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Letters, edited by his wife . (1881) Lanjuínais, JEAN DENIS,

Count de (1753-1827), French statesman, was born in Rennes, France, and early achieved fame as a barrister and lecturer. As deputy to the states general, 1789, he framed the bill for the civil constitution of the French clergy, and suggested the removal of the registration of yital statistics from ecclesiastical to municipal control. In the convention of 1792, he opposed the proceedings against Louis xvi. Though an opponent of . Napoleon, he, re. ceived from the latter the title of count, afterward voting for his deposition. He became a member of the senate (1800), and during the Hundred Days was president of the chamber of deputies... His Works (4 vols.) were published in 1832. Lankavatāra, an important work on Buddhist law and philosophy, dealing with many abstruse speculations. See works

on Buddhism by Eugène Burnouf,

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and others. Lankester, SIR EDw1N RAY (1847), British physiologist and naturalist, was born in §. He was successively professor of zoölogy and comparative anatomy at Universit ollege, London (1874–90); Linacre professor of comparative anatomy, Oxford (1891–8); and Fullerian professor of physiolo and comparative anatomy in the Royal Institution, London (1898–1900). In 1898– 1907 he was director of the natural history departments of the British Museum, and in 1906 president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Among his works are Comparative Lon§ (1871), Degeneration (1880), polia Maris (1889), Extinct Animals (1905), Kingdom of Man 1907). Edited Treatise on Zoology (pts. ii., iii., iv., v., 1900–5). Lanman, CHARLEs (1819–95) American author and artist, born at Monroe, Mich.; studied painting under A. B. Durand. He was librarian in different government departments at Washington, and secretary of the Japanese legation, 1871–82. His paintings include Brookside # Homestead o and Frontier Home (1884). is books include Letters from the Alleghany Mountains (1849), and The Japanese in America (1872).

Vol. VII. —Jan. '10.

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Lanman, CHARLEs RoCKWELL 1850), American Orientalist; born in Norwich, Conn.; was graduated at Yale in 1871; studied in Berlin, Tübingen, Leipzig (1873-6); became professor at Johns Hopkins in 1876, and was elected to the chair of Sanskrit at Harvard in 1880. He travelled extensively in India, made valuable collections of books and MSS. for Harvard; resident of the American Philoogical Association and of the American Oriental Society; published works on Oriental topics. Lanner, a small falcon found in the countries, bordering the Mediterranean, formerly much used in falconry. Certain small and similar falcons of the southwestern United States are sometimes called ‘lanners.” Lannes, JEAN, DUC DE MonteBELLo (1769–1809), French marshal, born at Lectoure; entered the army (1792), and served with great distinction under Napoleon I., winning special glory at Aboukir, Acre, Montebello, and Marengo. He also did brilliant service at Austerlitz, Jena, Eylau, and Friedland, and in Spain at Tudela and Saragossa, and was mortally wounded at Aspern. See Thoumas's Le Maréchal Lannes (1891). Lanolin, or wool fat, chiefly consists of cholesterin and fatty acids; formula C23H3OH. . Lanolin is prepared from ‘suint,' or the grease of sheep's wool, by separating the acids by saponification, and then purifying the residue—a pale yellow, glutinous solid, odorless, and neutral, and melting at 38° C. It does not become rancid, and is capable of taking up its own weight of water. As it is easily absorbed by the skin, it is extensively used as a salve and basis of ointments. Lansdale, th:, ... Montgomery co., Pa., on Stony Creek, and on the Phila. and Read., R., Rs., about 20 m. N. of Philadelphia. Its manufactures include agricultural machinery, stoves and other iron and brass foundry products. It was settled about 1856. Pop. (1900) 2,754. Lansdell, HENRY (1841), English author, traveller, and divine; 1has travelled in every European country, through a great part of Asia and Africa, and across America (1870-98), for the purpose of visiting hospitals and prisons, or making explorations on missionary work. In Russian and Chinese Turkestan he made extensive zoological collections. He was the founder and editor (1875–86) of the Clergyman's Magazine, and his publications include Through Siberia (1882). Russian Central Asia (1885), and Chinese Central Asia (1893). Lansdowne, bor., Delaware co., Pa., on the Westchester and

