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sources of Canada, and to promote its prosperity along national lines, as a component part of the Empire. While aiming to establish economic independence, he made extensive use of the protective tariff as a means to secure reciprocity. His government was sustained at the general elections of 1900, 1904, and 1908. In the elections of September, 1911, the Laurier ministry was defeated, mainly on the issue of reciprocity with the United States. Sir Wilfrid continues as the leader of his party in Parliament. Laurinburg, town, Scotland co., North Carolina, on the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, 20 m. southeast of Rockingham. It has man
LAUsANNE.—The Castle and Cathedral, Looking Toward the Lake.
ufactures of cotton, machinery, and yarns. Pop. (1910) 2,322. Laur is to n, JACQUES ALExANDRE BERNARD LAw, MARQUIs DE (1768–1828), French general, was born in Pondichery. He was associated with Napoleon in his military operations, and commanded the rear guard in the retreat from Moscow. In the retreat from Leipzig he was taken prisoner, and was held till after the fall of the Empire. He then tendered his allegiance to Louis XVIII.; remained faithful to him during the Hundred Days, and as a reward was made a peer of France with a command in the Royal Guard. He afterward became a marshal of France (1821).
It contains one of the richest copper mines (Calumet and Hecla) in the world, yielding from 10,000 to 20,000 tons annually. It was formerly named Calumet. Pop. (1910) 8,537, a large proportion being foreign born. La u rust in us (Viburnum timus) is an evergreen shrub, a native of Southern Europe, but very hardy in almost any clime. It bears entire ovate leaves, and flat corymbs of white flowers, slightly tinged with pink. The fruit is a dark blue drupe. Laurvik, or LARvik, seaport town and spa, with mineral springs and mud baths, Jarlsberg-Laurvik province, Norway, at the head of the fiord of the
Byron resided here, and here Gibbon wrote the latter half of his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Lausanne is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop. Pop. (1910) 63,926. Consult Lewis and Gribble's Lausanne (1909). Lausitz. See LUSATIA. . Lauterbach, Edward (1844), American lawyer, was born in New York City. . He was graduated at the College of the City of New York in 1864; was admitted to the bar in 1866, and is now a member of the law firm of Hoadly, Lauterbach & Johnson. He has been prominent as a railroad organizer, and is a director
esque valley of the White Lütschine. It has numerous springs and waterfalls, the most famous of which, the Staubbach, is 980 feet high. A mountain railway connects it with Gründelwald by the Wengernalp, and a funicular and electric railway ascends to Mürren. Lauzon (St. Joseph DE LEvís), town, Lévis county, Quebec, on the St. Lawrence River and the Intercolonial Railway; 2 miles northeast of Lévis. It has electric power, and a large trade in lumber and in manufactures of lumber. Pop. (1911) 4,081. Lava, molten rock erupted by
volcanoes or poured out through fissures in the earth's surface. The temperature of lava at the moment of eruption probably ranges from 1200° to 2000° C., and in some cases its liquidity is so great that the molten rock forms a fountain rising in the air. According to chemical composition, and the minerals which crystallize when they cool, lavas have been subdivided into many classes, such as rhyolites, trachytes, phonolites, andesites, basalts, and tephrites. The silicious lavas, including the rhyoLavagna
lites, trachytes, and phonolites, are less fluid than the basaltic lavas, and consequently build steeper cones. Basic lavas are usually darker than those of the acid type, and when in a state of fusion tend to flow to great distances; while acid lavas are more viscous, and quickly congeal after extrusion. See IGNEOUS ROCKS; Volcanoes. Lavagna, seaport in Genoa province, Italy, 43 m. southeast of Genoa. It has slate and marble quarries. Pop. 7,000. Laval, capital of the department Mayenne, France, on the Mayenne River, 45 m. east of Rennes and 187 m. southwest of Paris. It has a twelfth-century Gothic cathedral and an ancient ducal château. The old portions of the town are narrow and irregular, but picturesque. The place suffered greatly during the Vendéan War. The manufactures include tickings, cotton goods, paper, leather, and machinery. There are marble quarries in the vicinity. Pop. 31,000. La Valetta. See VALETTA. La Wallière, FRANCOISE LOUISE DE LABAUME LE BEANC, DUCHEsse DE (1644–1710), mistress of Louis xiv., was born in Tours, of old and honorable descent. The rise of a new favorite, Madame de Montespan, caused her to retire to a Carmelite convent, where she died. Before being permitted to retire she was detained at the court against her will, and humiliated by being compelled to share the apartments of her successor at the Tuileries. She wrote Réflexions sur la Miséricorde de Dieu par une Dame pénitente (1680). Consult Lives by Houssaye and Duclos. Laval-Montmorency, FRANÇois XAvieR DE (1622–1708), FrenchCanadian pioneer, was born in Laval, France. In 1659 he was sent to Canada as vicar of the Pope, where in 1663 he established the Seminary of Quebec. From 1674 to 1683 he was titular bishop of Quebec. He afterward resigned, and devoted himself to the advancement of the seminary. Laval University, a Roman Catholic institution situated in Quebec, Canada, founded in 1852, with faculties of theology, law, medicine, and arts. It is maintained by the Quebec Seminary, and governed by a council composed of the archbishop and bishops of Quebec, the archbishop being the chancellor and visitor of the University. It received an extended constitution by a papal bull in 1876. In the same year a branch was established in Montreal, with the archbishop of that province as vice-chancellor. A
