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portion of the produce, while in the case of Schedule A of the income tax it has varied according to the rent obtained. Some economists, such as the French physiocrats, have held that the entire revenue of a nation should be raised by a tax on land (an impôt unique), believing that by this means wealth, would be taxed at its source, and the burden of taxation fairly distributed. (See TAxAtion.) Others, such as modern land nationalizers,” would employ the taxation of rent as a mode of securing for the benefit of the community “the unearned increment.’ See RENT. Land Transfer Reform. A widespread movement having in view the simplification and cheapening of conveyances of lan The principal objections to the system now prevalent are (1) the technical nature of instruments of conveyance; (2) the imperfect tion and, in some cases, the total lack of a system of recording such instruments; (3) the uncertainty of titles, owing to facts or circumstances not matters of record; and (4) the imperfect or conflicting description of the property conveyed. These things combine to make a conveyance of land an expensive and hazardous proceeding. The reform in question, which has made considerable progress in some parts of the United States as well as in Great Britain and the continent of Europe, aims to secure an official registration of the title of all lands in the state, and to protect the registered title against any and all outstanding claims and thus make it freely transferable. See REGISTRAtion of TITLE: Torrens SYSTEM. Landwehr (‘land defence'), a species of German and Austrian militia, or levy of persons otherwise civilian, only called out in time of necessity. The name was first applied in the Tyrol during a rising against the French. A German's military service has four phases—active service, servo ice in the reserves, in the Landwehr, and finally in the Landsturm, all of them compulsory. The Landwehr proved specially effective in the war with Austria in 1866, and in that with France in 1870. In Switzerland all citizens serve for twelve years in the Landwehr after passing twelve years in the regular army. See LANDSTURM. Lane, Edward WILLIAM (1801– 76), one of the greatest English Arabic scholars, was born at Hereford. In 1825 he made the first of a series of visits to Egypt, and from that time the customs, lore, and literature of the country became his life study. In 1836 he published his well-known Account of the Manners and CusLane


toms of the Modern Egyptians, a work which, after more than half a century, remains, a standard authority on the subject. His translation of the Thousand and One Nights (1838–40) was the first accurate version of the celebrated Arabic stories. His greatest work, the Arabic-English Lericon (1863-92; posthumous parts edited by Stanley LanePoole), was the result of over twenty years' labor. It was immediately recognized throughout Europe as the first authority on Arabic. See Life by Stanley Lane-Poole (1877). Lane, GEoRGE MARTIN (1823– 97), American classical scholar, was born at Charlestown, Mass., and graduated (1846) at Harvard. He studied for four years at Berlin and Göttingen, and on his return was appointed professor of Latin at Harvard, 1851. In 1869 he received the Pope professorship in the same subject, retiring as professor emeritus in 1894. He was chiefly instrumental in introducing the Latin system of pronunciation into the U.S. (1871), and was a revising editor of Lewis and Short's Latin lexicons. He left an unfinished Latin grammar, completed by Morgan in 1898. Lane, JAMEs HENRY (1814–66), American political leader and soldier, born at Lawrenceburg, Ind. He served as a colonel of volunteers in the northern campaign of the Mexican War (18467), was lieutenant-governor of Ind. (1849-52), and was a Democratic representative in Congress (1853-5), advocating as such the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill. In 1855 he removed to Kansas, then the scene of a bitter contest between the pro-slavery and the anti-slavery or Freestate settlers, and there became conspicuous as one of the most radical leaders of the latter, advocating, with John Brown, the use of violence to meet violence. He presided over both the Topeka Constitutional Convention (1855) and the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention (1859), was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1861, soon after the admission of Kansas to the Union, and during the Civil War, for part of the time (1861–2) as brigadier-general of volunteers, served in the Federal army, being engaged in recruiting service in Kansas after 1862. In 1865 he was re-elected to the U. S. Senate, but in the following year committed suicide at Fort Leavenworth. Lane, JonATHAN HomeR(1819– 80), American physicist. Born at Geneseo, N. Y., he entered the employment of the United States Coast Survey (1847), became principal examiner in the patent office (1851), and was connected