Lansdowne

Balt. branch of the Pa. R. R., 5 m. w. of Philadelphia. It is a residential place with no large industries. There is a public library. It was settled in 1893. Pop. (1900) 2,630. Lansdowne, HENRY CHARLEs KEITH PETTY - FitzMAURICE, FIFTH MARQUIs of (1845), English statesman, was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. His first official appointment was Lord of the Treasury (1868–72) in the government of which Mr. Gladstone was prime minister. He became Under-Secretary of State for War (1872–74). In 1880 he was appointed UnderSecretary for India, but soon resigned. From 1883 to 1888 he was Governor-General of Canada. During this period the Canadian Pacific Ry. reached completion,the North American fisheries dispute was amicably settled, and Riel's Rebellion was suppressed. From Canada he went to India (1888– 93) as Viceroy, and two years after his return he entered the Marquis of Salisbury's cabinet as Secretary for War (1895). In 1900 he was appointed Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, from which of fice he retired in 1905. In 1906 he was the leader of the attack against the Liberal Education Bill in the House of Lords. In Dec., 1909, he opposed the Bud#. assed by a large majority in the House of Commons, and made the motion to refer it to the judgment of the country, taking the ground that though disguised as a scheme of taxation, it was in reality a liquor license law, a bill to regulate land titles, and a measure changing the mode of inheriting o: His motion was carried, and the appropriations for carrying out the King's government being thus refused, the Prime Minister was compelled to dissolve parliament. Lansdowne, ENRY PETTYFitzMAURICE, third MARQUIs of (1780-1863), English statesman; entered Parliament for Calne (1803), and was Chancellor...of Exchequer under Lord Grenville; succeeded. Pitt as M.P. for Cambridge University (1805), and became Marquis of Lansdowne in 1809. He zealously supported the abolition of slavery and repeal of Catholic disabilities; also proposed free trade measures (1820), and measures for the relief of Ireland (1822). He held office under the Canning, Goderich, and Grey ministries (183041), lending valuable assistance in the passing of the Reform Bill (1832); was opposition leader during the Peel administration (1841-46), and led the peers under Lord John Russell (184652). He was twice offered the premiership (1852, 1855), but declined. He was an earnest though

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Lanthanum

state capitol, a handsome structure took * o #: lirary, cit all, public library city hoal ind the Federa Government building. Lansing is the seat of the Michigan Agricultural College, the State Industrial School, and the State School for the Blind. It was settled in 1847, being made the capital at that time. Pop. (1904) 20,276. Lansingburg, formerly vil., Rensselaer co., N. Y., but now part of the city of Troy, having been annexed in 1901. It has manufactures of linoleum, brushes, shirts, collars and cuffs. Pop. (1900) 12,595. Lantana, a genus of tropical and subtropical evergreen shrubs and herbs belonging to the order Verbenaceae. They bear small flowers in spikes or cymes. The corolla tube is slender, and the petal limbs five in number. Most of the garden varieties are derived from L. camara, a tropical American shrub about eight feet in height, with a prickly stem, thick leaves, hairy below, and reddish or orange flowers. Lantanas are much used for bedding-out and as green-house plants; their flowering season extends over several months. Lantern, a conspicuous struc

