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Latin Language and Literature

fore, that of Cicero, and ended in the year of the establishment of the empire. Of his 600 or 700 volumes only one on agriculture and six (out of twenty-five) on the Latin language are extant. Most of his works were antiquarian and scholarly rather than literary in the true sense; but the loss of his 150 Menippean satires, and of his Imagines, or lives with portraits of celebrated Greeks and Romans—the first recorded instance of the publication of an illustrated book—is much to be deplored. (2.) The Augustan Age (27 B.C. to 14 A.D.).-The Augustan age is one of those remarkable peri of human history, like that of Pericles, , of Elizabeth, of Louis xiv., and of Anne, which are distinguished by the contemporary appearance of several geniuses of a high order. . It can boast of five poets of the first rank (Virgil Horace, Propertius, Tibullus, an Ovid), and of one great historian (Livy), besides minor writers. It differs from the age of Pericles and that of Elizabeth, and resembles that of Louis XIV. in being a period not so much of national achievement and enterprise—Rome's conquest of the world dates before 100 B.C.—as of the recognition of , national greatness; the Romans had then realized their empire of the world, and the ‘Roman peace' established by Augustus supplied them with the repose necessary to survey and celebrate their pre-eminence. It is his expression of this Roman, spirit that has justified the claim of Virgil to be considered the representative poet of Roman, literature. In §§ and in elevation of thought, he certainly does not excel Lucretius; in genuine poetic force Catullus, and in perfection of form Horace, may rival him; but he alone has fully exÉ. for succeeding ages the ighest aspects of Roman character and genius. P. Vergilius Maro (70–19 B.C.) was a native of Cisalpine Gaul, and thus, like Horace, may have had some nonLatin strain in his blood. His chief works, are the Eclogues astoral idylls in the manner o heocritus; the Georgics, on husbandry, imitated from Hesiod; and the Æneid, the model of which is the epic of Homer. It is at once obvious that Virgil owed much to study and imitation of Greek poets, and not of

them o: but of Romans like, n

Naevius, nius, and Lucretius. But it was not this study that made him great; it was most of all the above-mentioned expression of the Roman spirit, in a lesser degree, his perfect mastery of metre and language, and his exquisite sensibility for human

Wol. Wii.-15

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weakness and suffering, for honor in word and nobility in deed, that placed him at once amon

the great poets of the .# His reputation was made even with the publication of the Georgics; and the Æneid immediately won a renown which has never been obscured, in spite of changes of taste which have at times challenged his preeminence. Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65–8 B.C.) was a friend as well, as a contemporary of Virgil; but, he differs from him entirely in being a thorough man of the world, while Virgil was always a recluse. Whether in his Odes, his Satires, or his Epistles, Horace always shows the same , polished worldly wisdom, combined with humor, geniality good sense, od feeling, an

good taste. In rfection of verbal and metrical finish he is not surpassed even by Virgil; he brought. Latin lyric metres to such a point that no successor could follow him without imitation, or desert his example without disaster, and thus with him Latin lyric P.": ended. Sextus

4

Propertius (49–15 B.C.) needs less consideration; he wrote four books of elegies, chiefly love

poems, of which the first is remarkable as having been written before he was twenty. He owed much to study of the Greeks: the excellences of his poetry are its, depth of passion, power of self-revelation, and mastery of metre; its defects are an allusiveness, and , distortion , of phrase which lead to obscurity. Albius Tibullus (54–19 B.C.) is a less ambitious but more natural poet; his work consists of three books of elegiac poems, marked by a true sincerity and delicacy of feeling. Ovid—in full, P. Ovidius Naso (43 B.C. to 18 A.D.)—is remarkable as the most productive of , Roman poets. He wrote both in elegiacs and hexameters: in the former metre, the Heroides, the Amores, the Ars Amatoria, the Tristia, the Ex Ponto, and the Fasti, and in the latter, the Metamorphosis. He lacks the imagination, the passion, and the elevation of a great poet; his distinctive qualities are his facility, his apt choice of words, his smooth versification, and chiefly his power of story-telling, which made his works the favorite reading of the youth of both

sexes in succeeding ages until the development of the modern novel. These were the great

poets of the Augustan age. The names of others like Gallus and Varius are known, though their works are lost; it is, however, certain that in the works of these five authors we possess the highest achievements of Augustan poetry. In prose there is but