with the bureau of weights and measures (1869 - 80). e observed the total solar eclipses in Iowa (1869) and in Spain (1870); invented several ingenious instruments, and wrote numerous memoirs on scientific subjects, one of which, on the Theoretical Temperature of the Sun (1870), contained the result (known as ‘Lane's law ') that gases rise in temperature as they contract through cooling. Lane, Joseph (1801–81), American politician and soldier, born in N. C. While still a young man he became a member of the legislature of Ind., to which state he had emigrated in 1816. After long service in both houses he resigned to enlist in the ranks at the outbreak of the Mexican war (1846). On the assembling of his regiment he was elected colonel, and later was appointed brigadier-general. After defeating General Santa Anna at Huamantla, he was awarded brevet rank of major-general in the regular army. He was Governor of Oregon Territory (1848) by apintment of President Polk; was . S. Senator (1859); and ran for vice-president in 1860, with John C. Breckenridge, but was defeated. Lane, SIR RALPH (c. 1530–1603), the governor of the first colony established in the original provi ince of Virginia. He was second to Sir Richard Grenville in command of the expedition sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh to found a colony in ‘Virginia' in accordance with Raleigh's charter of 1584. The colony was established on Roanoke Island, and, Grenville immediately returning to England, Lane was left as governor. He showed much the same sort of capacity as that later shown by John Smith at Jamestown, and conducted explorations with considerable enterprise, but the situation proved unfavorable, the colonists suffered from starvation and came into conflict with the Indians, and in June, 1586, Lane and his companions returned to England in Sir Francis Drake's vessels. He took part in Drake's Portugal expedition of 1589, and for his share in suppressing an Irish insurrection in 1591 was knighted. Lane, RICHARD JAMEs (1800– 72), engraver and lithographer, grandnephew of Gainsborough and older brother of Edward William Lane, the English Orientalist; became a skilful engraver, and was elected an A.R.A. (1827). Turning to lithography, he was soon at the head of that branch of art in England, and at the same time proved himself a sculptor and draughtsman of merit. His most successful lithographs were after Gainsborough, Law


rence, Leslie, Chalon, and Landseer. . His portraits, of Queen Victoria, the Prince Consort, and other members , of the royal family, are well known. Lane-Poole, STANLEY (1854), historian and archaeologist, born in London, graduated at Oxford (1878). He early turned his attention to numismatics, and published a Catalogue of Oriental and Indian Coins for the British Museum (14 vols. 1875–92), Social Life in Egypt {{...}. and Art of the Saracens (1886). He also edited E. W. Lane's (his great-uncle) Arabic-English Lericon (1863–92), which he completed (1876–93), and Coins and Medals (1885). Among his numerous publications may be mentioned his Life of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe (1888), Life of Sir Harry Parkes (1894), Moors in Spain (1887), Barbary Corsairs (1890), . The Mohammedan Dynasties (1893), #'s. in the Middle Ages (1901). Media’val India {{:}} and Story of Cairo (1902). Since 1898 he has been professor of Arabic at Trinity College, Dublin. Lanercost, par., Cumberland, England. The Chronicle of Lanercost (1201-1346), a valuable history of the Borders, was actually composed at Carlisle. It was edited by Father Stevenson for the Bannatyne and Maitland Clubs (1839). See Ferguson's Lanercost (1870). Lane. Theological Seminary. A theological school established in 1829 at Cincinnati, Ohio, and opened in 1832. Its teachings are those of the Presbyterian Church, but students of all evangelical denominations are admitted. Candidates are required to have had a collegiate training. The seminary owns 60 acres of ground on Walnut Hills, on part of which the buildings are situated. Students pay no fee for tuition or rent, and may obtain financial aid from funds set aside for that purpose. In 1905 the institution had 23 students, 5 instructors, a library of about 23,000 volumes, and productive funds of $321,000 with an income of $14,000. Lanett, th:, Chambers co., Ala., near the Chattahoochee R., and on the W. Point and Atlanta and the Chatta. Val. R. Rs. 80 m. E.N.E of Montgomery. There are large cotton mills here, a bleachery, dye works, etc. It is the seat , of a college, and there is another college in , process of erection. Fort Tyler, in the vicinity, was the scene of one of the last encounters in the Civil War. Lanett was settled about 1894. Pop. (1900) 2,909. Lanfranc (1005–89), first archbishop of Canterbury, born at Pavia; was first a jurist, teaching at Pavia, Bologna, and Avranches, Lanfranco

