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Lapland

embraced the whole theory of ravitation; and he had the high É. of perfecting the work of his predecessors. In 1796 he published his Exposition du Système du Monde, a compendium of astronomy in which, he sets forth his famous Nebular, Hypothesis, a work considered one of the masterpieces of the French language. n 1799 the publication of Traité de Mécanique Céleste brought him world-wide fame. His other works include Théorie du Mouvement et de la Figure des Planètes (1784); Théorie Analytique des Probabilités (1812– 20), and many, treatises in the transactions of learned societies.

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S.E., ** in the West Altai highlands. . Thence, they allege, they were driven by their enemies, and wandered w. and N. in two divisions; the former of which eventually reached the sound separatin enmark from Sweden. This they ferried across in their small skin-boats. The tradition is interesting, if for no other reason than that modern science has deduced a race of “reindeer-men’ as the primitive inhabitants of Western Europe. he Lapps are so named by the Swedes, and by most Europeans, but the Norwegians call them Finns; and it is necessary to bear in mind that the Finns

La Porte

arrow-heads were sometimes made of iron, sometimes of bone. Spears tho only used for bear-hunting. lthough they have abandoned their religion and many of their old customs, they mostly live a nomadic life as hunters and fishers, having large herds of domesticated reindeer. Modern civilization, however, is affecting them in many ways. The best work on the subject is Baron von Düben's Om Lappland och Lapparne so to which is appended a list of 332 biblioraphical references... See also go Arthur de Capell Brooke's Winter in Lapland and Sweden (1827), and Paul Du Chaillu's

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His GEuvres Complètes were published by the Académie des Sciences (13 vols. 1878–98). See Fourier's Eloge (1829); Arago's Biographies of joif; ent %. 1859): and Todhunter's £lementary Treatise on Laplace's Functions (18% Lapland. . This territory, having no political existence at the present day, may be, roughly described as the Arctic region of Norway, Sweden, and Finland, consisting mainly of mountain, forest, and morass. Högström relates that the o of his day (c. 1746) asserted that the whole of Sweden once belonged to their ancestors; and Von Düben gives a tradition of the Mountain Lapps which assigns to their remote anCestorS a #. lying far to the

of the Norse sagas were Lapps and not #. :ople of Fiji proper. C La call themselves Sabme or §. (pl. Sameh or Samelats); and their country is Same-ddnam. As Von Düben points out, these names at once suggest Suomi (Finland Po ..o.o.o., (Finlanders), an also the race of the Samoyedes— all these three peoples being linguistically related. The average stature of the Mountain Lapps, is from five feet to five feet two inches, and they are generally taller than the coast tribes. Other characteristic features are their small, elongated eyes, high cheek-bones snub noses, wide mouths, an ointed chins, with little or no eard, and thin, short legs. Their

Land of the Midnight Sun (1888).

La Plata. (1.) Capital of Buenos Ayres, prov., Argentina 35 m. s.l. of Büenos Ayres, and 3 m. from Ensenada, its port on the river Plate, estuary. It has railway connection with Buenos Ayres. The city only dates from 1882, and has grown with Fo rapidity. It has well aid out streets , and spacious avenues, and is the seat of the provincial government; has a university, observatory, and museum; exports cattle and agricultural roducts. Pop. jo 75,023. 2.) RIO DE LA PLATA. See PLATA. - o Mountains, a group in S. W. Col., attaining an alt. of 13,185 ft, in Mt. Hesperus. They are rich in gold, silver, and coal.

La Porte, city, Ind., co. seat of Lappa

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La Porte co., 12 m. from Lake Michigan, on the L. Shore and Mich. S., Père Marquette and other R. Rs., 59 m., E. of Chicago. It is an attractively situated summer resort, and has manufactures of automobiles, carriages, woollen goods, bicycles, engines threshing machines, etc.; an ships a considerable quantity, of ice cut , from the , neighboring lakes. It was settled in 1830. Pop. (1900) 7,113.

Lappa Chinese .# pt., at the moth of the Canton R.