Latin Language and Literature

9ne outstanding name, that of Livy. Titus Livius (59 B.C. to 18 A.D.) was a native of Padua; his reat work was a history of Rome rom the earliest times to 9 B.C. It consisted of 142 books, and its composition occupied the historian for over forty years. Only thirty-five books are now extant viz. 1-10, ending with the third Samnite war (c. 300 B.C.), and 21–45, from 218 to 168 B.c.; of the other books epitomes exist. Livy's merits as a historian are not those of the patient inquirer into facts; indeed, he neglects research, such as the study of ancient documents and monuments, which would have been easily accessible to him, and is content to adapt his facts from his predecessors, merely, using his own judgment to decide their differences. But his sense of the majesty and imperial mission of Rome, his insight into character, his mastery of dramatic situation, his power of vivid, description, and his varied and flowing style give him a high place among historians who are read for their narrative. His language marks, the highest development of Latin prose: it is richer and more §§ than that of Caesar, yet, though poetically colored, free from the innovations and eccentricities of later writers. Other historians of the eriod were Pompeius Trogus #. 10 § who wrote a history of the world in forty-four books, of which a valuable abridgment has come down to modern times; and Velleius Paterculus (fl. 25 A.D.), who wrote a brief history of Rome in two books, which are extant, but of small value. Less important writers were the fabulist Phaedrus (fl. 30 A.D.), the survival of whose works was due to their use as a school book; Manilius (fl. c. 14 A.D.), author o an astronomical poem of some 4,000 lines, rather dull in style, but containing passages of vigorous thought and expression; Celsus (fl. c. 14 A.D.), author o an encyclopaedia, of which only eight books on medicine were preserved to become a standard work until recent times; and L. Annaeus Seneca (54 B.C. to 39 A.D.) father of the philosopher, an author of some rhetorical exercises, which are chiefly valuable as showing the development of Latin prose. . Some of these authors outlived the period assigned to the Augustan age, but the character .# their works justifies their inclusion within it. . (3.) The Age of the Empire o: to 524 A.D.).-For a quarter of a o or more from 20 or 25 A.D., literature appears to have been almost extinct at Rome. But for the next half-century or more after 50 A.D. Rome could show Latin Language and Literature

a succession of writers, both in poetry and in prose, not indeed–. with the possible exception of Tacitus—of first-rate genius, yet successful enough to win an deserve a lasting fame. Their period is called the Silver Age, as contrasted with the Golden or Augustan Age. The first of these is É. Annaeus Seneca (4 B.C. to 65 A.D.), the son of the rhetorician, and himself famous as a moralist. His moral writings are numerous, and contain much lofty thought and deep feeling, very rhetorically expressed. He also wrote nine tragedies, of a purely declamatory type, untrue to life, and unsuited to the stage. . It should be remarked that his father and he himself—born at Cordova–were natives of Spain; so, too, were his nephew Lucan, and the later writers Martial and Quintilian. Henceforth Roman literature is not confined to the Latin race, and its language is increasingly corrupted by the influence of the rovincialism of its users. M. nnaeus Lucanus (39–65 A.D.) is remarkable for the production of his epic, the Pharsalia, at such an early age—he was executed for complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy against Nero at twentysix—for the brilliance of his lanuage, and the force of many of is statements. His poem is , a mine for quotations, but it lacks power of characterization, variet of rhythm, and true, poetic feeling. Quintilian aptly sums him up as ‘better to be imitated by orators than by poets.”. Another young poet, and a friend of Lucan, was Aulus Persius Flaccus (34– 62 A.D.). His only work consists of six satires, amounting to over 600 lines of verse, marked chiefly by obscurity and , acquaintance with books rather than mankind, but also by moral earnestness delicacy of feeling, and a genuine delight in secluded study. Another poet of the same period is Titus Calpurnius Siculus (fl. 55 A.D.), who ventured, with some success, to imitate the bucolic E. of Virgil in his Eclogues. rose writers were Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (fl. 6 §: who wrote a treatise on agricu ture; and Petronius, Arbiter (d. 66 A.D.), the “glass of fashion’. at Nero's court, and also a capable statesman, whose work, the Sat ricon, is a sort of novel, remarkable for its pictures of life of every kind, its frequent use of the dialect of the lower orders, its wild humor, and, it must be confessed, also for its flagrant indecency in many passages. With the establishment in 69 A.D. of the dynasty of the Flavian emperors under Vespasian a new school of literature, appears, which was distinguished by its learning and its desire to imitate rather than

