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Comedy (1896), and The Liars (1897). Carnac Sahib (1899) and The Lackey's Carnival (1900) were followed by four “serious' plays of modern life—Mrs. Dane's Defence (1900), Chance the Idol (1902), Whitewashing Julia (1903), Joseph #"; (1904), and Hypocrites and The Heroic Mr. Stubbs (1906). A number of Mr. Jones’s plays have been printed, and he has also pub§.P. volume of essays and lectures under the title of The Renascence of the English Drama o

Jones, INIGo (c. 1573–1652), English architect, born in London. He was sent by William Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke,

22), now the Chapel Royal. See oftie's Inigo Jones and Wren (1893) and Cunningham's Life of Inigo Jones (1898). Jones, JoHN PAUL (1747–92), famous Scotch-American naval officer, in the service successively of the U. S. and Russia. He was born near the hamlet of Arbigland in the parish of Kirkbean, Stewartry (now county) of Kirkcudbright, Scotland, and was the son of a peasant named John Paul. In 1759-66 he was an apprentice to a merchant at Whitehaven engaged in the American and West Indian trade, being almost immediately sent to sea, and showing a remarkable aptitude

William Jones. In compliance with the conditions imposed by the inheritance, John Paul at this time also assumed the surname of Jones. He then became a planter near the Rappahannock in Va., espoused the cause of the colonies on the outbreak of the American Revolution (1775), was consulted by the Continental Congress concerning the organization of a navy, and in December, 1775, was commissioned as a lieutenant in the newly-organized naval service. He assumed temporary command of the Alfred, and on it displayed the first flag—the ‘Pine tree and Rattlesnake Flag' —ever displayed on an American

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man-of-war. He then, as captain (1776), commanded in turn the Providence, the Alfred (1776), and the Ranger (1777–8), cruised around the British Isles, did great damage to British shipping, even dashing into British ports for the purpose, and defeated and capture off Carrickfergus the British sloop-of-war Drake (April 23, 1778), ‘the first instance in modern naval warfare,’ says the best of Jones's biographers (Buell), “ of the capture of a regular British man-of-war by a ship of inferior force.” After being idle for some time in France, he received (Feb., 1779) from King Louis xvi., then the ally of #e United States, the command of a ship of 40 guns, Le Duras, an old East Indiaman, which, in Franklin's honor, was renamed Le Bonhomme Richard. Three other ships, the Alliance, the Pallas, and the Vengeance, were placed, with qualifications, under, his orders, and he, still retaining his American commission, conducted a memorable cruise of 50 days (Aug. 14–Oct. 3, 1779), during which he again made a circuit of the British Isles, and in a famous naval battle between the Bonhomme Richard and the British warship Serapis (44 guns), on September 23, 1779, defeated and captured his antagonist, but lost his own vessel, which sank after the engagement. His active service in the American navy ended in May, 1781. From 1788 until 1791 he was a vice-admiral in the Russian service, commanded a squadron in the Black Sea, and defeated the Turkish navy in the battle of the Liman (June 17, 1788). After leaving the Russian service, he lived in Paris, taking an active interest in the progress of the French Revolution, and writing an influential pamphlet, Traité l'état actuel de la marine

Sur française. He died in Paris July 19, 1792. The record of his

burial place was lost, but after a long search conducted by Ambassador . Horace Porter, his body was discovered in the old St. Louis Cemetery (April 14, 1905), was conveyed to the Š. by a U. S. squadron especially sent to France for the purpose, and was buried at Annapolis, Mi. So Buell's Paul Jones, Founder of the American # v., 1901), and Brady's Commodore Paul Jones (1900), in the ‘Great Commanders’ Series.” Jones, John PERCIVAL (1830), American legislator, was born in Herefordshire, England, and was brought to this country when an infant by his parents, who settled in Northern Ohio. In 1849 he went to Cal. and engaged successfully in mining. He served in the Senate of that state, and in