Lappenberg, JoHANN MARTIN 1794–1865), Čerman historian,

rn at Hamburg. He became minister to the court of Berlin (1820), and in 1823 keeper of the archives of the senate of Hamburg, also representing that city in É. Diet of Frankfort. He was the author of valuable historical works, notably Geschichte von England (1834–7), continued by Pauli (1853–81), and Eng. trans. by Thorpe. He also wrote... a continuation of Sartorius's Urkundliche Geschichte der Deutschen Hanse (1830). See Meyer's Johann Martin Lappenberg (1867).

Lapp mark o Marches"), the five marches of Swedish Lapland, consisting of Asele, Umeå, Piteå, Luleå, and Torneå, with an area of 44,667 sq. m. In the mountainous parts, which include the highest Swedish peak, Kebnekaisse, 7,180 ft., are the sources of the numerous rivers of N. Sweden which flow into the Gulf of Bothnia, also many lakes. The longest day lasts three months in the northernmost parts. Wolves, bears, lynxes, martens, ermines, and hares are common. Pop. (entirely Lapp) 6,800.

Lapps. e LAPLAND.

Laprade, PIERRE MARIN VIC. Tor RICHARD DE (1812–83), French

t and prose author, issued his

#. efforts in religious poetry as Les Parfums de la Madeleine (1839). Colère de Jésus (1840) was followed by Psyché, (1842), an endeavor to express Christian teaching in Hellenic myth. He also published Idylles heroiques (1858), Les Voix de Silence (1865), and other poems. His prose works include Le Sentiment de la Nature avant le Christianisme (1866), and Le Sentiment de la Nature chez les Modernes (1868).

See Biré's Victor de Laprade (1886). Lapse. The failure of a testa

mentary gift, valid at the time the will is made, owing to a subsequent event which renders it inoperative, such, for example, as the death of the devisee or legatee before the will goes into effect. The death of such a devisee after the will had once gone into effect through the decease of the testator would not affect the validity of the devise in any way; his death

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before the will is executed would render the gift void ab initio. It is only when the devi e night have gone into effect but has failed to do so that it comes under the description of a lapsed devise. At the common law a void devise of lands falls into the residue of the estate and is disposed of b the residuary clause of the will, if any, whereas a lapsed devise is saved out of the will and remains to the heir as intestate F.". In the case of personal estate, however, no such distinction is made, lapsed as well as void o falling into the residue of the estate disposed of by the will. In many of the United States, also, as well as in England, devises of real estate have been put by statute on the same footin as gifts of personal property an in such jurisdictions the distinction between lapsed and void devises has lost its importance. See Devise; LEGAcy; WILL. Lapsed (Lat., lapsi, “slipped, fallen'), a name given in the o days to those §a. who fell away under the stress of persecution. The questions what constituted actual apostacy and what treatment j be accorded those who had yielded gave rise to much discussion and even controversy. During the 2d century it was generally held that no Christian who had relapsed into idolatry could be readmitted into the congregation. To secure safety , by flight even was considered reprehensible. Later a more lenient practice arose, and the bishops gradually worked out a system of penitential rules. After 250 different classes of the lapsed were distinguished. Those . had saved themselves by offering sacrifice or burning incense to the gods were called sacri§ and thurificati respectively; ibellatici were those who had secured, by bribery or other means, an official document granting immunity; traditores were those who had delivered up their sacred vessels or books in accordance with the edict of Diocletian. With the triumph of Christianity, persecution ceased and the problems of church discipline entered upon an entirely new phase. Lapwing, a handsome ploverlike bird of Northern Europe and Asia (Vanellus cristatus), also known in Great Britain as peewit, or green, plover; it is greenish above, with a black breast and white abdomen and cheeks, and erectile plumes in the crest. The four eggs (known in British markets as "plover eggs') are laid in a depression of the ground without any nest; but the watchful care of the parents, and the artifices by which they seek to divert attention from eggs or young, are so familiar as to be often referred to