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to excel the A an writers. First may be mentioned the three epic § ets, Publius Papinius Statius (d. c. 95 A.D.), Valerius Flaccus § c. 90 A.D.), and Silius Italicus 25–101 A.D.). Statius's poems are a Thebais (an epic on the story of Thebes), an Achilleis (one on that of Achilles, of which only one book and part of another were finished), and a number of miscellaneous poems, called Silva. His epic is highly finished, but tedious; his minor, poems are more graceful and pleasing. Flaccus wrote an Argonautica, imitated from that by Apollonius Rhodius; but he is so long-winded that even in eight books he leaves the story unfinished... Still more tedious is Silius Italicus, whose epic dealt with the second Punic war in 17 He makes historical events depend upon, a mythological machinery like that of Homer and Virgil, in a manner so tasteless that he may well be classed as the writer of the worst epic ever written. A very different genius from i". of these three was possessed by the epigrammatist Marcus Valerius Martialis (c. 40–104 A.D.), a native of Bilbilis in Spain. His twelve books of epigrams can scarcely be called poetry. Their chief value is the pictures o give of contemporary Roman life; their merit is a neatness of language, and a precision—often labored— in making a definite point. Of the É. writers of this age, the elder

liny comes first in point of date. Gaius Plinius Secundus (23–79 A.D.) was remarkable for his unwearying pursuit of knowledge. His works were numerous, including histories of Rome and of the wars on the Germanic frontiers; but only the thirty-seven books of his Natural History survive, which is a priceless collection of facts on every branch of natural science then known. Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. 35–95 A.D.) was much more of a literary artist; his life-work was the teaching of rhetoric, and his great achievement is his Institutio Oratoria, which is extant. It deals with the Poio training of an orator, and, by way of doing so, gives valuable advice on education, and a masterly criticism of Latin literature; it is full of sayings of , profound wisdom. Cornelius Tacitus (c. 55–120 o is really the last great figure o Latin literature, and the greatest of Roman historians. His works include the Agricola, a biography of his father-in-law; the Germania, a monograph, on Germany; the Annals, and the Histories, of each of which only parts survive; and an early work, De Oratoribus. The greatness of Tacitus as a historian consists not in his impartiality or true

