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the roots of certain trees. L. squamaria, the toothwort, has spikes of bluish flowers streaked with red. Lathrop, GEORGE PARSONs 1851–98), American author, was rn at Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, where his father was U. S. consul, and received his education at private schools in New York and in Dresden, Germany. He studied law at the Columbia law school and in the office of William M. Evarts for a time, but soon began literary work, no doubt influenced in that direction by his marriage to Rose, the second daughter of Nathaniel Hawthorne, in 1871. Mr. Lathrop was assistant editor of the Atlantic Monthly, 1875–7, and editor of the Boston Courier, 1877–9. In 1879 he bought Hawthorne's former home, “The Wayside, at Concord, Mass., where he lived for four years, occupied with his literary labors. He then removed to New London, and to New York in 1883, where he passed the remainder of his life. Shortly afterward, Mr. and Mrs. Lathro became Roman Catholics; an the former was active in the establishment of the Catholic summer school at o N. In 1887 Mr. Lathrop's dramatization of Tennyson's Elaine was produced at the Madison Square Theatre in New York. The following year he read his Gettysburg: A Battle, Ode' before the Society of the Army of the Potomac, at Gettysburg. He was an ardent promoter of international copyright, which he lived to see in effect in the U. S., and was an officer of the American Copyright ue. Mr. Lathrop edited an edition of Hawthorne's works, with a Memoir, 1883; Qf his other books, principally fiction, may be mentioned Rose and Rooftree, verse (1875), After-glow 1876), An Echo "so assion o ewport (1884 ould You Kill Him 2 (1889), Dreams and Days, verse (1892), and an excellent travel-volume, Spanish Vistas (1883). Lathrop, Rose HAwTHORNE (1851), American author, second daughter of Nathaniel Hawthorne, was born at Lenox, Mass., much of her childhood being passed abroad. She studied art in Dresden and in London, and was married in the latter city (1871) to George Parsons Lathrop (q.v.). Besides her art work, Mrs. Lathrop contributed many poems, stories, and sketches to the maga: zines, and much literary material to children's periodicals. Some of her }*š. were collected as Along the Shore (1888), and she also published Memories of Hawthorne (1897) and, with Mr. Lathrop, A Story of Courage: Annals of the Georgetown Convent (1894).
In 1896 Mrs. Lathrop, known as Mother Mary Alphonsa Lathrop, superioress of the Dominican Com"...", of the Third Order, devoted herself entirely to the man§§§ of a charitable home in ew York. f l Lathyrus, a genus of mostly climbing plants to: to the order guminosae. he genus includes many species of value, for their racemose or solitary flowers, with rather large papilionaceous corollas. Among them are the fragrant sweet - pea ( odoratus); Lord Anson's pea, L. o a handsome perennial climber from the Strait of Magellan, bearing purple flowers in summer and autumn; L. grandiflorus, an annual species bearing rose-colored flowers; L. latifolius, the well-known white or purple flowered everlasting pea; and rotundifolius, with rose-colored flowers in early summer. Among the American species of lathyrus are L. maritimus, a prostrate shore Fo known as the ‘beach pea,” the purple-flowered L. ornaius, a showy vetchling, of the prairies, and the cream-colored vetchling (L. ochroleucus). Latimer, HUGH (21485–1555), English reformer. he son of a Leicestershire yeoman, he became a fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, in 1510, and subsequently took holy orders. His first step towards revolt is seen in his severe criticism of the lives of English riests and “un-preaching preates;' but the ecclesiastical wrath thus drawn down upon him was counteracted by the favor of the king, Henry VIII., before whom he preached at intervals from 1530 onwards. The emancipation of the country from the Pope's authority in 1534 went far to establish the position of Latimer, who was free to preach the reformed doctrines throughout the land—a work for which the high merit of his sermons shows him to have been especially, fitted. He was appointed to the bishopric of Worcester in 1535, but resigned in 1539. . In 1546–7 he was imprisoned in the Tower, but enjoyed a few more years of remarkable success as a preacher before Mary's accession in 1553 threw him again into prison. After much suffering, he went with Ridley to the stake at Oxford. Marked above all by vigor and sincerity, the character, and work of Latimer place him high, among the world’s reformers. An edition of his works was issued by the Parker Society (1844–5). See Lives by Gilpin (1755) and Demaus (rev. ed. 1881); also Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Latimer Clark’s Standard Cell. See CELL, VolTA1c. Latin Empire. See BYzANTINE EMPIRE, RomE.