where he founded the most popular law college in France. In 1042 he entered the monastery of Bec, near Rouen, and in 1045 became its prior. After the Norman conquest of England, Lanfranc was induced by William, though reluctantly, to accept the see of Canterbury, which he occupied with great spiritual benefit to the church until his death. He was the author of commentaries on Paul's epistles, a treatise De Corpore et Sanguine Domini, letters, and sermons. His complete works were published in Paris by D'Achéry (1648), and an excellent edition, edited by Oxford

Giles, was issued at (1844). See Life by Crozals (1877).

Lanfranco, GIovaNNI (1581– 1647), Italian painter, born at Parma; studied under Annibale Carracci at Rome, where he assisted his master in the decoration of the Farnese Gallery and the church of S. Giacomo. His best work is the magnificent painting for the cupola of San’ Andrea della Valle. A large number of his frescoes adorn the churches of Rome and Naples.

Lanfrey, PIERRE, (1828–77), French historian and politician, born at Chambéry; wrote L' Église et les Philosophes au X | III. Siècle (1855); Essai sur la Révolution Française (1858); Histoire Politique des Papes (1860), placed on the Index; but his chief work is Histoire de Napoléon I. (186775), in which he gives an unbiassed picture of Bonaparte. His CEuvres Complètes appeared 1879-85, and his Correspondance in 1885.

Lang, ANDREw (1844), British man of letters, born at Selkirk, and in 1863 entered Balliol College, Oxford. In 1868, having graduated with a classical first class, he was elected a fellow of Merton College. He collaborated with Professor Butcher on an excellent version of the Odyssey (1879) ; translated Theocritus, Bion, and Moschus (1880), and, with Walter Leaf and Ernest Myers, bks. x.-xvi. of the Iliad (1883). He published Lost Leaders and Letters on Literature (1889), Old Friends (1890), Homer and the Epic (1893), Adventures among Books (1905), and The Puccle of Dickens' Last Plot (1905). Mr. Lang's poetical work includes Ballads and Lyrics of Old France (1872), Ballades in Blue China (1880), Helen of Troy (1882), Grass of Parnassus (1888), and New Collected Rhymes (1905). His chief contributions to the study of anthropology and religion are Custom and Myth (1884), Myth, Ritual, and Religion (1887). The Making of Religion (1898); Magic and Religion (1901), The Sceret of