Latin Language and Literature

presentation of events—it is more than #. that he has maligned both Tiberius and Claudius—but in his dramatic power, and study of character, his moral elevation, and, above all, in the marvellous incisiveness of his stvie. Many of his phrases have become familiar quotations, and no writer could ever put more meaning into few words. His friend, Pliny the Younger–Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus (61–105 A.D.)— though he plumes himself on his imitation of . Tacitus, is merely a man of culture, not of genius; his Letters show much polish, but are chiefly of value as a description of Roman society in his time. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (c. 75–160 A.D.) is , the most important prose writer of the 2nd century; but his Lives of the Twelve Caesars is only, a collection of court gossip, valuable for its simplicity, its many anecdotes, and the interest of details about personages, so universally famous as the o emperors of Rome. A work of no greater, literary value is the Noctes Attica of Aulus Gellius (fl. 160 A.D.), which only claims to be read as a collection of extracts from earlier writers and a source of information regarding the studies of the author's age. Juvenal–Decimus unius Juvenalis—(c. 60–130 A.D.) is a somewhat earlier writer than those just mentioned, but his work may be fitly regarded as the close of original Roman literature. He was the last of the Roman satirists, and the most violent of them all. In his sixteen Satires he fully, acts, up to his own words, “Indignation inspires my verse.' . His satire is based on a thorough acquaintance with Roman life, especially with its seamy side. It is largely to him that the exaggerated belief in the corruption of Roman morals is due; it is forgotten that o cities, in every age have had their sinks of moral refuse. At times he rises to a tone of lofty morality, and many of his maxims have obtained a worldwide currency as quotations. After his time Latin writers cease to exhibit the real Roman character; nor is this remarkable, considering that many had already been, and in the is. nearly all were, not Romans at all in nationality but natives of , every part of the empire. Indeed, towards the end of the second century an entirely new Latin speech comes into łe. literary Latin had long cease

to be a o language, though writers like Quintilian, Pliny ; Younger, and Suetonius continued to use the vocabulary of the republican age. But the leading writers of the latter part of the second century A.D. endeavLatin Language and Literature Latitude and Longitude

ored to return to the spoken language of their day. heir attempt failed, partly because the great classical writers had fixed the standard of Latin speech for all time, but perhaps more because none of them possessed the genius to do great work. Only a brief review of their names can given here. First comes Marcus Cornelius Fronto (c. 90– 168 A.D.), the friend of Marcus Aurelius, and the most famous rhetorician of his time. Only fragments of his works remain, chiefly from private letters, but also from rhetorical exercises, giving a fair idea of the elocutio novella, or ‘new style,' of which he was the chief advocate. Apuleius (fl. 165 A.D.), a native of Africa, author of the Metamorphoses, a romance containin the beautiful tale of Cupid an Psyche, and of some mystical treatises, is a figure of more interest. produced an anonymous poem. called the Pervigilium Veneris, ‘the night-long watch of love,’ written in trochaic verse with a tendency to accentual rhythm and even to rhyme; it is a work of great charm and romantic feeling. From this time works on &#ists. theology begin to form a conspicuous part in Latin literature; the names of Tertullian c. 150–230 A.D.), Minucius Felix % 200 A.D.), and Lactantius § 300 A.D.) may be o mentioned. Historians had almost ceased to exist; the only names to be mentioned are those of the writers of the Augustan History, memoirs of the emperors from Hadrian to Numerian—viz. Spartianus, Capitolinus, Gallicanus, Trebellianus Pollio, Lampridius, and Vopiscus; their feeble conception of history is only excelled by the barrenness of their styles. The last historian of Rome was mianus Marcellinus (c. 330–400 A.D.), who wrote a history of Rome from Nerva to the death of Valens, of which only eighteen books, containing the history of the last twenty-five fears of his period, are extant. He writes, with intelligence, and honesty, but—Asiatic by birth as he was—his Latin is obscure and difficult. Contemporary with him were the two last considerable ts of Rome, Ausonius and Claudian. Decimus Magnus Ausonius (c. 310–c. 393 A.D.) was of Gallic blood; he rose to high rank in the state, but spent his last days in retirement near his

native Bordeaux. His poems are of many varieties, including Christian, hymns; but his best works

are his Idylls, and the flower of the collection, the “Mosella,... is remarkable for its Virgilian rhythm and diction combined with a newer feeling for the

About the same time was .