Latin Language and Literature
Latin Language and Literato: 1. Langua to he o anguage, originally the speec of t o abitants of Latium, belongs, like the Greek, to the IndoEuropean (Indo-Germanic, §§ family of speech. It is classifie with the Italic group of languages, other members of which are the Oscan and Umbrian and some minor dialects. This Italic group of languages, in vocabulary, declension, and conjugation, presents many points of resemblance to the Greek, so that formerly it was held that the Greek and Italic languages were separate deyelopments of a previous GraecoItalic group; but further investiations have entirely overthrown this theory. It is now clearly proved that the closest affinities of the Italic group of languages are with the Celtic dialects—viz. Welsh, Cornish, Breton, Manx, Erse, and Gaelic. It is the case not only that the Italic and Celtic groups, of languages are closely akin, but also that they are the only two groups of IndoGermanic languages between which any closer connection with each other than with any other members of the family can shown to exist. The evidences for this proof are that in both the Italic and Celtic groups some members (e.g. Latin and Gaelic) show a c or qu, corresponding to an Indo-Germanic k, when other members (e.g., Oscan and Welsh) show p; that in both groups the passive is formed in the same manner (by the addition of a suffix in -r to the personal endings of the active); and that again in both groups the imperfect tenses of all verbs and many future indicative tenses are formed from a stem -bhu (e.g. amabam, amabo). These verb forms are absolutely peculiar to the Italic and Celtic o: in no other IndoGermanic language have they been found to occur. The Latin language resembles the other Indo-Germanic lan§§. in being synthetic and inectional—i.e. it expresses differences of case, number, and gender in nouns and adjectives, and of person, tense, mood, and voice in verbs, by various suffixes (rarely assisted by a prefix) which have no meaning apart from the form in which they are found, and not by prepositions, auxiliary verbs and the like, as in English and most modern languages. The Latin declensions of nouns are usually classed as five in number, though a classification into six— viz., of stems ending respectively in the vowels a, o, i, u, e, and in consonants—would be more scientific. Latin has only two numbers, singular and plural, havin lost the original dual. (traces o
which remain in the forms duo,
Latin Language and Literature
“two,” and ambo, “both'). It has three genders—masculine, feminine, and neuter. Of the original seven cases (neglecting the vocative) it retains five—nominative accusative, genitive, dative, an ablative; but the forms of the two last cases are always identical in the plural, and often in the singular & all -o and many -i nouns). The Latin verb has lost the middle voice, and has developed a new passive, as has been said. The verb esse, “to be,” is used as an auxiliary along with the perfect participle to express all perfect tenses in the passive. In regard to the moods, Latin has again lost one, the optative, retaining the indicative, imperative, subjunctive, infinitive, and participial, though it is more correct to say that its subjunctive exhibits a confusion of the subjunctive and optative forms and uses. The participial mood is also defective: Latin verbs possess in the active only a present and future, and in the passive only a past participle, against the four participles (present, future, aorist, and perfect) possessed by Greek verbs in each voice. The indicative mood possesses six tenses—present, future, perfect, imperfect, luperfect, and future perfect. e perfect shows a confusion of perfect and aorist uses; but in the imperative only a present and future, in the subjunctive only, present, imper: fect, perfect, and pluperfect, and in the infinitive only present, future, and perfect tenses are found. Thus, with a deficiency alike in tense, mood, voice, and number (there being no dual, as in the noun), a typical Latin verb presents a great o of forms as compared with a Greek, one; the full conjugation of the latter embraces over 500 distinct forms, that of the former only some 170. Latin, has, however, a new development of its own, in the gerund and gerundive, forms of which no certain explanation has been given, but which appear to be originall passive participles possessed ospecial uses. These gerundival constructions are a marked peculiarity of Latin. It may be added that Latin verbs are usually classified into four conjugations, according as the stem ends in -a, -e, ,-i, or a consonant. The first three conjugations present few irregularities, but the last includes many irregular verbs, whose varieties are due chiefly to the various meth of forming ... the perfect stem which, prevail in Latin, and also to various formations of the stem of the future, participle active and past participle passive., The remaining parts of speech do not call for particular attention. The Latin alphabet was derived