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decree of 1889 so modified the constitution of the Montreal branch as to make it virtually independent of the Quebec institution. Many of the institutions of secondary education throughout Canada are affiliated with Laval University under conditions formulated by its council. The student attendance averages 450, with a faculty of 50. The library contains 130,000 volumes. There is an extensive physical, geological, and natural history museum, with large collections; also an art gallery, with many old and valuable paintings. La v a t e r , JohaxN KASPAR (1741–1801), Protestant minister and writer on physiognomy, was born in Zürich. Ordained in 1762, he subsequently became minister of the Church of St. Peter. Having published a collection of Swiss songs (1767), he was next engaged on a treatise entitled Aussicht in die Ewigkeit (1768–78). Afterward he devoted himself to physiognomy, which he endeavored to make scientific by means of his famous work on the subject, Physiognomische Fragmente zur Beforderung der Menschenkenntniss und Menschenliebe (1775–8). His speculations procured him the friendship of Goethe, Herder, Wieland, Jacobi, Sailer, and Oberlin, with whom he was in constant correspondence. Consult Lives by Bodemann, Muncker, and Hofhaus. Lavatera, a genus of herbaceous and shrubby plants belonging to the order Malvaceae. The principal species of horticultural interest are the annual L. trimestris, with rosy flowers, and its variety alba; the biennial
shrub L. arborea, with downy.
leaves and pale purplish flowers; and L. olbia, the tree lavatera, a perennial shrub with hairy leaves and solitary, short-stalked red flowers. Lavaur, town, department of Tarn, province of Languedoc, Southern France, on the Agost River, 20 m. northeast of Toulouse. It has silk and flour mills, and manufactures brushes and wooden shoes. Pop. 5,000. Lavedan, HENRI LEON EMILE (1859), French dramatist, was born in Orleans. He contributed to several Parisian newspapers a series of witty stories of Parisian life under the pseudonym of 'Manchecourt,' of which there is a collection in volume form. In 1891, at the Théâtre Français, he produced Une Famille; in 1894, at the Vaudeville, Le Prince d'Aurec, a satire on the nobility, afterward renamed Les Descendants. His other dramas include
Le Nouveau Jeu (1892); Les Deux Noblesses (1897); Les Beaux Dimanches (1898); Le Marquis de Priola (1902); C'est Servi (1904); Le Bon Temps (1906). An especially successful play was Le Duel (1905). He is an officer of the Legion of Honor, and a member of the French Academy. La Vega. See CONCEPCióN DE LA VEGA. Laveleye, EMILE LOUIs VicToR, BARON DE (1822–92), political economist, was born in Bruges. He became professor of political economy at Liège in 1864. He contributed many articles to the Nineteenth Century, Revue des Deux Mondes, and other periodicals, and was the author of De la Propriété et de ses Formes Primitives (Eng. trans.); Eléments d'Economie Politique; Les Lois Naturelles et l'Objet de l'Economie Politique. Consult D'Alviellas' Life. Lavelle, MICHAEL J. (1856), Roman Catholic prelate, was born in New York City. He was graduated from Manhattan College in 1873, and from St. Joseph's Seminary in 1874; was ordained to the priesthood in 1879; and was assistant at St. Patrick's Cathedral till 1886, when he became rector. In 1902 he was appointed vicar-general of New York, and in 1903 was made a domestic prelate by Pope Pius x. Lavender (Lavandula vera), a hardy perennial herbaceous shrub belonging to the mint family, valued for its fragrant flowers, which retain their odor for a long period if care fully gathered (about the end of June) and dried. It has grayish leaves, narrow and entire, and in summer bears interrupted spikes of white or bluish labiate flowers arranged in whorls. It is a native of Southern Europe. Lavender is of easy cultivation in any rich, light, well-drained soil—propagation being most readily effected by means of cuttings of the young wood or by rooted offsets taken from the old roots. A slight winter protection of litter is necessary in exposed locations. Oil of Lavender is obtained by distillation of the flowers. L. spica, often grown in gardens, is more tender than L. vera, and is less fragrant. Lavender water is made by mixing together a pint of rectified spirit, four ounces of distilled water, three drachms of oil of lavender, three drachms of orange-flower water, five minims each of oil of cloves and oil of cinnamon, and four minims of otto of roses. Allow this mixture to stand for a fortnight, then filter through magnesium carbonate, and bottle. It should Laver