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beautiful in nature. Claudius Claudianus (fl. c. 400 A.D.) was of Asiatic birth, and lived at Alexandria until he came to the court of Theodosius at Milan. Until then he had written only in Greek—a fact which increases our admiration of the purity of his Latin and the wealth of his vocabulary. His poems consist chiefly of short epics on subjects of the day—e.g. On the Consulate of Stilicho-other occasional pieces, and a larger unfinished epic in three books on the Rape of Proserpine. Claudian is at least the equal of the poets of the Silver Age, both in learning and in technical skill. He was the last conspicuous author who was a pagan. Prudentius (348–c. 410 A.D.), on the other hand, wrote two books of lyrical poems on Christian subjects with much brilliance of execution and earnestness of feeling. Sidonius Apollinaris (c. 430–480 A.D.) is a weaker edition of Ausonius. Finally, Boethius (c. 480–524 A.D.) stands at the parting of the ways between the ancient world and the middle ages. . He was the last of the learned Romans who knew Greek, and in his philosophical works—mostly translations of and commentaries on Aristotle—he interpreted that For to the Western world. is claim to rank among Latin authors depends on his Philosophio Consolatio, a dialogue, including thirty-nine short ms, of which, both prose and verse are excellent in style, while the teaching conveyed in it is a compendium of the loftiest moral teaching of antiquity. . It was one of the earliest works to be translated into the modern languages of Europe, and for centuries exercised a greater influence than perhaps, any one secular work. After his time the Western empire was broken up into the kingdoms of France, §p. Britain, and the rest, and there ceased to be any unity in Latin literature. For further information, see articles on CICERo, HoRACE, LIvy, TACITUs, and others. See also Teuffel Schwabe's Geschichte der Römischen Litteratur (Eng. trans. by Warr, 1900); Schanz's Geschichte der Römischen Litteratur biz zur Gesetzgebung des Kaisers Justinian (1890–1901); Mackail's Latin Literature (1895); Tyrrell's Latin Poetry (1805); Sellar's Poets of the Republic (1889), Poets of the oft", Age (1891), and Horace the Elegiac Poets (1892); and Nettleship's Essays in Latin Literature, Series i. (1885), Series ii. (1896). Latini, or LATINo, BRUNETTo (c. 1212-94), Italian poet and scholar, was born at Florence, in the politics of which city

Latitude and Longitude

he played a considerable part. The work to which he mainl owed, his contemporary fame is Li Livres dou Trésor, written in French (ed. by Chabaille, 1863), one of the many encyclopaedias so popular in the middle ages. More important for literary history is the shorter Tesoretto, composed in Italian, which introduced the allegorical manner of the Roman de la Rose into Italy, and served Dante as a model in several ways. See Ortolan's Etude sur Brunetto Latini $7% Sundby's Della Vita e delle Opere di B. Latini (1884); and Marchesini's two works on Latini (1887 and 1890). Latin Union was a moneta union into which France, Besgium, Italy, and Switzerland (and subsequently Greece) entered in 1865 to maintain a uniform and interchangeable coinage among themselves, and to protect their coinage system, against the appreciation of silver relatively to gold, due to the discoveries of gold in California and Australia. Silver was for the time, being withdrawn from circulation. The terms of the convention were modified by subsequent negotiations—notably in 1874, when the states which were members of the Latin Union agreed to susHo! the free coinage of silver. he reason for this change of attitude was that after 1872 a fall in silver began which entirely reversed the situation, and made silver depreciate relatively to gold. The Latin Union still exists, but is in practical abeyance. Latinus, in ancient Roman legend, was king of Latium when AEneas landed there, and gave him his daughter Lavinia in marriage. See Virgil's AEneid. Latitude and Longitude. Latitude is the distance of a place on the earth's surface north or south of the equator, measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds, the equator being represented by 0. In a degree of latitude there

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of latitude. The extremities of the earth's axis, the north and south poles, have a value of 90°. Latitude, otherwise expressed, is the angular distance of a place from the equator, measured on a meridian. he following rules furnish the methods for finding the latitude of a ship by observations of the sun, moon, stars, and planets.