from , that used by , the Greek colonists in Italy, and most probably from Cumae in Campania. Some authorities hold that it passed from Cumae to the Latins through the Etruscans, but, on the whole, this is unlikely. The forms of the Latin letters exactly correspond with those used by the Chalcidic Greeks of Cumae, except in regard to P and G. This origin of the Latin alphabet explains its difference from that used by the Greeks proper, , though the igns, for the capital letters are identical in most cases. The original Latin alphabet consisted of twenty letters, A B C D E F H foo # $4%.5 having originally the sound of G as its continued use as the initia of the name Gaius proves; so too Cn. as the initial of Gnaeus. In time, C usurped the place of K, which continued to be used only in a few words, such as Kalendae and Kaeso. In 312 B.C. Appius Claudius the censor introduced the new sign G to represent the g, sound; it was placed , in the alphabet between F an . I was the sign both of the vowel and of the consonant i, as was V both of the vowel and consonant u, the signs J and U were not introduced till the middle ages. In Cicero's time Y and Z were added to the alphabet in order to transliterate Greek words. Thus the full alhabet consisted of twenty-three etters, the twenty above mentioned, and G, Y, and Z. In ancient times, at least in careful writing, the capital forms of the letters alone were used, whether in the style called capital or uncial; but as early as the 1st century A.D., and probably earlier, a form of cursive writing in small letters was in use—examples of it may be seen in the graffiti, or wall-writings, at Pompeii—which developed into the small letters as now used. These letters of the Latin alphabet may be divided as follows:– Vowels—a, e, i, o, u, consonants— first dental stops, t, d; secondly, labial stops, p, b, thirdly, ttural stops, c, k, q, g; fourthly, spirants, f, s, h, and the consonantas is and u: fifthly, liquids, l and r, and lastly, nasals, m and n., x is merely the combina: tion of k (or c) and s. represents the Greek v (sounded like the French u), and z the Greek 3. The diphthongs are ai, ei, oi, au, eu, and ou; but, by the Augustan period ai, ei, oi, ou had become ae, i, oe, and u. The classical pronunciation of the letters is satisfactorily established; it is as follows:—The vowels a, e, i, o, u. were pronounced as in Italian, though 8, i, Č, is were open sounds, 8, i, 5, so close sounds. The pronunciation of the diphthongs ae, oe, au, and eu was that of the
Latin Language and Literature
component vowels pronounced in quick succession. Of the consonants, t and d were pronounced as true dentals §: with the tongue touching the teeth, not the roof of the mouth, as in English); p and b corresponded to the English sounds; c and g were always hard (e.g. Cicero was pronounced Kikero, genius with g as in “get’); q loss; occurred before u, being pronounced as in English; f was as in , English; h was a weaker sound than the English, tending to disappear, as it has in the Romance languages; s was always the sharp sound, as in ‘this,” never as in ‘these;’ the consonants, i and u were pronounced like the English y and w, though the latter, was perhaps a weaker sound, such as is heard in the French oui; l and r were as in English, except that r was strongly trilled; at the beginnin of a word m and n were sounde as in English, but at the end of a word, or syllable were weakly sounded; in such positions m or n is written indifferently in inscriptions, as, for example, conparo or comparo. The weakness of the sound m at the end of the word is illustrated by the fact that in § a syllable endin in m is elided just as if it ende in the vowel alone. The Latin accent differed from the Greek in being a stress accent like that of English or modern Italian. In classical times the rule of the accentuation of words was very simple—viz. that in all words, it fell on the penultimate syllable of a word of two or more syllables if that syllable was long, but if it was short, on the antepenultimate if the word contained three, or more syllables— e.g. amā'bo, but ama'bitis. There are traces, however, of an earlier system of