ture, usually circular, crowning

the dome or tower in Roman and Gothic buildings. Its position is over the intersection made by the crossing of the nave and transepts in a church or cathedral. The cathedral at Florence, St. Paul's, London, and Ely Cathedral are good examples. See Ruskin's Seven Lamps of Architecture. Lantern, OPTICAL. See OPTICAL PROJECTION. Lantern-fly, an insect of the hemipterous family Fulgoridae, so named because certain species, as the Chinese lantern-fly (Fulgora candelaria), widely distributed in Asia, are said to emit light; but entomologists doubt the truth of this. The species are numerous in all the warmer parts of the world, and of varied form, some being the largest of known insects, and having a queer bulging proboscis, making the head look doubled. Certain species in China secrete a useful white wax, collected by the natives; and others are injurious to crops with juicy leaves, like corn and sugarbeets. Lanthanum, La., 138.9, a metallic element of the “rare earths,” occurring in such minerals as cerite, orthite, monazite, gadolinite, and others. It is prepared by displacement from its chloride by sodium, and resembles iron; sp. gr. 6.2, m.p. 750° c. It burns brilliantly when heated in air and forms an oxide, Lazós, and colorless salts.

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Lanuvium

Lanuvium, anc. city, Latium, Italy, 20 m. s. E. of Rome, near the Appian Way. A celebrated temple of Juno Sospita was built here. It was the birthplace of Antoninus Pius (86 A.D.). The small town of Civita Lavinia occupies part of the site. Lanza, . GIovaNNi (1815–82), Italian politician, born at Vignale, Piedmont; was elected deputy for Frassineto (1848). Sitting with the Left Centre or Moderate Liberals, Lanza became minister of education under Cavour łoś. minister of finance {{:}; , president of the chamber (1860), minister of the interior under La Marmora (1864), and prime minister of the reconstructed cabinet (1869), but was defeated by the coalition (1873). He was a sincere patriot and a capable financier. See Tavallini's Lanza ed i suoi Tempi (1887). ilanzarote, most easterly of the Canary Is., is of volcanic origin and very mountainous: highest summit, Pamara (2,050 ft.). It produces excellent grapes, and has other agricultural products. Cap. Arrecife, on the S.E. coast. Area, 325 sq. m. Pop. (1900) 16,500. Lanzi, LUIGI (1732–1810), Italian antiquary, born ... near Macerata; became a Jesuit, but on the suppression of the order devoted himself to art and archaeology. His chief works are his Storia Pittorica della Italia (1789-1806; Eng. trans. 1828); Saggio di Lingua Etrusca (1789); De' Vasi Antichi Dipinti (1806), and other kindred books. He was also a graceful poet. See his Opere, postume. (1817), and Cappi's Biografia di Luigi Lanci (1840). Laoag ("clear'), cap., prov. Ilocos Norte, Luzón, P. I., on Grande de Laoag R., 5% m. from the sea on coast road. Rice, corn, tobacco, and sugar are exported, and cotton is grown and manufactured. Pop. (1903) 34,454. Laocoön, in ancient Greek legend, a Trojan priest of Apollo, who tried to dissuade his countrymen from bringing into the city the wooden horse by which Troy was captured. He even smote his spear into its side. . It was perhaps in punishment for this that, when he was sacrificing to Poseidon, two snakes came out of the sea, and first entwining themselves about his two sons, and then about him as he hastened to their aid, killed all three, as is represented in the famous group found at Rome in 1506, and now in the Vatican. The date of its construction is uncertain, but the work is ascribed to three Rhodian sculptors, Agesander,...Polydorus, and Ääeo. Virgil's deo of the death of Laocoön in the second book of the Æneid