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Laramie. (1.) City, Wyo., co. seat of Albany co., on the Laramie Plain, and on the Union Pac. R. R., 57 m. N.w.. of Cheyenne. The surrounding scenery is mountainous and W.'s; Laramie is the seat of Wyoming University, and of the State Agricultural Col. lege, and has a P. lic library. It has rolling mills, railway repair and machine shops, glass manufactures, flour, etc. fish hatchery is located here. Thero are deposits of valuable minerals in the vicinity, including gold, silver, folo antimony, graphite, etc. t was settled in 1867. Pop. (1905) 7,601 (2.) Mountains, a range of the Rocky Mts., in Colorado and Wyoming. Beginning as the Rattlesnake Range in Wyoming, it extends E. to the North Platte R., curves s. E. to the Laramie R., and finally extends S. to Colorado, the culminating

oint being Laramie Peak, 9,020 É. Coal is the chief mineral.

Laramie Plain, plateau in Carbon, and Albany cos., Wyo., enclosed by the Medicine Bow, Laramie Range, and other mts. Alt. 7,300 ft. It is fertile and has an agreeable climate.

Laramie River, riv. of Wyoming, 200 m. long. Rising in N. Colorado, it flows through Albany and . Laramie, cos., Wyo., in a northerly and then an easterl direction, and joins the Nort Fork of the Platte R. at Fort Laramie.

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Larceny

Larceny. In its broadest sense at common law, this term includes all forms of stealing or felonious taking of the property of another against his will with intent to deprive him of the use of it. At common law, if it was not complicated by some circumstance other than mere deprivation of property, it was known as simple larceny; however, if it was aggravated by additional elements of crime, as breaking and entering a dwelling house and stealing property therefrom, or taking property from the person of another under threat of death or bodily harm, it was known as “compound larceny.’ However, by statutes larcenies under particularly , aggravated circumstances were classified under specific names, as burglary, robbery, embezzlement, obtaining money under false pretences, etc: The tendency of modern penal codes seems to be to merge some of these classifications under the head of larceny, requiring only a statement of the facts constitutin the alleged offence. The defini: tion given in the New York Penal Code is typical of this tendency. It reads as follows: “A person who with the intent to deprive, or defraud the true owner of his property, or of the use and benefit thereof, or to appropriate the same to the use of the taker, or of any other person, either, (1) takes from the possession of the true owner, or of any other person; or obtains from such possession by color or aid of fraudulent or false representation or pretence, or of any false token or writing; or secretes, withholds, or appropriates to his own use, or that of any person other than the true owner, any money, personal property, thing in action, evidence of debt or contract, or article of value of any kind; or, (2) having in his possession, custody, or control, as a bailee, servant, attorney agent, clerk, trustee, or officer § any person, association, or corporation, or as a public officer, or as a person authorized by agreement, or by competent authority, to hold or take such possession, custody, or control, any money, property, evidence of debt or contract, article of value of any nature, or thing in action or possession, appropriates the same to his own use, or that of any other person other than the true owner or person entitled to the benefit thereof; steals such Pro and is guilty of larceny. It will be noted that this includes the crimes commonly known as embezzlement, obtaining money by false pretences, and , felonious breach of trust. The New York Code classifies the degrees of the offence as follows: Grand larceny, of which there are two de

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grees, the first of which is punishable by imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years, and the second by a term not exceedin five years; , petit larceny .# includes taking of property of less than $25.00 in value, and is a misdemeanor, and punishable by fine or short imprisonment in discretion of court. The specific offences of burglary and robbe are more ... severely punished. Although all the states have not adopted this classification in the above form, a large number have substantially, the same. The advantage of including the various forms of stealing under one head, larceny, is that the court is not required to decide whether an offence is larceny, embezzlement, false pretences, etc... and the prosecution will not fail be: cause of an inaccurate name of the offence in the indictment. To constitute the offence it will be noted that there must be an intent to deprive the true owner of his property, and if one, honestly, and reasonably , believing that he has a right to the possession of property, takes it from the owner, he may be guilty of conversion, a tort (q.v.), and become liable for damages, but he is not §§ of larceny. The sweepin efinition above given covers a the forms which stealing may assume, which are almost unlimited, and it is therefore possible to convict a person of larcen upon circumstances for whic there is no precedent. See BURGLARY; CoNversion; Rob BERY; consult Pollock and Wright on Possession in the Common Law; Bishop's New Criminal Law; New York Penal Code. Larch, or LARIX, is a genus of hardy, deciduous, coniferous trees of very graceful habit. They bear monoecious flowers, the male

Larch, Cone and Flowers (male and female). 1, Scale of cone with two seeds; 2, anther.

catkins, being small and oval, whilst the female ones are much longer. ...The leaves are bright green, linear, soft, and usuall

produced in short bundles on ...}.