be kept for at least three months before using. Laver, a brazen vessel in the Hebrew Tabernacle, in which the priests cleansed their hands and feet in preparation for the sacrifices. It stood upon a pedestal, also of brass, and was placed in the court between the altar of burnt offering and the Tabernacle proper. (See TABERNACLE.) There were also ten bronze lavers in Solomon's Temple (q.v.). Laver, a name given to various seaweeds belonging to the genera Ulva and Porphyra, occurring on certain European coasts. They are used for food after being well boiled. L a v era n , CHARLES LOUIS Alphonse (1845), French scientist, was born in Paris. He was graduated at the Military School of Medicine at Strassburg in 1867; became a surgeon in the French army; was professor of medicine in the Val-de-Grâce Military Hospital in 1873–93; and retired from the army in 1897. From 1878 to 1883 he devoted his time to the study of malaria, in the interest primarily of military hygiene, discovering the haematozoön of malaria in Algeria (1880), and demonstrating in Italy (1882) that malaria is spread by mosquitoes. He was elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1901, and awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1907. His principal works are Traité des Fièvres Palustres (1884); Eléments de Pathologie Médicale (with Teissier, 1894); Traité d' Hygiène Militaire (1896). Lavery, John (1857), British portrait painter, was born in Belfast. He studied in Paris after 1881, and in 1883 his Two Fishers was hung in the New Salon. His Tennis Party (Munich Pinakotek) was exhibited in the Royal Academy in 1887, and The Visit of Queen Victoria to the Glasgow Exhibition (Glasgow Gallery) in 1888. Other notable pictures are Mother and Son, White Feathers, A Lady in Black, and many portraits. La Willemarqué, THEoDoRE CLAUDE HENRI HERSART, VICOMTE DE (1815–95), Celtic archaeologist and philologist, was
born in Quimperlé, and studied
at Paris. His Barzas - Breiz (1839; Eng. trans.) was the outcome of long-continued research. He was editor of the Dictionnaire Français - Breton (1857), and he wrote Contes Populaires des Anciens Bretons (1842); Poèmes des Bardes Bretons (1850); Poèmes Bretons du Moyen-Age (1897). Lavinia, in Roman legend the daughter of Latinus and Amata, and wife of Æneas. See AEN EAs. Lavinium, ancient town of
Latium, Italy, on the Appian Way, 15 m. southeast of Rome, and near Laurentum (q.v.), with which it was joined by the Emperor Trajan to form LauroLavinium. The site is occupied by the modern Pratica. La v i s se, ERNEST (1842), French historian, was born in Nouvion-en-Thiérache. He became professor of modern history at the Sorbonne (1888), and a member of the Academy (1892). During the time of the Second Empire he was a member of the Duruy Cabinet, and was tutor of the Prince Imperial. After the Franco-Prussian War he applied himself to the study of the causes and development of the strength of the German Empire, and some of his chief works are on the history of Germany. He has written Etudes sur l’Histoire de Prusse (1879); Essais sur l'Allemagne Impériale (1887); La Jeunesse du Grand Frédéric (1891); Trois Empereurs d'Allemagne (1888). Since 1901 he has been engaged on a monumental Histoire de France. Lavoisier, ANToINE LAURENT (1743–94), French chemist, was born in Paris. He studied chemistry under Rouelle. He early devoted his attention to research, and at the age of twenty-five was elected a member of the Académie des Sciences. His principal work was in developing the true explanation of the phenomena of calcination and burning, and he formulated the theory of the conservation of mass, upon which all modern chemistry rests. He also had a great part in devising the basis of the present system of chemical nomenclature. Unfortunately, in his position of fermier-général he fell under suspicion during the Reign of Terror, and perished by the guillotine when at the height of his intellectual activity. His most important works are Traité Elémentaire de Chimie (1789) and Mémoires de Chimie (1805). His complete works were published by the French government (186493). Consult Grimaux' Life. Lavos, town, Coimbra district, Beira, Portugal, on the south side of the estuary of the Mondego; 23 m. southwest of Coimbra. It was the landing-place of British forces during the Peninsular War. Pop. 8,000. Law. Specifically, in jurisprudence, the general code of rules for action as habitually enforced by the authority of the state. The term is also used in a great variety of other significations, some by analogy resembling more or less closely the “positive law." above defined, others only in a
metaphorical sense. To the former class belong such expressions as the ‘law of God,' the ‘moral law,' the ‘laws of honor." the ‘laws of good society,' and the like. To the latter may be referred its use in the phrase “the law of nature,' which denotes the ascertained order of natural events as shown in a constant course of procedure. Even in the specific sense of positive law, the term has been variously defined by different schools of jurists, the definition above given (which is that of the so-called analytical or English school) being rejected by Continental writers as too narrow in restricting the term law to rules enforced by a sovereign political authority; whereas they would include in it general rules of human action, however obedience to them may be secured.