the Totem and The Clyde Mystery (1905). Besides writing on Oxford and St. Andrews, he has produced a History of Scotland {{..." the Roman Occupation vol. i.-iii., 1900–1904), Historical Mysteries (1904), and John Knor and the Reformation (1905). His contributions to biography are Lord Iddesleigh's Life, Letters, and Diaries (1890), and the Life of John Gibson Lockhart (isog). Mr. Lang's Blue Fairy Book (1889) began a series of charming fancies in different colors, diversified by My Own Fairy Book (1895). L a ng , BENJAMIN JoHNSON (1837), American musician, was born in Salem, Mass., and began the teaching of his father's pupils in music at the age of fifteen. He visited Germany in 1855, and studied under Liszt and other masters, returning to the U. S., and making his first appearance in Boston as a pianist in 1858. He afterward lived in that city, occupied as conductor, teacher, organist, pianist, and composer. He became leader of the Apollo Club and other musical organizations, and participated in most of the principal musical events of his time. - Langaran, pueb., Misamis prov., Mindanao, Philippines situated on Iligan Bay, 17 m. E. of Dapitan. Pop. (1903) 11,318. Langdell, CHRISTOPHER CoLUMBUs (1826-1906), American educator, was born at New Boston, N. H., and graduated (1853) at the Harvard Law School. He practised law in New York until 1870, when he accepted the Dane professorship of law at Harvard, and the same year was also made dean of the law school, positions which he held until his retirement as professor emeritus. Prof. Langdell was largely instrumental in introducing the ‘case system ’ of legal study in the U. S. Author of Cases on Sales (1872), Summary of Equity Pleading (1877), and other legal works. Langdon, John (1741–1819), American patriot and statesman. Born in Portsmouth, N. H. Became a successful merchant and was identified closely with Revolutionary measures. As an officer of the local militia he assisted in the disarmament of Fort William and Mary in Portsmouth harbor. He was delegate to the Continental Congress (1775), Navy Agent (1776), and Speaker of the N. H. Assembly (1777). He gave practically his entire fortune to equip a brigade in which he himself served under Gen. Stark at the battle of Bennington. He saw other service at Saratoga and in

R. I. In 1779 he was president of

the state convention and Continental agent of N. H.; in 1783 was re-elected to the state As


sembly; in 1787 was a delegate to the convention that framed the Federal Constitution; in 1784-5 and 1788 was president of N. H.; in 1789–1801, U. S. senator; president of the Senate in 17so when he announced the elector vote for the first president of the United States, and afterward president pro tempore. He was a member of Congress (1794–1804); speaker of the N. Assembly (1803–05); and Governor of the state (1805–09 and 1810–12). In 1801, he was offered the navy portfolio in Jefferson's Cabinet, and in 1808 was nominated for vice-president by the Republican Party, declining both honors. He died in Portsmouth. Langdon, SAMUEL (1723–97), American clergyman and educator, was born in Boston, Mass., and graduated (1740) at Harvard. He prepared for the ministry, and was pastor of the North Church of Portsmouth, N. H., from 1747 until his acceptance of the presidency of Harvard in 1774. This position he was obliged to resign by the Tories during the Revolution (1780), on account of his patriotic attitude. He was a delegate to the N. H. Constitutional Convention of 1788, and besides numerous sermons and theological works made valuable records of the topography of N. H. Lange, FRIEDRICH ALBERT (1828-75), German philosopher and politician, born at Wald, near Solingen. His chief works are the Geschichte des Materialismus (1866), and Die Arbeiterfrage (1865), a plea for the laboring classes. Lange, HELENE (1848), pioneer of the advanced woman movement in Germany, was born at Oldenburg. In 1870 she settled at Berlin as head of a training college. She strenuously objected to the education of women being left in the hands of men, and unsuccessfully pe'itioned government for the removal of this grievance (1877), and for the furthering of women's higher education; but she nevertheless stirred the authorities to action in the matter. Lange, Johan N PETER. (1802– 84), Biblical exegate, was born at Bier, near Elberfeld; studied at Bonn; was pastor successively at Wald, Langenberg, and Duisburg, and professor of theology at Zürich (1841) and Bonn (1854). The best known among his works, which display an ingenious and exuberant fancy rather than deep insight, are Das Leben Jesu (1844–47; Eng. trans. 1864), Christliche Dogmatik (1849-52). Geschichte des apostolischen Z citalters (1853 - 54), and his once-popular Theologisch-homiletisches Bibelwerk, in 22 vols. (1857), which contains commenLangebek