Lard

side of the spray. They a §...". in the spring. Po timber, which is very hard and tough, is much used in shipbuilding and for railway sleepers, an in cabinet work is capable of taking a very high polish. The species most commonly planted is L. europaea, which grows to about a hundred feet in height. Other species are L. occidentalis, a tall and handsome American tree and L. laricina, the tamarack. or hack matack, of North America. This is a straggling tree, most common in swampy soils, with smaller cones than has, the European species. It reaches a height of 70 ft., and the wood is valuable for the same purposes as that of other larches.

Larco m, LUCY (1826–93), American poet, was born at Beverly Farms, Mass., and gave promise of metrical accomplishment at seven years of age. Her father o: her mother removed to Lowell, where she kept a board. ing house for the mill hands, and Lucy, after two or three years at school, worked in the cotton mills herself. She wrote for the Lowell Offering, the paper edited by a circle of mill girls and gained the interest and friendship of Whittier. She visited Illinois and passed two years at Monticello Female Seminary. Returning to Beverly she for some years held a position in the Wheaton. Female Seminary at Norton, Mass.; but desisted because of ill health, and thereafter was occupied chiefly with literary work. iss Larcom was editor of Our Young Folks, 1866– 74; Her best known poem is entitled ‘Hannah Binding Shoes.” She published Ships in the Mist, off.”. #jo, , Poems

8 n Idyl of Work (1875), §h.” Songs (1877), Wi Roses of Cape Ann, and Other Poems (1880), and Poetical Works (1884). Her New England Girlhood (1889) is largely descriptive of her own early life. Miss Larcom edited several anthologies of. rural verse. See Addison's Life (1894).

Lard is hog fat that has been melted and strained to remove the connective tissue in which it was supported when in the animal. It consists of a mixture of the glycerol esters of stearic, Fol. and oleic acids, the olein being removable as “lard oil” by pressure. Lard is of varying qualities, that obtained from the fat surrounding the kidneys (leaf lard) being the best. It is a soft, white grease that is almost free from odor, and melts about 40° C. to a clear liquid. It is often adulterated with water cotton-seed oil, or beef fat. İard is used in pharmacy, as a basis for ointments, and the oil as a iubricant. See Packing in: DUSTRY.

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Lardner

Lardner, DIONYSIUs (1793– 1859), writer of popular scientific works, born at Dublin. He de

voted himself chiefly to literary and scientific work, and is now best remembered as the initiator and editor of Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopædia (133 vols. 1830–49), to which he contributed many articles. . He lectured on scientific subjects in the principal cities of the U. S. (1840–5). is works include a Treatise on the Differentia! and Integral Calculus (1825); Sysof %. Geometry (1823); Astronomy (1855–6), and Optics (1856). Lardner, NATHANIEL (1684– 1768), English Nonconformist divine, was born at Hawkhurst Kent; studied at Utrecht and Leyden, and, after his return, ioined the Unitarian Church. he publication of his Credibility of the Gospel History (1727) at once placed him in the front rank of Christian apologists. Other works were: Collection of Ancient Jewish and Heathen Testimonies to the Truth of the Christian *#. (1764–7); His

tory of the Heretics of the Two First Centuries (1780), published jo See Life and orks, by Kippis (1788). Lareau, DMond (1848–90), Canadian politican and author, born at St. Grégoire, Quebec; was