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1867 went to Nev., whence he was elected as a Republican to the U. S. Senate in 1873, serving thereafter continuously until 1903. He favored bimetallism and , the free coinage of silver, leaving his party and supporting Bryan, on that issue in 1896. In 1900 he rejoined his party, but continued to advocate free silver. . Jones, Owen (1809–74), English architect and decorator, born in London; took a leading part in the decoration of the buildings for the exhibition of 1851. He also executed designs for various public buildings, though it was in interior decoration that his best work was done. Among his publications are Desi for Mosaic and Tessellated Pavements (1842); The Polychromatic Ornament of Italy (1846); and The Grammar of Qrnament (1856), his principal work. Jones, SAMUEL MILTON (1846– 1904), American manufacturer, known as ‘Golden, Rule’ Jones for his advocacy of honest dealing in political and business life, was born near Beddgelert, Wales, and was brought to this country in 1849. As a lad, and young man he worked in the oil fields. He made successful inventions and established a factory for their manufacture at Toledo, O. of which city 'he was elected major in 1897, as a Republican, and re-elected in 1899, 1901, and 1903 on independent tickets. He favored municipal ownership, direct, legislation, and an 8-hour working day, and practised what he preached, as politician and employer. Jones, SAMUEL PortER (1847), American evangelist, popularly known as ‘Sam Jones,” was born in Chambers co., Ala., and was admitted to the bar of Georgia in 1869. He was licensed to preach by the Methodist Episcopal Church (South) in 1872, and held different pastorates in the South for some years. Afterward he engaged in active revivalist work all over the country, and became noted for his blunt and slangy, but effective, platform addresses. He published several collections of sensational sermons. Jones, THOMAS AP CATESBY (1787-1858), American naval of ficer, was born in Va., entered the navy, as a midshipman in 1805, and advanced to the rank of captain (1829). He served in the Gulf Squadron, against pirates, smugglers, and slavetraders in 1808-12, and commanded a squadron of gunboats protecting Gulf state harbors during the War of 1812. He was overpowered by the British fleet of 40 vessels, conveying Pakenham to New Orleans (1814), and surrendered when dangerously

Jongleurs

wounded and cut off from escape. In 1826 he was sent to the Hawaiian Islands to arrange for the payment of debts due American citizens, a matter which he negotiated successfully, incidentally defeating Charlton's scheme to have the islands recognized as a British dependency. In 1842, while in service off Cal., he took posessession of Monterey on the strength of a rumor that the U. S. had declared war against Mexico. For this error he was temporarily suspended. Jones, THoMAs RUPERT (1819), English geologist, born in London. In 1858 he became lecturer on geology at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and was subsequently, professor of that subject at the Royal. Military and Staff Colleges, retiring in 1880. He published a Monograph of the Cretaceous Entomostraca (1849), of the Tertiary Entomostraca in England (1856), and of the Fossil Estheriae (1862). Jones, SIR WILLIAM (1746–94), English Oriental scholar, born in London. Called to the bar in 1774, he became commissioner of bankrupts (1776). Appointed to a judgeship in Bengal (1783), he held the post until his death, and while discharging this duty made a careful study of Hindu lawi, the results of which were published in 1800 by Colebrooke as Digest of Hindu Laws. His translation of the Institutes of Manu appeared in 1794. Among his other publications are A Persian Grammar (1772), and translation of the ancient Arabic F. called Moallákat (1783). But it was as the English pioneer in the study of Sanskrit that his influence was greatest. His collected works were published in 1799 by Lord Teignmouth. In 1784 he founded the Bengal Asiatic Society. See Life by Lord Teignmouth (1894 and 1835); also Autobiography, published by Jones's son (1846). Jonesboro, city, Ark., co. seat of Craighead co., 60 m. N.w, of Memphis, on the St. L. and S. Fran... the St. L. S. W. and the onesb., L. City and E. R. Rs. t is a shipping point for lumber and manufactures handles, headings, boxes, leather, wagons cotton oil, etc. ... It is the seat o Woodlawn, College (Bapt.). It was settled in 1870. Pop. (1900) 4,508. Jongleurs, JUGGLERS, or JocuLATOREs, a caste of wandering minstrels and mountebanks in mediaeval Europe, Sismondi quotes, the instructions given by a jongleur of Gascony to a young aspirant of his craft: “He must know how to compose and rhyme well, and how to propose a jew parti. He must be able to play on the tambourine and the cymbals;