taries on all the books of the Bible, and was translated, under the ... supervision of . Professor Philip Schaff, as Theological and Homiletical Čommentary on the Old Testament and the New Testament (14 vols, and 10 vols...respectively, 1865-80). See Lichtenberger's Histoire des , Idées Religieuses en Allemagne (1873; Eng. trans. 1889). Langebek, JACOB (1710–75), Danish historian, early devoted to historical studies, won the favor of the famous scholar Gram by his translations of the Icelandic Kristmisaga, and for thirteen years was employed by him as an amanuensis in the royal library. In , 1745 he founded a new Danish historical society, and succeeded Gram as record-keeper in 1748. His greatest achievement was the collection of , mediaeval documents entitled Scriptores rerum Danicarum, which he began to edit in 1772, completing the three first volumes before his death. Langeland (Lavind), Danish isl., about 30 m. long and 44 m. in breadth, lying between the Great Belt, the Baltic, and the Little Belt. Rudkjöbing, on the west coast, is the only town. Pop. (1901) 18,901. Langenbeck, BERNHARD RUDolf Kon RAD von (1810 - 87), German surgeon, born at Padingbüttel, near Hornburg; became professor of surgery at Göttingen (1838), at Kiel (1842), and director of the clinical institute for surgery at Berlin (1847); served as surgeon throughout the wars of 1848, 1864, 1866, and 1870–71. See Bergmann's Zur Erinnerung an Bernhard von Langenbeck (1888). Langenbielau, comm., prov; of Silesia, Prussia, 35 m. s.w.. of Breslau. Manufactures woollens cottons, chemicals, sugar, and beer, and has dye works and saw

and flour mills. Pop. (1900) 19,122. Langendijk, PIETER (1683–

1756), Dutch dramatist and poet, born at Haarlem; was the author of Don Quichot op de Bruiloft van Kamacho (1712), and of some descriptive poems, the chief merit of which lies in the songs with which they are interspersed. His complete works were published, at Haarlem (1721 - 60).

See Meijer's Pieter Langendijk (1891). Langendreer, comm., prov.

of Westphalia, Prussia, 7 m. w. by s. of Dortmund ; has coal mines. Pop. (1900) 19,928. Langensalza, tr., and wat:-pl., prov. of Saxony, Prussia, 13 m. N.N.w.. of Gotha, with sulphur springs. Pop. (1900) 11,926. Langevin, SIR HEctor Louis (1826–1906), Canadian statesman, was born in Quebec. He was WOL. VII.-Jan. '10.


called to the bar in 1850, and became Queen's council in 1864. He was mayor of Quebec in 1858– 61, postmaster-general, and incidentally delegate to the iondon Colonial Conference in 1866–67: secretary of state in 1867–69, and minister of public works in the Dominion of Canada in 1879-91. He became leader of the Lower Canada Conservatives in 1873, and was solicitor-general for Lower Canada in 1864-65. Langhorne, John (1735–79), English poet, born at Kirkby Stephen; entered holy orders; removed to London (1764); wrote for the Monthly Review, and did much other miscellaneous literary work. He published Poetical Works (1766); Plutarch's Lives, in conjunction with his brother (1770), which is still the standard translation. See Memoirs, by J. T. Langhorne, prefixed to edition of Poetical Works (1804). Langlewicz, MARYAN (1827– 87), Polish patriot, born at Krotoszyn ; served in the Prussian artillery, fought under Garibaldi (1860), and, joining the Polish insurgents (1863), was elected dictator. His skilful guerrilla tactics resulted in several Russian defeats; but while attempting to rouse Polish Galicia, he was arrested by the Austrians, and was confined until 1865. He afterward entered the Turkish service. Langlade, CHARLES MICHEL DE (1729-1800), French Canadian trader and soldier, was born at Mackinaw, Mich. His mother was the sister of the leading chief of the Ottawas, and he himself married an Indian. He led the Ottawas in the historic ambuscade resulting in the defeat of Braddock, on the Monongahela river, in 1755, and afterward, while stationed at Fort Duquesne, did valuable scouting work. In recognition of his services at the head of a band of Indians under Montcalm at Fort George, Vaudreuil, the Canadian governor, made him second in command at Mackinaw. He planned the ambuscade of Wolfe's army at Quebec (1759), and on that occasion might have stopped the English altogether had he had sufficient support. He fought in the battle of the Plains of Abraham under de Levis, and (1763) gave the western frontier posts timely warning—which was not heeded —of Pontiac's treachery. He brought to Burgoyne's army, when the Revolutionary War began, a formidable band of Indians, who, however, deserted the British general after the murder of Jane McCrea "...} Langlade was blamed by Burgoyne for this desertion, but apparently not by the government, since he was afterward appointed Indian agent and then commander-in-chief of the