accentuation in Latin, according to which the first syllable of each word bore a strong stress accent. Thus, in most verbs compounded with Poio the vowel of the verb stem is weakened in the compound—e.g. facio, but inficio; ago, but adigo, etc. fn later com: pounds, such as calefacio, the vowel is not changed. In the last stages of the Latin language the stress accent seems to have become even stronger, which accounts for the fact that in some Romance languages words have frequently lost, syllables which receded or followed that which re the accent—e.g. Fr. frère from frater, chant from cantus, aimons from amamus, etc. Regarded from the point of view of its sound, the Latin lanÉ. was less euphonious and eavier than the Greek—its words ess a greater number of consonants in ğ. to vowels; and while Greek words can only Latin Language and Literature
end in the consonants v, p. s, and, or vowels, Latin words end freely in l, m, n, r, s, and t, and occasionally also in b, c, and d. The proportion of long to short vowels ls j. greater than in Greek, and the variety of vowel sound (including iPho is smaller. As a result, the Latin language loses something in elegance, variety, and lightness; but it gains, if not proportionately, in weight and dignity. Latin poetry, written in metres borrowed from Greek poets, moves with a certain lack of freedom; but as manipulated % its greatest masters, such as Horace and Virgil, it attains a majesty and solem: nity unsurpassed by the poetry of any language. The Latin vocabulary again, as compared with the Greek, is deficient. Roman writers themselves were well aware of this deficiency like Lucretius, who complains àf the patrii sermonis egestas, ‘the verty of our native speech.” *. eficiency is due partly to the positive lack, first, of certain forms, such as the dual number in nouns, the optative mood in verbs, the aorist tense, and several rticipial tenses, which seriously iminish the shades of expression possible to the language; partl also to the absence of many wor denoting abstract ideas — thus oily all terms of philosophy, science, grammar, and lit: erary criticism had to be adopted from the Greek; but chiefly, perhaps, owing to the jā; of the "la. for forming compounds. In Latin, compounds of verb and preposition are frequent but compounds of two noun stems, or of a noun and verb stem, are rare; certainly they cannot be formed at will, as in Greek. In terms of law, administration, and warfare—the true spheres of Ro: man genius—the language is rich and abundant. Generally it may
be said that the vocabulary suited .
the needs of practical life—of the farm, the law court, the assembly, and the camp—and was less Hopi to the requirements of the poet, the philosopher, the scientist, and the , critic. The best testimony to the usefulness of the vocabulary is its wide adoption by modern languages, such as our own and the German, which are not directly derived from it. As already suggested, Latin increased its vocabulary largely by borrowing from Greek, and also to a less extent by borrowin from other Italic dialects an from Celtic. The highest qualities of Latin are perhaps to be found in its methods of expression and construction, which again illustrate its practical character. Particularly to be observed are its preference of concrete to abstract
expression, its logical arrangement of, clauses, and the precision with which it subordinates the subsidiary ideas to the chief thought in the sentence. It may not be capable of expressing delicate shades of meaning, but it certainly does not leave its meaning in doubt. Hence the great value of its study as an instrument of education. the construing of a complex sentence requires as careful and strict an application of rules as the working out of a mathematical problem. In this connection it may be remarked that one of its chief difficulties to the learner is its gradually working up to the main point: the normal rule in each clause is that the most imortant word, the verb, comes ast, and in each sentence the subordinate clauses lead up to the principal thought. Yet, once this difficulty is mastered, the precision of the arrangement makes the meaning easily intelligible. Constructions are , , almost invariable: the same ideas are expressed, with few exceptions, in the same way. The two main defects of the language, as regards construction, are its lack of articles, either definite or indefinite—e.g. homo means ‘the man,’ or ‘a man, according to the context, which sometimes causes ambiguity; and its lack of a past participle active, which necessitates the use of the cumbrous ‘ablative