o, From the Sun at Meridian. —By means of the sextant, the sun's image is brought down to the horizon. The observation is taken three or four minutes before noon of the ship's time, which is o corrected by the addition of four minutes for every degree of longitude sailed east, . the subtraction of four minutes for every degree sailed west. When the sun's image is found by observation, to have reached a point at which it touches the horizon, without dipping below

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it, the observer calls out “eight bills,” and the ship's time is set at noon. The observation, however, should not be concluded until after a short pause, to make sure that the sun has finished its ascent. Having arrived at the corrected altitude, which is called the true central altitude, subtract it from 90°. The result is the zenith distance north or south, as the case may be. Then observe the corrected declination —i.e. the angular distance of the sun from the equinoctial or celestial equator. If the declination be north or south the same as the zenith distance, add the two quantities; if they be of different kinds—i.e. one north and the other south—subtract the less from the greater, and the answer will be latitude north or south, according as the greater

uantity is the zenith or the

eclination.

#) From the Sun, ex-Meridian. —It often happens that the sun at the exact meridian is obscured by a cloud. There are tables, known as Bowditch's Useful Tables, b which the variation of the sun's

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altitude may be found for thirteen minutes of time on each side of the meridian; but the rules for finding the sun's altitude at the meridian by an observation of it at a different time are known to every competent navigator: Ship's time, Greenwich time, and dead reckoning all enter into the calculation.

§ From the Moon or a Planet. —The method is the same. Meridians, altitudes, zenith, distances, and declinations are worked out with reference to Greenwich time, and the principles for determining latitude are as before.

sloguickest and easiest method of determining latitude is from the stars. They are more constant, and declination is almost absent. The few variations which exist are noted in the Nautical Almanac. Star tables are worked out for all stars of the first magnitude in both hemispheres, and for all ho stars of the second and third magnitudes, with the astronomical apparent times, at which they cross the observer's meridian on the first day of each month in the year. It should be noted that allowance must be made for the fact that all stars come to the meridian four minutes earlier each *}; and also that astronomical hours are twenty-four in number; hence 14 means 2 a.m., 20 means 8 a.m., the first hour starting from noon. Observations should be taken both north and south for verification.

(5.) From the Pole Star at any Hour.—The method is to observe the true altitude of the star; to obtain the local apparent time from the ship's chronometer by

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filled wit uicksilver (or of a pan of treacle or liquid tar, for want of anything else). he sur

face is protected by glass from the wind, so that it is smooth enough to show reflections. Face the celestial body it is desired to observe, and walk backwards until its reflection is seen in the quicksilver. Apply the sextant to the celestial body, and bring its image down so as to coincide with the other image in the trough. The angle shown on the sextant will be double the altitude of the body. Having found the altitude by this means, proceed as usual by the Nautical Almanac or other calculations. Longitude is the distance of any place on the globe's surface from another place, eastward or westward, or, more exactly, the distance of any place, from a given meridian, being the arc of the equator intercepted, between the meridian of that place and some other fixed meridian, the one from which longitude is reckoned being usually, termed the first meridian. In the U. S. and Great Britain longitude is generally reckoned from the moś of Greenwich. While in France the , meridian passing , through Paris is the starting point. Accordingly, the difference of longitude between two places is equivalent to the difference of the arc of the equator. intercepted between their meridians. The deLatitudinarians