called to the bar o became rofessor of civil law at M'Gill niversity (1876), and entered the Legislative Assembly of §. (1886). He wrote, , in *rench, histories of Canadian law (1872) and literature (1874). Laredo, city, Tex., co, seat of Webb co., on the 1. bk. of the Rio Grande, on the Mex. Nat., the Internat. and Gr. N., the Tex. Mox." and the R. Grande and Eagle Pass R. Rs., 153 m. S.S.W. of San Antonio. "it is connected by bridges with Nuevo Laredo, a Mexican town founded on the opposite, bank of the river former inhabitants of Laredo when Texas was annexed to the U. S. Coal is mined in the surrounding, district, which is also rich in farm products and live stock. It has manufactures of iron, brick, and foundry and machine shop products, contains railway car shops, and concentrating and sampling works, and carries on a considerable trade in wool, hides, etc. It is the seat of a federal court. Other institutions of public interest are Laredo Seminary o E., S.), Ursuline Convent (R. C.), Mercy Hospital, and a public, library. Among the prominent buildings are the federal building, the city hall, county court house, and several business blocks. Fort McIntosh here is a U. S. military post. Loma Vista Park is a popular resort. It is a thoroughly

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modern city and has an excellent system of water works. It has a mild climate and is a natural health resort. Two-thirds of the inhabitants are Mexicans. Pop. (1900) 13,429; est. (1903) 14,062. Lares, th:, Porto Rico, situated on the wo side of the isi. Ait. 1,500 ft. It is 26 m. N.E. by E. of Mayauez. Built on a hill, it overooks beautiful valleys, and enjoys a reputation for an excellent * condition. Among the chief buildings are the orphan asylum, Catholic church, and masonic temple. Pop. (1899) 3,714. Lares, THE, were objects of worship at Rome; they were divided into two classes, family lares and public , lares. The name appears to be identical with the Etruscan, lar, “king’; and the lares are similar to the Greek heroes. As worshipped in families, they represent the spirits of departed ancestors, though only good spirits were lares. § the public lares, some protected the whole city, others its different districts. Sée Marquardt and Mommsen's Handbuch d. rômischen Alterthimer; Granger's Worship of the Romans; and Keightley's Mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. - o: a term in music indicating a slow degree of tempo combined with great breadth and dignity of style. Larghetto, the diminutive, means a little quicker than largo. Largo, UPPER and Lower, two coast villages 1 m. apart, and par. §: ac.), S. E. Fifeshire, Scotand. Alexander Selkirk, the original of Robinson Crusoe, of whom a life-sized bronze statue was erected in 1885, was a native. Pop. of par. (1901) 2,046. Iarl, th:, prov. Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, 15. m. E. of Leghorn, in wine-producing district; has hot springs. Pop. (1901) 12,432. Lario Lake. See CoMo. La Rioja. (1.). Andean prov., Argentina, bounded by . Cata: marca, Cordova, San Luis, and San Juan, and on the extreme west by Chili. the upper waters of the Rio Vermejo. Its most important products are wheat, wine, and metals. Area, 34,546. Pop. (1903) 80,804. (2.) Cap. of La Rioja prov.,200 m., N.w.. of Cordova, with which it has railroad connection. Pop. (1895) 7,631. Larissa, the name of several towns in ancient Greece, of which the most important was Larissa in Thessaly, on the river Peneus. It was also the name of the citadel at Argos. The frequency of the name suggests that originally its meaning was “fortress,' or the like. Modern Larissa, in Larissa rov., is on r. bk. of the Salamria (Peneus), 35 m. N.w.. of Volo;

It is drained by.