207

is undoubtedly inspired by the marble group. . For the story, see Virgil and Ho: for the Laocoon group, Murray's History of Greek Sculpture, Furtwängler's Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture, and Lessing's Laokoon (2d ed. 1880). Laodamia, daughter of Acastus, and wife of Protesilaus. After her husband's death at Troy, the gods granted her request that he might return from Hades to converse with her for three hours; when he departed from life a second time, she died with him. Wordsworth used the legend in his poem Laodamia. Laodicea, the name of several cities in Asia Minor and Syria. The most io are: (1.) L.AD LYcum, on the riv. Lycus, a tributary of the Maeander, in ancient Phrygia (S.W. Asia Minor), about 11 m. w. of Colossae. It was founded by Antiochus II. about 259 B.C. ne of the “seven churches' (Rev. 1 : 11), it is mentioned in close connection with Colossae and Hierapolis (Col. 4 : 13, 15, 16). The great eastern highway’ passed through it, and it was one of the richest cities in Asia (Rev. 3 : 17), and was renowned for its woolen manufactures, its carpets, and its Woven o (3 : 18). In the reign of Nero it was destroyed by an earthquake, and rebuilt b its wealthy inhabitants. Accordsing to tradition, Philemon was the first bishop. From Col. 4:16 it would appear that, St. Paul wrote an epistle to the Laodiceans, and some authorities su se this letter to have been the pistle to the Ephesians or that to Philemon. (2.) L. A.D. MARE, about 50 m. s. of Antioch in Syria. It was founded by Seleucus I. about 300 B.C. modern name is fadikiyi or commonly Latakia. (3.) L. CoMBUSTA, in "#. on the highroad from phesus to the East. Sorgan Ladik is on the site. See Wilson's Handbook for Travelers in Asia Minor (1895); Ramsay’s Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia (1895–7), and istorical Geography of Asia Minor (1890). Laomedon, in ancient Greek legend, a son of Ilus and Eurydice, and father of Priam, Tithonus, and Hesione, was king of Troy, of which he was the founder. Laën, pueb., Bohol, Philippines. See LoðN: Laon (Rom. Laudunum), cap. and first-class fortress, dep, Aisne, France, 22 m. S.E. of St. Quentin. It contains a fine 12th-century Gothic cathedral. Manufactures linen and metal goods. In the 10th century it was the residence of the Carlövingian kings. From 1419 to 1429 it was in the hands of the English. Here, in 1814, Napoleon was defeated by Blu

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of China (1880)

Lapac

cher. The town capitulated to the Germans in 1870. Pop. (1901) 15,434. Laos, general name for Central Indo-China, including the basin of the Mekong and the upper basins of the Menam and Salwin; bordering Siam and Burma on the W., Yün-nan on the N., Tong-king and Annam on the E., and Cambo: dia on the s. Laos is distributed into three parts:--(1,) Eastern or French Laos, which has been under French protectorate since 1893; estimated area, 100,000 sq. m.; pop. 600,000. (2.) Siamese Laos, made up of a number of semi-independent principalities; “stimated pop. , 3,000,000. (3. The Shan states of Lakon, Chiengmai, Nan, etc. The chief industry is cattle-raising; but the land produces rice, cotton, indigo, fruits, tobacco, and teak. Gold, tin, lead, and precious stones are found. The only entrance to French Laos is, by the Mekong. At Khon where, the river is barred, a off way four miles long has been laid. The Siamese conquered the country at the beginning of the 19th century. See L. §. Reinach's De Laos (1901), and Captain Gosselin's Laos et le Protectorat Français (1900). Lao-tse (b. 604 B.C.), a celebrated Chinese philosopher, and said to be the founder of Taoism, one of the most ancient and imF. § of China, was orn at Keuh-jin, in the district of Koo. Lao held office at the imperial court of Chow as keeper of the archives. He is celebrated as the reputed author of the book Tao-teh-king, the principal object of which is to establish a knowledge of a supreme being in three persons. In his book Lao has elaborated his idea of the relations existing between the universe and that which he calls Taou. The primary , meaning of this name of a thing which he declares to be without name is ‘the ". Hence it has acquired the symbolical, meanings of ‘the right course of conduct,’ ‘reason, and it also signifies “the word” o: “All things originate from Taou, conform to Taou and to Taou they at last return. Taou may be described as (1) the absolute, the totality of bein and things; (2) the phenomena world, and its order; and jo the ethical nature, of the good man and the principle of his action. See Douglas's Confucianism and Taoism (1879); Legge's #; - É.i. aoist exts (1884); Watters's Lao-tzu, a Study in Chinese Philosophy, (1879), and Carus's Lao-tze's Tao

, teh-King (1898).