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to throw and to catch little balls on the point of a knife; to imitate the song of birds; to play tricks with the baskets; to exhibit attacks of castles (? panorama; or dramatic representation), and leaps through four hoops; to play on the citole and the mandore; to handle the clavicord and the guitar; to string the wheel with seventeen chords; to play on the harp; and to adapt a gigue so as to enliven the psaltery. Sismondi further states that “the jongleurs used to take their stations at the cross-roads, clothed in grotesque habits, and attract a crowd around them by exhibiting dancing apes, legerdemain tricks, and the most ridiculous antics and grimaces. In this manner they prepared their audience for the verses which they recited.’ This caste included both sexes. Lacroix informs us that the jongleurs had “kings' of their own. Referring more distinctly to the mountebank caste, this writer also states: Many of them were Bohemians or Zingari. They travelled in companies, sometimes on foot, sometimes on horseback, and sometimes with some sort of conveyance containing the accessories of their craft and a travelling theatre.'. Whether the gypsy element predominated is, , however, unascertained. Dekker's picture of the English gypsies dressed as morris-dancers, and the account given of a gypsy troop in Paris in 1427, both represent, a caste of jongleurs. See the ‘Dissertation’ by Ritson in his Ancient English Metrical Romances (1802), cxlviii.-ccxxiv.; Sismondi's Historical View of the Literature of the South of Europe (Roscoe's trans., 1846, 2d ed.); Lacroix's Manners, etc., of the Middle Ages (1876); and Lucas's Yetholm. History of the Gypsies (1882). Jönköping, cap. of the co. of the 'same name, Sweden, charmingly situated on the s. side of Lake Wetter. It has a harbor, #: shipping trade, and manuactures of matches, carpets, paper, wood pulp, tobacco, arms, and machinery. Here (1809) peace was concluded between Sweden and Denmark. Pop. (1900) 23,143. Jonquil (Narcissus jonquilla) is a native of Spain, but widely cultivated. It is ha and bears very sweet-scented yellow flowers in early spring; with a corolla tube, which is very long and slender, and a star-shaped limb. From two to six flowers are borne on a stem. There is a double va

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He served in the English contingent in Flanders under Maurice of Nassau, and, if he spoke truth, slew a Spaniard in single fight. About 1592 he returned to London, and in 1597 he was a player, and was writing plays for Henslowe. During 1598 he killed a fellow-actor, Gabriel Spencer, in a duel, stood his trial for murder, pleaded benefit of clergy, was branded in the thumb, and, while in prison, became a Roman Catholic. In the autumn his Every Man in his Humor was acted at the Globe, possibly through the good offices of Shakespeare, and was followed in 1599 by Every Man out of his Humor. The children of the Queen's Chapel produced his Cynthia's Revels (1600) and Poetaster (1601). The latter play was an episode in the “war of the theatres,’ not to be taken too seriously, in which Jonson on one side, and Shakespeare, Marston, and Dekker on the other, led the hosts. Sejanus appeared at the Globe in 1603. With the accession of James I, began the long series of Jonson's court masques, for which he provided the poetry and the learning, and Inigo so. the architecture. In 1605 he joined Chapman and Marston in prison on account of the criticism of the Scots in their joint play of Eastward Ho. He was employed as a spy on the Roman Catholics at the time of the Gunpowder Plot. At this time he was the centre, with John Donne, of a brilliant circle of wits. He was on friendly terms with Shakespeare and with Bacon. He lorded it in the taverns, first at the Mermaid, somewhat later at the Dog, the Sun, and the Triple Tun, where the young poets courted him. At some uncertain date he received the ap: pointment of poet laureate, and among his patrons were the Sidney family, the Earl of Pembroke, and Lucy, Countess of Bedford, for whom and others he wrote much miscellaneous verse. The regular stage was now in the background of his interests, but Volpone, Epicarne, The Alchemist, Catiline, Bartholomew Fayre, The Case is Altered, and The Devill is an Asse were all produced between 1605 and 1615. In 1613 Jonson went to France as tutor to Sir Walter Raleigh's son. In 1618 he undertook his famous walk to Scotland, and visited William Drummond of Hawthornden. The summer of 1619 was spent with another poet, Richard Corbet, at Qxford. During the reign of Charles I. his vogue diminished. The court masques began to go to other men. He quarrelled with Inigo Jones. His later plays—The Staple of News (1625), The New