Canadian militia, and was paid an annual pension of about £150. During his later years, he lived at Green Bay, Wis., and is still referred to as the ‘father and founder of Wisconsin.” Langland, WILLIAM (P1330– 1400), the probable author of The Vision of Piers Plowman, is one of the great figures in English literature, and one of those of whom least is known. , Born in the neighborhood of Malvern, he was educated and assisted in his youth by patrons, whose death left him lonely and poor, and forced him to support himself and an uncongenial wife by discharging the thankless and illpaid duties of a clerk and singer of masses for the dead in London churches. In the Vision, move personified the great influences of that and of all time, as Holicherche, the Knight Conscience, Lady Mede (Mammon), the deceiver Fals, and the great central figure, Piers Plowman, at first the toiler at his furrow, but finally identified with the Christ Himself. The poem is in two parts—(1) The Vision of Piers Plowman, and (2) Vita de Do-wel, Do-bet, and Do-best. The first sets forth the evil deeds of monks, hermits, merchants, kings, and other types of mankind, and closes with the search of the Seven Deadly Sins, undertaken, at the instigation of Reason for Truth, in which Piers Plowman appears as their guide. Do-wel is concerned chiefly with the misdeeds of the religious orders; Do-bet with the death and subsequent triumph., of Christ; 120-best with succeeding reign of Antichrist, though at the close is sounded a note of hope in the vow of Conscience to search the world until he finds Piers Plowman. The three versions of the whole poem, all the work of Langland, were produced between 1362 and a date after 1390. An edition of the texts has been prepared by Professor Skeat for the Early, English Text Society; he has also edited for the Clarendon Press an edition of the Vision (1886; 6th, ed. 1891). See JusSerand, L'épopée mystique de William Langland (1893); id., A Literary History of the English People (1895), and The Vision and Creed of Piers Plowman, edited by Wright (1897). Langley, SAMUEL IeRpoNt (1834–1906), American astronomer, and physicist, was born at Roxbury, Mass. He was educated at the Boston Latin School and the Boston High School, and in Europe. He practised as civil engineer and architect for several ło, in Chicago and St. Louis. n 1865 he was assistant at Harvard Observatory, and then was . assistant professor of mathemat


ics and director of the observatory in the Naval Academy at Annapolis. In 1867 he became professor of astronomy and physics in the Western University of Pennsylvania at Pittsburg, and director of the Alleghany Öbservo atory, where, in 1869, he founded the system of railroad time service from observatories. In 1881 he organized the expedition to Mt. Whitney, where he re-established the solar constant and discovered an entirely unsuspected extension of the invisible solar spectrum. He invented the bolometer now in general use, and other apparatus. In 1886 he became . . assistant secretary to the Smithsonian Institution, and in 1887 he succeeded Prof. Baird as secretary, a post he held until his death. He made extensive experiments in the field of aerial navigation ascertaining facts and laws o lifting force and air resistance which have been invaluable to all recent aviators. He constructed two model aerodromes of biplane #. which made many successful ights, the motive power being steam engines. His large machine intended to carry a man was damaged in launching, and the government refusing a further grant of money, it never was reaired, and has never been put in ight. But with his large models he demonstrated the practicability of mechanical flight for machines heavier than air. Langston, John MERCER (1829–97), American educator, son of Rićhardouaries by a negro slave, was born in Va., graduated at Oberlin in 1849, and at the theological school there in is;2.

He was admitted to the bar of

Ohio, in 1854; Inspector General Freedman's Bureau, 1868–70; dean of law school of Howard University, 1869–76; U. S. Minister to Haiti, 1877–85; president Virginia Normal and Cöllegiate Institute, 1885–88; Representative in Congress from Virginia, 1890.