absolute' construction (which also is ambiguous, as his dictis abiit may mean “having said this he went away,’ or “when some one else had said this he went away”), or other circumlocutions. But, on the whole in virtue of its above-mentioned qualities of logical precision and concreteness, of its terseness—a page of English usually translates into three-quarters of a page of Latin—its directness and dignity, Latin must be ranked as one of the noblest forms of human speech. Latin can hardly be said to have possessed any dialects, or, if it had, they have left scarcely any traces. It was, of course originally the speech of a small nation, the Latins; the aggrandizement of Rome caused it to spread over Western Europe, and to some extent toward the East, but the varieties so produced in it can scarcely be ranked as dialects. It is, however, clear that in many respects the lan#." of the populace differed rom the literary Latin which has come down to us in books. This is proved by the fact that many common words in the Romance, languages are derived, not from their equivalents in classical Latin, but either from words used in slightly different or special
Latin Language and Literature
senses in classical Latin, or from words not found at all in the best writers: thus in French feu ocus), cheval (caballus), maison mansio), , aller (adnare), correspond to the classical ignis, equus omus, and ire o battre, arriver, coucher, épée, and many other similar words, find their derivation in forms not used at all in good Latin. Many verb forms also-such as recevoir, pouvoir, savoir, and the like—show by their form that they are derived from incorrect variations of the true language, which no doubt were current in classical speech.
The purest Latinity is generally held to be that of the first century B.C., represented by writers such as Cicero, Caesar, Sallust, and Livy in prose; flucretius Catullus, Virgil, Horace, and Ovid in poetry. The Latin of the first century A.D.--the period often called the Silver Age— shows a degeneration, in the admission of foreign, chiefly Greek, idioms and words; and this degeneration increases with the successive centuries. The barbarian invasions, did much to corrupt the vocabulary; yet it was not until long after the fall of the Western empire, in 476 A.D., that Latin ceased to be the speech of
Italy, and yielded to its descendant Italian. For many centuries longer Latin continued to be the
common language of scholars and, until the i7th century, of diplomatists. he discussion of the Latin o cannot be concluded without the mention of its imortance as the mother of the omance languages. Its relation to them, is particularly interesting, as it corresponds with that of the original Indo-Germanic languages to the various IndoGermanic tongues, such as Latin itself, Greek, Aryan, Celtic, Teutonic, and the rest; and thus it illustrates the development of their *: from the parent speech. It has been pointed out in a preceding paragraph that the Romance fino descend from the language of the common Polo, the soldiers and traders who settled in the provinces, and not from the literary language. These Romance lanfloo. cover fairly accurately the area of the Western empire of Rome; in the Eastern empire ilatin failed to displace Greek. From Britain the Anglo-Saxon invasion expelled the Latin speech, if it had taken root there, as the Saracenic invasions expelled it from Africa. Apart from this some form of Roman speech still marks the ancient limits of Roman rule. hese languages are the Italian, French, Provençal, Spanish, Portuguese, Wallachian, and RhaetoRomanic. For the study of any Latin Language and Literature
one of them, and still more for the o: of any two or more, a knowledge of Latin is indispensable. However, the acfloo of that knowledge is sufciently demanded by the greatness of the Latin literature, to which we now proceed. Bibliography.— Philology: Brugmann's Comparative Gram: mar (1888–95), Brugmann and Stolz's Griechische und Lateinische Grammatik (1890), Delbrück's Vergleichende o der indogermanischen Sprac (1892) Lindsay's Latin. Language (1894), Giles's Manual # Comparative o (1895), King and Cook: son's Sounds and Inflexions of Greek and Latin (1888), Mommsen's Unteritalische . Dialekte so). and Conway's Italic Diaects (1897). , Grammar: Roby 1887), Gildersleeve (1894), Zumpt 1874), Madvig (1889), Kühner 1879), Draeger (1878), Stolz (1895) ronunciation: Arnold and Conway (1895), Seelman (1885), and works referred to under PHILology. Lexicography: Forcellini (1858–79), Lewis and Short (1879), White and Riddle §: and Iju Cange (1678), for Middle and Low Latin. 