Jordan

Inn (1629), The Magnetic Lady (1632), The Tale of a Tub (1633) —-show a falling away of power; and The New Inn was markedly unsuccessful. He withdrew from court about 1630, and in his later K. was helped by the Earl of ewcastle. At his death, one of his best pieces, The Sad Shepherd, remained a fragment. He died at Westminster, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Collected Works, 1616, 1816 (ed...W. Gifford), 1875 (ed. Cunningham), 1894 (ed. B. Nicholson, plays only, and incomplete); Monographs by J. A. Symonds (1886) and A. C. Swinburne (1889). Joplin, city, Mo., a co. seat of Jasper co., on the Mo. Pac., the Mo., Kan. and Tex. and the Kan. Cy. S. R. Rs., 140 m. s. of Kansas City. It is the centre of an important zinc and lead mining region and has extensive farming interests. 72,428 tons of zinc ore and 8,732 tons of lead ore, valued at $2,796,923 and $483,829 respectively, were produced here in 1904. n 1905 there were 9 foundries and machine shops, 4 printing establishments, 4 confec

tionery manufactories, and .3 lumber mills. There are also several large smelters. The

É. buildings include St. John's ospital, two children's homes, Salvation Arm headquarters, and a Y. M. y A. There are several fine parks on the outskirts of the city. It was settled about 1870. Pop. (1890) 9,943; (1900) 26,023; est. (1903) 30,847. Joppa. See JAFFA. Jordaens, JAKo B (1593–1678), Flemish painter, was a native of Antwerp; in 1615 he became a “master’ in the Guild of St. Luke. Second only to Rubens in the Antwerp school, and recognized as its leader after his death, he excelled especially in depicting humorous scenes from the life of the populace. He also treated Biblical and allegorical subjects. Examples of his work are to be seen at the Louvre (Paris) and at Vienna. See Buchanan's Jordaens et son CEuvre (1905). Jordan, THE. (1.) The largest river in Palestine, perhaps the most famous, and certainly one of the most remarkable of all rivers. It is formed by the confluence of three streams (Hasbany, Leddan, and Banias) from Mount Hermon, and pursues a due southerly course along a valley which gradually deepens from about 140 ft. above sea-level to a depression of some 1,300 ft. where it issues into the Dead Sea. Its course is at first marshy, and after a run of some eight miles it widens out into Lake Huleh (?Waters of Merom, Josh. 11 : 5 f.), shortly below which, the valley dips below sea-level. About twelve miles farther on is the