Larkhana

has manufactures of silk and cotton. Pop. 15,373. See Bursian's Geographie d. Griechenbands (1862–71), and Tozer's Lectures on the Geography of Greece (1873). Laristan, maritime prov., of Persia, between the Persian Gulf in the S. and Farsistan and Kirman in the N. Estimated area 20,000 sq. m. It is an arid and sandy waste, interspersed with salt steppes. Camels are reared, and silk is manufactured. The capital is Lar. La Rive, AUGUSTE DE. RIVE. Larivey, PIERRE (c. 1550–1612), French dramatist, was the author of prose plays, largely taken from the Italian, the best being Les Esprits. His work probably influenced that of Molière. The lays appear in L'Ancien Théâtre rançais, edited by Viollet le Duc. See Macgillivray's Life and Works of Pierre Larivey o Lark, a small bird of the passerine family Alaudidae. In all larks the first toe has a very long, straight claw; the wings are long and pointed, as are also the inner secondaries of the wing. . Many of the larks are desert birds; oth

See

Common Skylark.

ers, such as the woodlark (Alauda arborea), haunt wooded country; while the skylark (A. arvensis prefers open districts. All nest on the ground and lay spotted eggs. There are about a hundred species almost all confined to the Old World, most numerous in the open parts of Africa; N. America has but a single genus—the shorelarks (q.v.), for our titlark, meadow-lark, etc., belong to other families. See SKYLARK, etc. Larkhali, to Mid Lanarkshire, Scotland, near the Avon, 3 m. S.E. of Hamilton. Coalmining and brick and tile making industries. Pop. (1901) 11,879. Larkhana, chief th: of Shikarur dist., Sindh, Bombay, India, m. S.w.. of Jacobabad; a fortified town. he neighborhood, from its productivity, is known as the *Eğ. of Sindh. Manufactures cotton, silk, leather, and paper. Pop. 13,000.

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Larkspur

Larkspur, a popular name for lants belonging to the genus }...in. Larnaca, or LARNAKA (anc. Citium), chief seapt. of Cyprus on the S. coast, 25 m. S.S.E. o Nicosia. The harbor has two iron piers , for small. vessels. Large vessels have to lie in the roadstead. Birthplace of the Stoic Zeno. Exports include rain, cotton, fruit, and gypsum. op. (1901) 7,964. See, CITIUM. i.arne, mrkt. th: and seaside resort, Co. Antrim, Ireland, N.W. of the entrance of Lough Larne. Industries: bleaching, linen and woollen weaving, alumina works, and paper-making. There is daily communication by mail steamer (shortest sea passage) with Stranraer, Scotland, 39% m. distant. Pop. (1901) 6,670. La Rochefoucauld, FRANÇois, DUC DE (1613–80), Prince de Marsillac, a descendant of one of the most ancient families of France

was born in Paris. At the age o sixteen he joined the army. Under the influence of Mme. de Che

vreuse he took part in the intrigues against Richelieu, which resulted in his being exiled to Verteuil (1637–9). Subsequently, a liaison with the beautiful Madame de Longueville (1645) encouraged his articipation in the Fronde (1648). É. was badly wounded at the siege of Paris, and *. in 1652 at the fight, at the Porte-SaintAntoine. After twenty years of fighting and intriguing, he retired from public life, and passed his leisure in the elaboration of his Mémoires and Maxims. He died at Paris. An unauthorized issue of his Mémoires appeared in 1662, but only a third of it was the work of La łoś. and nothing like a correct edition appeared till 1817. , In, literary merit and historical value these Mémoires rank among the best of their time. The first edition of the Réflexions ou Sentences et Maximes Morales appeared in 1665, and continued 317 maxims, expanded in later, editions to about 700. Of the literary quality of the Maximes there has never been question. In their union of perspicuity, terseness, , and polish they are unsurpassed; and the acuteness of their thought is as remarkable as their literary excellence. The Maximes do not retend to be a §o of ethics. #. (Euvres Complètes, ed. Gilbert and Gourdault (Coll. de Grands Ecrivains), appeared in 1868–83. See Bourdeau's La Rochefoucauld (1895); Sainte-Beuve's Portraits de Femmes (new ed. 1856); and Prévost-Paradol's Études sur les Moralistes Français (1865). Larocheja quelein, HENRI DU VERGIER, CoMTE DE (1772–94) one of the constitutional guard of Louis XVI.; took command of