Lapac, isl., Sulu Archipelago, P.I., separated by a narrow channel from Siasi. It is 10 m. long by 3% m. wide, and has an eleva

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LAOCOöN AND HIS TWO SONS KILLED BY SERPENTS. Statue ascribed to Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus of Rhodes, in the Vatican Museum, Rome.

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Lapageria

tion of 1,344 ft. It is bordered by villages in which fishing for the abundant pearl oysters is the chief occupation. Lapageria, a genus of liliaceous plants containing only one species—L. rosea, the Chilean bell-flower. This is an evergreen climbing shrub, generally grown under glass. It bears large, rosecolored, bell-shaped flowers of a somewhat waxy appearance. The flowering period is a long one, extending over several months, but the plant is difficult to grow. La Palma, th:, prov. Cundinamarca, not far from the Rio Negro, Colombia, S. America; has large coffee plantations an mines of gold and copper. Alt. 4,130 ft. op. 10,000. Laparotomy (Gr, lapara, “the flank;’ tomé, “an incision”), or abdominal section, is an operation involving the opening of the peritoneal cavity by means of an incision through the anterior abdominal wall. Laparotomy is always a measure of . extreme É. and the operation must e conducted under the most rigorous aseptic precautions. Great care is taken by the surgeon to remove all fluids, pus, blood, and foreign bodies from the abdominal cavity before the wound is closed. Drainage from the wound may be required by means of a tube of rubber or öf glass. The term “coeliotomy’ is more exact. La Paz. (1.) Department, N.W. Bolivia, S., America, bounded on the N. by the Rio Madre de Dios on the E. by Cochabamba an Beni, on the s. by Oruro, and on the w. by Peru. The northern part is an extensive plateau, and well watered by the affluents of the Beniand Purus, but it is unhealthy. The southern part is mountainous, and contains the section of the Andes known as the Cordillera Real. . In this department are several of the highest peaks of the continent, notably Illimani (22,500 ft.) and Illampu or Sorata (23,500 ft.). Part of Lake Titicaca, which is drained, by the Desaguadero, is included in the southern part. Amid the mountains are many fertile valleys with a good climate; these produce corn, potatoes, coffee, sugar, rice, and cocoa. Gold, silver, copper, and tin are mined. Area, 53,770 sq. m. Pop. (1900). 445,616, five-sixths being Indians. (2.) o: town in Bolivia, centre of above department on the river Chuquiapu, or Rio de la Paz, 30 m. S.E. of Lake Titicaca. A road forty-seven miles long leads to the rt of Chililaya (Puerto Perez), on Lake Titicaca. A railway fifty-three miles . long to Guaqui on the lake has n recently opened. La Paz is the seat of a bishopric and a university, and has a national college and

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209

seminary, a museum, law and medical schools, and a public library. Its fine promenade, the Alameda, gives a beautiful view of the surrounding country. It has an important trade in agricultural and mining products. o: (1900 60,031. he city was founde in 1548, after the struggle between the Almagros and Pizarros, and named Nuestra Señora de la Paz; but at the declaration of independence the name was changed to La Paz de Ayacucho, in memory of the decisive victory over the Spaniards. Alt. 12,200 ft. (3.) Town, prov. Entre Rios, Argentine, S. America, on the river Paraná, 80 m. above Paraná city. Port of call for steamers; exports hides and preserved beef. Alt. 130 ft. Pop. 9,000. (4.) Town, Mendoza, Argentina, S. America, W. of the Desaguadero, 565 m. by rail from Buenos Ayres. Alt. 1,630 ft. Pop. 4,000. (5.) Seapt., terr. Lower Cal., Mexico, on the w. coast of the G. of Cài. It is the capital and largest town of the Territory. Situated in a fertile district, agriculture and gold and silver mining, are the chief industries. The harbor is excellent. Pop. (1895) 4,737.