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was professor of zoology at Indiana University (1879-85), and president of that institution (1885–91), and after 1891 was the first president of Leland Stanford, Jr., University at Palo Alto, Cal., becoming widely known as an educator. In 1897 he was the U. S. commissioner in charge of the fur seal investigations. Among his numerous publications are Fishes of North and Middle America (4 v. 1896– 9) and Food and Game Fishes of North America (1902), both written in collaboration with B. W. Evermann; Care and Culture #. Men (1896); Footnotes to volution (1898): Imperial Democracy (1899); Book of Knight and Barbara, Stories told to Children (1899), The Voice of the Scholar, with other Addresses on the Problems of Higher Education (1903), and A Guide to the Study of Fishes (2 v. 1905). Jordan, Mrs. Doroth EA (1762-1816), Irish actress, born near Waterford. After playing in . Dublin and Leeds, where she gained considerable popularity, she appeared (1785) at Drury Lane as Peggy in The Country Girl, and took the town by storm. Her reputation was made by her charming impersonations of those characters which were of the happy, romping, tomboy order. She played for thirty }. in Drury Lane Theatre, London, almost without a break. In 1811 she appeared at Covent Garden, and here (as Lady Teazle) she made her last appearance on the London stage (1814). In 1790 she became the mistress of the Duke of Clarence (afterwards William Iv.); this relationship lasted for twenty years. She died at St. Cloud, France, a neglected, heart-broken woman. See Boaden's Life of Mrs. Jordan (2 vols., 1831). Jordan, JULIUS (‘Jules”) (1850), American composer, was born at Willimantic, Conn., and received his education at public schools. At Providence, R. I., he established himself as a musician and music teacher. His most notable composition was an opera, Rip Van Winkle (1897), based on Irving's tale, and he composed numerous other pieces of music, both secular and sacred. Jordan, THOMAs (1819–95), American soldier, was born in the Luray valley, Va., and graduated (1840) at the Milit Academy. . He served in the U. S. army, taking part in the Mexican War, until May, 1861, when he resigned to enter the Confederate army. He was chief of staff to General Beauregard at Shiloh, and in Charleston (1862– 4). After the war he took service with the Cuban insurgents, Jörgensen

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returning to New York, 1870, and engaged in editorial duties. oint author, with J. B. Pryor, of he Campaigns of Lieut.-Gen. Forrest (1868). Jörgensen, ADQLF DITLEy (1840-99), Danish historian, director of the Danish record office (1883), and in 1899 royal archivist. His works are remarkable for profound and patient research and charm of style. See Bidrag til Nordens Historie i Middelalderen (1871): Den Nordiske Kirkes Grundlaggelse (174– 78); Sonderiyllands Indlemmelse i den Danske Krone 172 (1885); Johannes Ewald (1888); Peter Schumacher-Griffenfeld (1893-4). Jörgensen, JENS Johan NES g. Danish author, born at wen borg, the leader of the Danish symbolists who waged war against realism in their journal, Taarnet (1893-5). His earlier works are remarkable for a curious combination of poetic naïveté and erotic realism, notably Livets Tre (1893) and Hjemtre (1894). Since his conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1895, Jörgensen's works have been mostly of a religious and polemical nature, but are still distinguished by exquisite, beauty of

style. They include Beuron (1896) and Livslögn og Livssandhed (1896).

Jornandes, or JoRDANIs (fl. 550), historian of the Goths. A notary originally, he turned Christian and became a monk, some say bishop of Ravenna. He wrote De Regnorum ac Temforum Successione, a history of the world to 551 A.D.; and De Origine Actibusque ...Getarum based on the lost history of Cassiodorus. He had no origimality, but... was merely a plod: ding compiler. There is a good edition by Mommsen in Mon. Germ. Hist., vol. v. (1884). See Stahlberg's Jornandes (1884). . Jortin, John (1698–1770), English theological and miscellaneous writer, born in London, of Huguenot parentage. He was appointed to the vicarage of Kensington (1762), and in 1764 became archdeacon of London. An early volume of Latin poems, Lusus Poetici (1722), is of some value. Among his other works are Remarks, on Ecclesiastical History (5 vols. 1751–3); Life of Erasmus (1758–60); and Tracts, Philological, Critical, and Mis: cellaneous (1790). See Memoirs by Disney (1792), and the Life by Trollope (1846). Josaphat. See BARLAAM. Josef f y, RAPHAEL (1852), American musician and composer, was born at Hunfalu, Hungary, and began to receive lessons on the pianoforte at #: early age, appearing as a performer in lic at Budapest when o