Langtoft, PETER of (d. 1307), o chronicler, composed a versifi chronicle of English history, published first at Oxford, 1725; and by Thomas Thorpe in the Rolls Series, 1866–8.

Langton, STEPHEN (d. 1228), English , prelate, educated in France, became chancellor of Paris University. He was made cardinal, and archbishop of Canterbury by , Innocent III. Siding with the barons in their conflict with King John, his was the first signature appended, to Magna #. Division of the Bible into chapters is credited to him. Hook, Archbishops of Canterbury, vol. ii. (1862), and Stubbs, Constitutional H is to r y, vol. i. (1897).

WOL. VII.-Jan. 10.


Langtry, LILLIE, Mrs. (1852), actress, daughter of the Rev. W. C. le Breton, dean of Jersey, married Edward Langtry (1874). In 1881 she made her début at the Haymarket Theatre, London, as Blanche Haye in Ours, and later represented Kate Hardcastle in She Stoops to Conquer. In 1882 she appeared again at the same theatre, and also played Rosalind in As You Like It at the Imperial Theatre. She has twice been lessee of the Prince's Theatre (now Prince of Wales's), and has toured with Peril and other plays in America. She became a naturalized citizen of the U. S. in 1887. After the death of Mr. Langtry (1897) she married Gerald de Bathe (1899).

Language. See GRAMMAR, PHILology, GENDER.

Languedoc, old S. prov. of France, between the Garonne and the Rhone, cap. Toulouse. It now forms departments of

arn, Lozère, Ardèche, Gard, Hérault, and Aude, and parts of Ariège, Haute-Garonne, Tarn-etGaronne, and Haute-Loire. Its name is derived from the Old

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sacs or pouches; and the animals are largely herbivorous in diet, living chiefly upon leaves and young shoots. The true langur or hanuman (S. entellus) is common throughout the greater part of India, and is in , most places orded as sacred by the Hin


Lanidae. See SHRIKE.

La ni er, SIDNEY (1842–81), American poet, was born at Macon, Ga., of Virginian descent, and early, developed a taste for music; and while yet a boy learned to play half-a-dozen musical instruments. He entered the sophomore class of Oglethorpe College, a Presbyterian institution near Midway, Ga., and graduated in 1860, holding a position as tutor in the college until the outbreak of the Civil War. Sidney enlisted in the Confederate army, was in active service through the war, and was a prisoner for five months in Point Lookout, Fla. His novel, Tiger-Lilies (1867), portrays these war experiences, during which he contracted consumption, of which he died. He filled a clerkship at Montgomery, Ala., 1865-7, and was principal of an academy at Prattville, Ga., for a short time, but his health failing, he gave up this position and studied and practised law with his father, Robert S. Lanier, at Macon, Ga., 1868–72. A visit to Texas, 1872, accomplished little for his health. He had devoted much attention to the composition of music to his own songs, and in 1873 he settled at Baltimore, Md., where he took a position as first flute for the Peabody Symphony Concerts. He was obliged to pass much of his time in states farther South, and continued to devote himself to the writing of poetry and the study of the relations between poetry and music, which are given in his Science of English Verse (1881). He was invited to write the words of the cantata for the opening of the Centennial exposition (1876), and the following year gave a course of lectures on English literature at Baltimore. He was appointed lecturer in the same subject, 1879, at Johns Hopkins University. His health failed finally in the spring of 1880, and thereafter, until his death at Lynn, N. C., there was a continued struggle with disease. Principal among his poems are “Corn,' ‘Sunrise,’ “The Symphony,’ “Psalm of the West,’ and the cantata already mentioned. Some of these, written with an ear to their setting to music, were misapprehended at first by the critics. Mr. Lanier's poetry was collected and published as The Poems of Sidney Lanier, edited by his wife, with a Memorial by William Hayes Ward (1884). Volumes pub

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