the traditional view was that Joel lived in the days of Joash, and o must have been one of the first ‘literary', prophets; , but recent scholarship, ...; from the absence from the book of any reference to Assyria, to Israel (the northern kingdom), or to a king combined with the mention o priests and fasts, generally assigns a date in the early Greek period. . The style is pure and clear, but lacks the creative originality of Hosea or Amos. See commentaries by Merx § 879 Pearson . (1885); , Preuss (1889 Driver, in Camb. Bible (1897); and works quoted under PROPHecy.

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Johanna, or ANJoVAN. See CoMoRo IslanDs. Johannesburg, the largest

city of the Transvaal Colony British S. Africa, 30 m. s.w.. o Pretoria. In 1886 its site was bare, open veldt (5,500 ft.); but the town grew rapidly, owing to its iocation on the witvaters: rand gold fields, the richest goldmining district in the world. In 1896 it was a busy town, 6 sq. m. in area, with a pop. of 8,000 Boers, 34,000 British, and 43,000 natives. Johannesburg is connected by rail with Pretoria, Delagoa Bay, Port Elizabeth, and Cape Town. It has broad streets, and contains many handsome government and other buildings. The fortress erected by the Boer government is now dismantled. n May 29, 1900, the town was quietly occupied by Lord Roberts. earby stands the national Boer monument erected to commemorate the declaration of independence in 1880. Pop. (1904) 160,017. Johannisberg,..., castle (built 1722–32) in the Rheingau, Germany, on the s. slope of the Taunus, overlooking the Rhine, 3 m. N.E. of Rüdesheim. Its vineyards (52 ag.) produce the famous Johannisberger. . John, the Apostle, one of the disciples, and probably the cousin, of Jesus, was the son of Zebedee and Salome, and the brother of James ‘the Great.' He was a

John

fisherman, at Beth said a, near Capernaum, on the Lake of Galilee, and was there called by Jesus to the discipleship. Our Lord ave the two brothers the name oanerges, ‘Sons of Thunder,’ probably indicating a certain impetuosity, or even arrogance, in their temperament, which called for occasional reproof (Matt. 20: 20 f.; Mark 9:38 j.; Luke 9 # but john became much changed, as might be expected of the disciple whom Jesus loved’ (John 13:23), and one to whom our Lord, when on the cross, committed the care of his mother ohn 19:26 f.). With Peter and ames he formed an inner circle of the disciples, who were admitted to more intimate relations with the Master. After the crucifixion he became a ‘Dillar', of the church, at Jerusalem (Gal. 2:9). According to an ancient tradition, he spent his old §: in Ephesus, and wrote there the Apocalypse, the Gospel, and the Epistles. John, EP1st LEs of, three writings enumerated among the Catholic , epistles, traditionally associated with the apostle John, and showing evidence that the are the products of a single hand. The design of the First Epistle is stated in 5:13, ‘that ?" may know that ye have eternal life,' and it brings out very forcibly the two complementary truths—God is righteous, and God is love. In .# diction, and general cast of thought its resemblance to the Gospel of John is marked, and some critics—e.g. Baur — have regarded it as a mere imitation of the latter. The more particular occasion of the epistle was the appearance, in the churches addressed, of some form of doctrinal, error, the representatives of which, as denying the Messiahship of Jesus, are named antichrists (2:22, 4:3; cf. 2 John 7). By some this error has been rearded as a form of docetic }nosticism, and some have also seen in the epistle traces of montanistic rigorism (e.g. 5:16 j.). Hence many critics âte the epistle at such a late period as to pool. its apostolic authorship. ut the historical evidence in favor of its genuineness is strong quotations from it being found in Irenaeus, , Papias, Polycarp, and the Didaché (c. 100 A.D.). The Second Epistle is addressed ‘to the elect lady and her children’ (ch. }. a phrase regarded by some as referring not to an individual but to the church generally (Hilgenfeld), or to some part of the church—e.g. Jerusalem or Philadelphia. Like the First Epistle, this contains warnings against false doctrines. The Third Epistle was sent to one Gaius, who lived near Ephesus, but is other

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1. Chinese miners at Glen Deep. 2. National Bank of South Africa. Pritchard Street. 3. Commissioner Street. 4. General view of the mining district. 5. Simmer and Jack Mines. 6. General Mining Buildings.

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John

wise unknown. It is a request for hospitality on behalf of certain teachers who were about to visit his locality. These two letters appear to complimentary. They are the shortest books in the canon. Some have believed that they came from the hand of a certain ‘John the

Presbyter, who is, however, identified by some with the Apostle John. hey are not so well