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ears old. . He subsequently studied at the Leipzig and Berlin conservatories, and with Liszt at Weimar, coming to New York in 1879 after a successful European career as a concert player. . He was naturalized as an American citizen in 1900, and assumed charge of the department of the piano at the New York National conservatory. Mr. Joseffy's compositions for the piano are numerous and varied. Joseph . (1.) Joseph, the eleventh son of Jacob, and the elder by Rachel, was the favorite of his father. His older brothers, out of jealousy, , sold him to a o of merchants (Ishmaelites or Midianites, Gen. 37; cf. y; 25 with v. 28), who carried him to Egypt, and disposed of him as a slave to Potihar, the captain of the guard. is trustworthiness soon secured him a place of honor in the household; but being falsely accused by Potiphar’s wife, he was thrown into prison. . His skill in interF.o. king's dream brought about his release, and he rose in a short while to the position of Pharaoh's chief minister. By his foresight he was able to preserve the country through seven years' failure of crops, and was the means of bringing his father and brethren to Egypt, the reion of Goshen being assigned to them. His bones were carried out of Egypt at the exodus, four hundred years after his death, and buried in Shechem. Critics believe the narrative to be composite, but they admit a possible or probable historic basis for some of its elements. . The data for fixing the date of Joseph are insufficient, but his elevation is often placed under one of the later Ho: kings of Egypt. See Gen. 37–50, passim, , and commentaries. (2.) Joseph, the hus: band of Mary the mother of }: is mentioned in the New estament only in the stories of the birth of Jesus, in the episode in the temple when Jesus was twelve years old, and in John 1: 45; 6:42. Because he drops out of the later New Testament record, it has been supposed that he died before the public ministry of Jesus. He is described as a descendant of David and a resident of Nazareth. That he was a carpenter is an inference , from Matt. 13:55. Yo! books %. Book of James, Death of o etc.) are not historical. In the Roman Catholic Church his festival, on March 19, has increased in elaborateness, and in 1871 Pius Ix. made him patron of the church. See E. H. Thom son's The Life and Glories of St. Joseph . (1888). (3.) Joseph of Arimathaea, was a wealthy #: who begged from Pilate the y

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Studies on the Legend of the Holy Grail (1888). Joseph I. (1678–1711), emperor of Germany, of the house of Hapsburg, and, son of Leopold I., born at Vienna; was proclaimed king of Hungary (1687), and king of the Romans {:}} succeeding his father as German emperor so He carried on a successful war, with the assistance of England, Holland, and Savoy, against . Louis XIv., the allied armies , being under the command of the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene. Joseph II. (1741–90), emperor of Germany, son of Francis of Loraine and Maria Theresa, born in Vienna, was elected king of the Romans (1764), succeeding his father as German emperor (1765). Along with the sovereigns of Russia and Prussia, he signed the treaty by which Poland was divided âmong them, (1772). Qn the death of his mother (1780) he came into possession of the Austrian throne. . He helped in the suppression of the Jesuits; established , religious toleration in his dominions (1781); was visited by Pius VI., who dreaded his reforms in convents; warred with Turkey in conjunction with Catherine of Russia; his zeal in correcting the abuses of the Roman Catholic Church caused an insurrection in Belgium; and the same thing happened in Hungary over his attempt to establish German as the universal language in his dominions. Among his other reforms were the abolition of serfdom, curtailment of feudal privileges, the readjustment of taxation, the framing of a new law. code, and so #. See Brunner's Joseph II. (2d ed. 1885), and Nosinich and Wiener's Raiser §§ II. (1885). Joseph, KING OF NAPLEs. See BonAPARTEs, THE. Joséphine, MARIE Rose (1763– 1814), wife of Napoleon I., and empress of France, was born at Martinique, her maiden name being Tascher de la Pagerie. She first married Vicomte Alexandre Beauharnais, (1779), who was guillotined during the rei of terror, then , Bonaparte (1796). She exercised, a profound influence over, the Temperor. Her union with Napoleon proving without issue, was dissolved in

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