2. Literature.—The Latin literature, or the literature of ancient Rome—for though the language cannot be called Roman, being shared by the other Latin communities, the literature did not arise until they were merged in the Roman, state—possesses a history which covers some seven or more centuries. Its beginning may be dated with almost absolute exactness at 240 B.C., the year in which the first Latin play was exhibited at Rome. Various dates may be assigned for its close, such as 404 A.D., the year of Claudian's death; 476 A.D., the date of the abdication of Romulus Augustulus, the last of the Western emperors; or 524 A.D., , the year in which Boëthius perished. Adopting the last date, so as, to include in the P. survey his interesting and important work, we assign a duration of over seven and a half centuries to the life of Latin literature. Impossible as it is to draw a rigid line of demarcation between different epochs, we may venture to subdivide the history of Latin literature into three main periods— (1) The Republican Age, from 240 to 27 B.c.; (2) the Augustan Age, from 27 B.C. to 14 A.D., or perhaps rather later; and (3) the Age of the Empire, from, say, 25 to 524 A.D. et not all the writers included within these chronological limits can be ranked as classical; narrower limits must be assigne to that part of the literature which, merits such a description; and Plautus (fl. 200 B.C.) and Suetonius (fl. 120 A.D.) may be re
garded as the first and the last of the great classical authors. Within that period of three centuries all the masterpieces which claim the attention of the world were produced. (1.) The Republican Age (240 to 27 B.C.).--Latin literature, more perhaps than that , of any other nation, was essentially imitative and artificial; no doubt in earl days rude hymns and balla were produced, but nothing approaching the rank of literature existed until Greek influence began to make itself felt. It did so by 250 B.C. or so, and for most of the next century Latin literature consisted , almost entirely of translations from the Greek. Three names deserve special mention as the founders othe literature—those of Livius Andronicus, Naevius, and Ennius. Of the three it is to be noted that Naevius alone was a native Latin. Andronicus (c. 284–204 B.C.) was a Greek prisoner of war from Tarentum, who took his name, Lucius Livius, from that of the Roman family to, which he had belonged when a slave. He was occupied at Rome as a tutor to o families. He translated Gree plays into Latin, the first of which, appeared about 240 B.C.; and also translated the Odyssey, and, it is to be remarked, into the native Saturnian verse. Rude as this performance no doubt was, it was important as naturalizing in Rome one of the greatest works of Greek genius; it was still used as a school book in the time of Horace. Only a few fragments of it survive. Gaius Naevius (c. 264–194 B.C.) was a figure of greater distinction. e also translated Greek plays, but went further in writing original plays on Roman subjects, and in composing an epicostiii in the Saturnian metre—on the Punic wars. Too few fragments survive to en-. able a judgment of the work to be formed; however, it retained its popularity, in the Augustan age, and is said by the Virgilian commentators, acrobius and Servius, to have been conveyed in largePo by, Virgil into his AEneid. A masculine strength and dignity mark the few extant fragments. Quintus Ennius (239– 169 B.C.) was a native of Calabria; he served in the second Punic War, but only obtained Roman .# about 180 B.C.; he was atronized by the great Scipio fricanus. He was the first regular literary man of the Western, world—writing on grammar, spelling, pronunciation, metre, and even on shorthand, in addition to his more ambitious works in tragic and epic poetry. The titles of more than twenty of his tragedies and many fragments are known, the latter remarkable for
Latin Language and Literature