Lapeer, city, Michi, co, seat of

Lapeer co., on the Flint R., and on the Mich. C. and the Chic. and G. Trunk R. Rs., 60 m. N. by W. of Detroit. Its industrial establishments include engine and stove works, planing and flouring mills, and a tannery. It is the seat of the state asylum for the feebleminded and epileptics. It was settled in 1818. Pop. (1904) 3,460. La Pérouse, JEAN FRANÇors DE GALAUP, Count DE (1741–88), French navigator, born near Albi, and entered the French navy. In 1782 he was employed by the French government to make , a voyage , of discovery round the world in the Boussole and the Astrolabe. . After doubling Cape Horn, and exploring the coasts of California and acao, and making. , important discoveries from §hi. to Kamchatka, he reached. Botany Bay. Finding the British already in possession, he left. The fate of his expedition was unknown until remains of it were found in 1827 W. Captain Dillon on the isle of anikoro in Oceania. See Dillon's Narrative of a o e in the South Seas (1829), an ureau's Voyage au Tour du Monde (1797). La Pérouse Islands, or SANTA CRUz Is., a group in the S. Pacific, 11° S. lat., 166° E. long., about 200 m. N. of the New Hébrides. They number about , twelve. Santa Cruz, the largest, is 15 m, long They are of volcanic and cora formation; area, 360 sq. m. They are under British protection; but little is known of them. They

Laplace

were discovered by Mendaña in 1595. In 1828 wrecks were found here which revealed the fate of the French navigator, La Pérouse. La Pérouse Strait, separates Yezo, Japan, from the Issand of Sakhalin. It is 27 m. wide at the narrowest point. Lapham, INCREASE ALLEN (1811–75), American naturalist was born at Palmyra, N.Y., and worked as a stone-cutter and civil engineer in early life. He removed to Milwaukee, Wis., in 1836, became register of claims and dealt in real estate, and began out-of-door work as a naturalist. He published several volumes on the plants, shells, toFo and geology of Wisconsin, and, moremo." , his Antiquities of Wisconsin §§§ an investigation of the remains o a prehistoric people in that state. He was one of the suggesters of the system of government weather reports and . co-organizer of the §§ service’ at Washington 1870). La Piedad, th:, Michoacán, Mexico, on the Lerma R., and on the Mexican Central R. R., 70 m. S.w.. of Guanajuato. There is a fine bridge here across the river. Pop. (1900) 15,123. Lapis Lazuli, a mineral of opaque ultra-marine or azureblue color, used as a gem, and formerly as a pigment. It is found either massive or in crystals in granite and crystalline limestone, and is composed of sodium, aluminium, silica, and sulphur. Lapithae, in ancient Greek legend a people, which dwelt in the mountains of Thessaly. Their king was Peirithous, who, as a son of Ixion, was a half-brother of the Centaurs, with whom he had a combat, in which the Centaurs were vanquished. The story is referred to by Homer in his Odyssey, also by Diodorus, Pausanias, vid, and other ancient writers. See #eightley's Mythology of Ancient Greece and Italy (1832), and Preller's Mythologie (1854). Laplace, PIERRE SIMON, MARQuis DE (1749-1829), the greatest of French mathematicians, author of the Mécanique Céleste, was a native of Beaumont-en-Auge. In 1867 he removed to Paris, where he gained the notice of D'Alembert, and through his influence was appointed professor of mathematics at the École Militaire. Before oping his twentyfourth year he had signalized himself by his discovery of the invariability of the mean distances of the planets from the sun. About the same time he was admitted to the Académie des Sciences, and thenceforward devoted himself to the investigation of the laws regulating the solar system. His researches

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