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the La Vendée royalists (1793), and distinguished himself heroically at Fontenay, Saumur, Chantonnay, Laval, 'La Flèche, and Le Måns, in a vain struggle to resist the republic. He died at the battle of Nouaillé. Larochejaquelein, Louis DU VERGIER, ARQUIS DE (1777– 1815), brother of the preceding, left France during the revolution, but returned in 1801. Napoleon failed to win, him over, and in 1813 he led the royalists of La Vendée and Poitou, being one of the first to recognize the Bourbons (1814). He led the Vendean troops during the ‘hundred days,' and died at Pont-desMathis. His wife, Marie Louise Victoire, wrote interesting moires (1815; new ed. 1859). La Rochelle. See RochellE. Larousse. PIERRE ATHANASE (1817–75), Érench lexicographer, taught in a large institution at Paris, and for its library he produced many valuable educational works, his fame resting mainly on his vast encyclopaedia, published under the title of Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIX. Siècle 1866–76; a new and abridged ed. ouveau Larousse Illustré, 1898– 1904). Lesser , works are the Nouveau Dictionnaire (30th ed. 1876), and Dictionnaire complet Illustré (new ed. 1895–6). Larrabee, WILLIAM . CLARK (1802–59), American educator, was born at Cape Flizabcth, Me., and graduated {iso} at Bowdoin College. After some years of teaching he became a Methodist Episcopal minister in the Oneida Conference, 1831, was principal of the Maine Wesleyan Seminary 1835–7, and was professor àf mathematics and natural science in Indiana Asbury o (now Depauw), 1840–52. e then became the first superintendent of instruction in Indiana. He was one of the earliest teachers in his church in the U Author of Scientific Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion (1850), Wesley and . His Co-Laborers 1851), and Asbury and His Coaborers (1853). Larrea, a genus of tropical evergreen shrubs, with yellow flowers, belonging to the order Zygophyllaceae. L. mexicana is the creosote plant of N. American deserts, whose powerful smell protects it from animals. Larrey, Dominique-JEAN, BARON (1766–1842), French sur: geon, born at Baudéan; studied under Desault and Sabatier; became military surgeon-in-chief at the age of twenty-six, and passed

through campaigns in Italy Egypt, Germany, Spain, and Russia. He instituted “flyin

ambulances’ (1793), and did muc

to further surgery. Larut, dist, of the British

Laryngismus

rotected state of Perak, in the alay Peninsula, about 60 m. from Penang, 4° 35'-50' N. lat. Rich in tin mines. The district is under the control of an assistant British resident. Port Weld is the main port, and there is railway communication thence with Thaipeng in the interior. Larva (Latin, a mask), a name which was originally applied only to the young stages of , insects when these differ strikingly from the adults in appearance, but which by extension is now generally applied to the young of animals when they do not closely resemble , their parents. Thus the tadpole is the larva of the frog, the maggot is the larva of the fly. It is, however, a necessary part of the definition of the term "that the young be adapted for a free-living existence, usually under conditions differing from those to which the adult is fitted. Thus it would be incorrect to call the developing chick, within the egg a larva, though it differs in very many points of structure from the adult bird. In this case, the term embryo would be employed, for the embryonic chick is quite incapable of life apart from the membranes which envelop it and enable it to breathe, and from the yolk by which , it is passively fed. . On the other hand, the tadpole or caterpillar has each its own breathing organs, and each is §. of seeking its own food. ere, the larva differs very **ś from the adult, there is usually a process of metamorphosis, by means of which it is converted into the adult form. A point of great interest in regard to larvae is that in man cases they possess organs, whic are absent from the adult, but which were presumably present in the ancestral form. Thus, while a frog has no gills, a tadpole has gills, such as the ancestor of the frog doubtless possessed. In such cases the larva is stated to illustrate the doctrine of recapitulation. Larvae. See LEMUREs. Laryngismus, partial closure of the glottis, due to spasmodic contraction of the muscles of the larynx, either reflex or caused by an .."o.” so stridulus (synonyms false croup,’ ‘spasmodic croup,” and ‘child crowing'), a variety of o: in which the glottis is almost closed and inFo is temporarily arrested, characterized by a “growing inspiration.” The condition is due to nervous derangement, and is often associated with rickets. In the great majority of cases the child recovers. During an attack antispasmodics, such as warm baths

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