beauty of phrase and a certain grand dignity of style. . Even more important was his epic, the Annales, a history of Rome in o; books, from the landing of Æneas to his own day. In it he used the Greek hexameter measure with such success as to make it for all time the chief Roman metre; . If for nothing else, for this his poem deserves fame;, but for centuries it, re. tained its hold on Roman readers, even after Virgil's day, though as compared with the beauty of the latter's poems, Ennius could only show an archaic dignity. The fragments of the poems, several hundreds in number, are marked by their rugged but powerful versification, and the breadth and wisdom of their thought. Naevius and Ennius were followed by two more tragic poets, Marcus Pacuvius (220–132 B.c.) and Lucius Accius (170–c. 90 B.C.), of whom less is known, thoug Cicero, placed the former, and floo. °o. the latter, at the ead of Roman tragedy, which declined after their time. Comedy at Rome was contemporary with tragedy. Andronicus, Naevius, and Ennius wrote comedies as well as o but they were excelled in this department by Plautus, Caecilius, and Terence. Titus Maccius Plautus É. B.C.) wrote perhaps some orty-five plays, of which twenty are extant. All are adaptations, not to say translations, from the Greek, as indeed were also all the works of Caecilius and Terence. His plays, represent every variety of comedy, from the tragédie bouffe to the farce. His best works are perhaps the Amphitryo, the Trinummus, the Aulularia, and the Rudens—a comedy with an unusually romantic setting. Many of his plays are coarse, but they possess an inexhaustible fund of animal spirits, wit, and humor. The language is vigorous and pure, and the influence of Plautus on modern comedy is unmistakable. Of Caecilius (fl. 180 o little is known; only fragments o his work survive. Terence—in full Publius Terentius Afer (185–159 B.c.)—differed from Plautus in preserving not only the Greek setting but also the Greek *#. and tone in his plays. he comedy of Plautus is Roman in all but origin; that of Terence Greek in all but language, hence his plays were never popular at Rome. They lack vigor and humor; their excellences are those of polish, elegance, character-drawing, and pure diction. Julius Caesar's criticism of Terence as a “halved Menander’ cannot be improved. All the six plays which he wrote, are extant. There were other Roman comedians, such as Titinius (fl. 170 B.C.) Latin Language and Literature
and Afranius (fl. 90 B.C.), who wrote thoroughly Roman comedies, not adapted from Greek models; but none of their works survive, and o: of them except their names is known. After Terence comedy decayed at Rome. Its place was taken partly by the mimes or farces, which do not belong to literature; partly by the satire which was being developed; and, largely, , too, by gladiatorial shows, which appealed more forcibly to Roman taste. At Rome, as everywhere else, o literature was earlier in ate than prose; and at Rome, too, the usual rule obtained that the earliest form of prose writing was devoted to historical records. But Rome's earliest chroniclers, Quintus, Fabius Pictor (fl. 215 B.c.) and Lucius Cincius Alimentus (fl. 210 B.C.)—the former the author of a history of Rome from the earliest times to his own; the latter of a contemporary historywrote their works in Greek. Marcus Porcius Cato (234–149 B.C.) was the founder of Latin prose literature. His works included more than 150 speeches; the Origines, a work of discursive history, intermixed with geography, politics, and personal reminiscences; and the De Re Rustica, on farming; but only the last is extant. It shows not attempt at style, but much practical sagacity and a dry humor, . Historians of the same period (c. 140 B.C.) are Cassius Hemina, Lucius Calpurnius Piso, and Lucius Coelius, Antipater. The works of all of them are lost. About the same period treatises on jurisprudence began to be composed. But the most important literary figure of the second half of the 2nd century B.C. was Gaius Lucilius (180–103 B.C.), the founder of the Roman satura — a term the original meaning of which was not satire, but “a medley,’ i.e. a composition of miscellaneous contents, and which was first o to a rude kind of drama lacking a plot afterwards to sketches of social life and character, and finally developing into that criticism of popular manners and habits, and even of individuals, which is denoted by the word satire in its modern sense. Lucilius called his satires Sermones (‘Talks”), a title afterward adopted by Horace; they consisted of thirty books, describing the life of his time, his travels and adventures, discussing also the literary and grammatical controversies of the day, and really giving the poet's own autobiography. They were written in hexameters of careless construction; Lucilius cared more for speed than for polish. Alo his work was lacking in finish, and occasionally coarse in its