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termination of the longtitude of any place is effected by arriving in the first place, at the ‘time' 5} the place the longitude of which is desired to be ascertained, also the ‘time’ of the first meridian, which, on of reduced to degrees, affords the longitude. See The Nautical Almanac (annually, several years in advance); Bowditch's American Navigator; Raper's Practice of Navigation; Martin's Navigation and Nautical Astronomy; Inman's Nautical Tables; Bowditch's Useful Tables; Lecky's. Wrinkles in...Practical Navigation (1881); Gill's Textbook on Navigation (1898); Sturdy's Practical Aid to the Navigator, Norie's Epitome of Practical Navigation and Henderson's Elements of Navigation (1903). Latitud in a rians, a name given to a party, in the Church of England in the 17th century who strove, to find a theological basis broad enough for men of different views to unite upon, and thus to put an end to the embittered controversies of the time. They were sincere Episcopalians, but their views proved unwelcome to . Churchman and Puritan alike, and they found themselves denounced from all sides as Socinians, or even atheists. Their chief representatives were Hales, Chillingworth, Henry More, Cudwort Whichcote, and Tillotson, and the movement was closely allied to the philosophical school known as the ‘Cambridge Platonists,’ The Latitudinarians may be regarded as the , forerunners of the Broad Church. See Tulloch's Rational Theology in England in the 17th Century (1872). Latium, div. of ancient Italy, bounded on the N. by the Tiber on the E. by the highlands o Central Italy, on the s. by the Liris, and on the w. by the Mediterranean. Most of the count consists of a plain of volcanic origin, in the middle of which rises the Alban Mount. The Latins, who were the earliest known inhabitants of this region were members of the race which inhabited all the Mediterranean coasts. . At an early date , the Latin cities formed a confederation, the head of which was Alba Longa. Rome, was originally a colony from Alba, but at an early date destroyed that city and afterwards became head of the Latin league. See Mommsen's History of Rome. Latona. See"I.E.To. La Tour d'Auvergne, THáoPHILE MALO CoRRET DE (1743– 1800), French captain of grenadiers, born at Carhaix, Brittany; distinguished himself at the siege of Port Mahon (1780), also during the wars of 1792–1800. Napoleon

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natural classification of these forms. Latrobe, bor., Westmoreland co., Pa., on the Lo alhanna Creek, and 41, m. from Pittsburg on the Pennsylvania R. R. There are large collieries here. The principal manufactures are steel, coke, paper, flour, lumber, glass, bricks, , and brewery products. The educational institutions include St. Xavier's Academy. Pop. (1900) 4,614. Latrobe, BENJAMIN HENRY (1764 isoo), American architect, was born in Yorkshire, England, and studied at opok and elsewhere in Germany. After some experience in the Prussian military service, he practised architecture, in England in 1789–96, part of the time being surveyor of public offices and engineer of nqon. He came to the U.S., 1796, and after filling many

public and private architectural and engineering commissions, was appointed surveyor

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Lattice Leaf

of public buildings by ..". ferson, 1803, adopting Indian corn-stalks and the tobacco, plant as features of some of the columns of the Capitol at Washington. He was placed in charge of the rebuilding of the capitol after its burning, by the British, retiring from this position in 1817. Latrobe, John HAzleHURST Boneval (1803-91), American lawyer, son of Benjamin, Hen Latrobe, was born in Philadesphia, studied law and practised for over sixty years. He was counsel of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad from 1828. In 1824 he became associated with the American Colonization Society, , and in various... ways P.": negro colonization in iberia, being selected for special

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honor by the King of the Bel

gians. e invented the “Latrobe stove' or ‘Baltimore heater.” He came president of the Maryland istorical Society, , and

wrote much on historical, legal, and colonization subjects. Books on other topics j. Picture of Baltimore (1832), Personal ecollections #, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (1858), and Reminiscences of West Point in 1818 to 1822 (1887). Latten (Old Fr. laton, “brass'), a mixed, metal, practically the same as brass, much used in the middle ages, especially for sepulchral brasses. Latter-day Saints. See MoRMon CHURCH. Lattice Leaf, the popular name of a water plant, Aponogeton fenestralis, belonging_to the order Aponogetonaceae. The older leaves are of open structure, are nearly a foot long, oblong in shape, and float just below the surface of the water. The flowers

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