authenticated as the First Epistle. See commentaries %. ilgenfeld, §§ u. Briefe Johann. (1849); . Neander (1851); Rothe, 1st Ep. (1878); Alexander in the Speaker's Commentary (1881); estcott (1886); Plummer, Camb. Bible o: Pulpit Com:. (1889); Lias, 1st Ep. (IS87); Weiss in Meyer (1888); Holtzmann in Hand-Com. zum N. T. (1893); Karl, Johannische Studien (1898). John, THE Gospel. Accorps NG To, from its position in the New Testament often called the fourth gospel, differs so much in form and character from the other three gospels that it forms a class by itself co-ordinate with what may be called the synoptic tradition. (See Gos PE L's.) It may be divided as follows: (1) the prologue, ch. 1:1-18; (2) the testimony of the first witnesses to 2. and of various works ands signs, 1:19–4:54; (3) further signs and conflicts with the Jews, culminating in their resolve to put Jesus to death, 5–12; (4) the final discourses and the priestly E. 13–17; (5) trial, cruciion, resurrection, and various manifestations, 18–21. The work displays a clear and homogeneous plan, having all its parts organically connected , with each other and with the whole; whereas the synoptics are rather of the nature of more or less discrete aggregates, so that a miracle more or less would not alter the character of, for example, Matthew (Holtzmann). John records surprisingly , little of the historicas matter found in the synoptic gospels—e.g. it has nothing about the birth, infancy, temptation, or transfiguration of Jesus, or His agony in the garden; nor does it contain any parablesbut, on the other hand, it narrates several incidents, such as the raising of Lazarus, the absence of which from the others strikes us as strange. In the synoptics, the scene of the work of Jesus is principally Galilee, and He comes to Jerusalem only towards the end; in John the chief theatre of the gospel drama is Jerusalem, the Galilean ministry being merely episodic. . The former give the 15th, the latter the 14th, of Nisan as the day of the crucifixion. . A remarkable gontrast appears in regard to the Messiahship of Jesus: according

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to the synoptists, there is a progressive development in Jesus's consciousness of His Messianic calling, culminating in the express assertion and, recognition of it at Caesarea Philippi ...; 16:16, 17); according to the fourth gospel, esus and the disciples are aware of it from the first (John 1:34, 41, 45, 49; cf. 2:13: 20). Finally may be mentioned the long and sustained discourses of Jesus É. in the fourth gospel, which are not in the manner of jesus according to the synoptists. These differences, strikin even the cursory reader, receive a more thoroughgoing treatment at the hands of Evanson (1792) in §§. and Bretschneider (1820 in Germany, who may be regarde as the fathers of the modern antitraditional view of the gospel, according to which the work issued from a 2d-century writer, and is more or less dominated by the forms of Greek thought. Thus the Tübingen school saw in it an artistic and idealized outline of the Saviour's life, given in the form of a dramatic elaboration of the conflict between light and darkness, impersonated ... respectively in the incarnate divine #: (the Word) and the Jews; and as it seemed to Pool. the development of the church up to the middle of the 2nd century, the date of its composition, was laced about 170 A.D. Hilgeneld emphasized the presence of a Gnostic element, and Keim an Alexandrian influence, as corroborative evidence of non-a tolic origin. Schleiermacher Neander, Bleek, Ewald, and others appeared on the traditional side, either simply , accepting the Johannine authorship, or believing the work to be a more or less idealized reproduction of Johannine origin; and in consequence of their vigorous defence, the more radical criticism was compelled to abandon the later date for an earlier (120– 140 A.D.). The theory that the fourth go issued from an Ephesian Christian of the name of John (John, the Presbyter—by some identified with the Apostle —or another) has attracted minds like Holtzmann. While the majority of recent foreign critics controvert the authenticity, English writers in the main adopt the apologetic standpoint, though they do not deny a subjective coloring. The external evidence (allusions or citations in Justin Martyr, etc.) is hardly decisive on the problem; if it tends to discredit the more extreme theories, it cannot be said to substantiate the traditional. The tradition which associates the work with the apostle John is ancient and unanimous and attributes the composition of the book to the apostle in his extreme

John

old age (95–100 A.D.). See commentaries by Godet §: 1887) Westcott (Speaker's), Milligan and Moulton (Popular), Reynolds § Dods §: #} oltzmann , (Hand-Kommentar); also Sanday's Gospels during the 2nd Century (1876); Luthardt's Johan. Ursprung des , vierten Evang. (trans. 1875); M. Arnold's God and the Bible (1875); Albrecht Thoma's Genesis des viertent Evang. (1882); P. Ewald's Das ####". der Evangelienfrage (1890); Watkins's Criticism in its Relation to the Fourth Gospel (1890); Abbot, External Evidence of the Fourth Gospel (1891); H. H. endt's Gospel according to John (trans. 1902); Drummond's Character and Authorship of the Fourth Gospel (1904); and Sanday's The Criticism of the Fourth Gospel 1905). lso Introductions to #. , and Lives of Jesus generaily. John, St., of Nepomuk or Pomuk (c. 1330-93), patron saint of., Bohemia, born at Pomuk (Pilsen), ultimately became canon of the chapter of Prague. The cause of his martyrdom, is variously, given. ... He is, however, pularly believed to , have reused to betray the confessions of Sophia, wife of . King Wenceslaus, which he had received in his ecclesiastical capacity. See Frind's Der geschichtliche Johannes von Nepomuk (1871), and Wratislaw's Life, Legend, and Canonization of St. §. Nepomucen (1873). John, the name of no fewer than twenty-three popes, some of whom, in their day, were more or less famous. John, I. (523–6) went to . Constantinople at the command of Theodoric, to expostulate with Justin, emperor of the East, for having promulated severe decrees against the rians. Being unsuccessful, he was on his return to Ravenna imprisoned by . Theodoric, and died while still in confinement.— John II. (533–5) is the pontiff who, at the suggestion of the Emperor, Justinian, , first sanctioned the proposition, “Unus de Trinitate passus est in carne.’ —John , VIII. jo was the Pope who crowned Charles the Bald, emperor of the Romans (875). . After suffering imprisonment by the Saracens, ho went to France for help e at first acknowledged Photius, but afterwards condemned him as a schismatic.—John XII. (956–64), whose orignial name was Octavian, was the first to initiate the practice of changing the pontiff's name. Otho the Great of Germany at first favored him, but later (963) used his influence to obtain the Pope's deposition on the ground of licentiousness—a new pontiff, Leo VIII., being elected. But

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