outspokenness. Yet he has the credit of having invented the one original department of Latin literature which has been imitated by such modern writersnot to mention the professed satirists — as Montaigne and Pepys. Only fragments of his works are extant. Nor has any of the other literature of the same period survived, though names of historians are known, and also of orators, such as Scipio and Younger, Laelius, the Gracchi, M. Antonius, and Licinius Crassus, who prepared Roman oratory for its full development in Cicero, who now demands attention. Marcus Tullius Cicero (107-43 B.C.) is in many ways the chief figure in Roman literature; whatever views are taken of his statesmanship, his literary importance, both in his own times and to the modern world, cannot be denied. His excellence is not confined to a single department. Of his speeches, of which the Verrine, Catilinarian, and PhilipÉ. orations are perhaps the chief; is treatises on literature, such as the De Oratore, the Brutus, and the De Optimo Genere Oratorum; his p;po works, like the De Finibus, the De Amicitia, and the De Officiis; and his Letters—any one of these forms of literary production would have sufficed to give lasting renown to any orator, critic, philosopher, , or letter-writer undistinguished in any other branch of composition. is letters possess an undying charm, both from the vividness of their style and the complete revelation which they #. of their writer's character. hey make the age of Cicero better known to us than perhaps any period before the 17th century. It should not be omitted that Cicero made several attempts in poetry: he translated the Phaenomena of Aratus, and also wrote a poem on his own consulship, as to which Juvenal's criticism, that he need not have feared the sword of Antony if he had written all his works in the same style, may be accepted. Yet his experiments in poetry assisted one of the greatest of Roman poets—viz. Lucretius, who clearly studied and imitated them. Titus Lucretius (97–53 B.C.), is practically unknown except by his great poem, De Natura Rerum; there is a story, that he died by his own hand, after having been made insane by a love potion given him by his own wife, and , leaving some books composed in his sane intervals, which Cicero corrected. Of this legend it can o be said that no evidence can be obtained to confirm it. Of his poem—the #: of which is the Epicurean philosophy—it can safely be said
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that while at its worst it is not poetry at all, but philosophical arguments—and that uninteresting—forced into metre, at its best it reaches a height of majesty unequalled by any Roman poet, and by few poets of any nation. Younger contemporaries of his Were Śān. Calvus, and Catullus, who represent a totally different school of É. Of these, Gaius Valerius Catullus (c. 84–54 B.C.) alone calls for notice, as neither of the others is represented by any extant works, though Calvus at least was ranked with him by good judges. Catullus's fame rests chiefly on those of his poems which celebrate his love for Lesbia—poems which, for their direct expression of feeling, have never been surpassed. e also wrote poems on his travels, satirical yerses, elegiacs on various sub!. an epithalamium of , great auty, the Atys, and an idyll in hexameters on the marriage of Peleus, and Thetis. His lyrics are his real achievement in poetry, and in them it is his directness and simplicity of utterance that constitute his strength. His work, which always breathes Roman dignity and force, ends an era in Roman poetry, for a new one to begin some fifteen years after his death with the works of Virgil. Caesar (102-44 B.C.) is the chief representative, after Cicero, of the Latin prose of the republic though his extant work is imited to his Commentaries on the Gallic and the civil wars. But his speeches and letters were held to be unexcelled even in that age; he also wrote on grammar, on astronomy, and two attacks on Cato. is Commen'taries are distinguished, by the brevity and brilliance of their style, and b the skill with which Caesar, thoug never stooping to self-laudation makes them the justification, an the monument of his achievements. As a model of pure Latinity, Caesar ranks with Cicero alone. Other historians of the riod were Q. Sallustius Crispus 86–34 B.C.), who wrote two extant monographs on the Jugurthine war, and on the conspiracy of Catiline, and also five books of histories on the period from 79– 70 B.C., of which only fragments remain — he closely , imitated Thucydides, and based his history on careful researches, but is scarcely a writer of the first rank; and Cornelius Nepos (99– 24 B.C.), whose only extant work is a collection of Greek and Roman, biographies, whose title to survival has been their suitability for the use of beginners in Latin. The one o figure of the republican perio is M. Terentius Varro (116– 27 B.C.), whose career began be