The force which lies back of a law, and secures obedience to it, is called the 'sanction' of the law; and the jurists of the ‘historical' school recognize an effective public opinion, though not formulated or expressed in political form, as a real sanction, giving the rule backed by it the force of law. It is on this theory that the body of rules known as International Law is recognized by them as true law; whereas by the analytical jurist, “it can be described as law only by courtesy,' because unenforceable by a determinate political authority.
The body of rules constituting the positive law of a particular state is commonly described as the ‘municipal' law of the state; and this may be either “private’ (when it concerns the rights of citizens or subjects among themselves) or ‘public' law (where it has to do with the relations of the state to its citizens, or vice versä).
The importance of law arises from the fact that in a developed society it is the chief, if not the only means by which justice can be administered, and justice is the chief concern of the state. The immediate objects of the law are the creation and protection of legal rights. It achieves these objects mainly through the instrumentality of courts of justice, whose function it is to declare and apply the law, and through the administrative officers of the government, who carry the judgments and decrees of the courts into effect. The law so declared and enforced is derived from a variety of sources, the most extensive and important of which is custom or usage. Every ‘common law' system is, in its origin, a body of customary rules which are defined and, in course of time, modified and developed Law
by the courts. At a later stage in legal history, custom, though never ceasing to operate as a source of new law, becomes unimportant relatively to legislation, which tends to supersede it. From the point of view of its administration, law is divided into two classes—substantive, and adjective, or remedial: the former comprising the rules which
define the rights protected by
law; and the latter the rules providing the means by which such rights are protected, including the organization, jurisdiction, and procedure of the courts. The matters comprehended within substantive law are too varied to be easily classified or enumerated, but they may be roughly summarized under the heads of Contracts, Torts or Wrongs, Quasi Contracts, Property, and Conflict of Laws. Public law comprehends Constitutional, Administrative, and Criminal law, and, in the opinion of some authorities, International law also. See JURIsPRUDENCE; CRIMINAL LAw; INTERNATIONAL LAw. Law (scientific). By a 'law' in the natural and social sciences is meant a generalized statement regarding the connection of phenomena by way of coexistence or sequence. The more thoroughly and exactly the conditions of any such uniformity of sequence or coexistence are ascertained, the more certain and scientific does the generalization or law become; while, so far as the uniformity is merely affirmed as a fact of experience without its conditions being determined, the generalization — termed in that case an “empirical law'—is of inferior scientific value. With the progress of science, a belief in the universality of law has been more and more impressed upon modern thought; but with the wider diffusion and popularization of the scientific mode of thought, there have been associated popular misconceptions of the nature and meaning of a law. One of these is the notion of laws, or at least the way of speaking about laws, as if they were actual existences or forces in themselves. In the case of social (e.g., economic) laws the error is serious, because the modes of action described in economic laws are not the invariable operations of nature, but the activities of man, which are capable of being modified by the forces of legal enactment and opinion. See Logic. Consult Spencer's First Principles; McCosh's Philosophic Series. Vol. VII.-Mar. '12
Law, RIGHT HON. ANDREw BoNAR (1858), British statesman, was born in New Brunswick, Canada. He was educated in New Brunswick, and later at the High School in Glasgow, Scotland. Settling in Glasgow, he became an ironmaster, and achieved a competence in business before entering politics. He first represented in Parliament the Blackfriars division of Glasgow (1900–1906), and afterward Dulwich (1906 – 1910). From 1902 to 1906 he was Parliamentary Secretary of the Board of Trade. In November, 1911, he was chosen leader of the Unionist Party in the House of Commons, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of A. J. Balfour (q.v.). From his entrance into Parliament, he has taken a deep interest in the Tariff Reform question. He is recognized as one of the ablest debaters in the House of Commons, and is an effective platform speaker.
Law, Edward. See ELLENBOROUGH, BARON. Law, John, ‘of Lauriston'
(1671–1729), originator of the Mississippi Scheme, was born in Edinburgh. After a duel in which he killed his adversary, he fled to the Continent, and finally settled in Paris. Here he began a private bank (1716), and in 1718 induced the Regent Orleans to adopt his suggestion for a national bank. His scheme for settling lands in the Mississippi Valley was started in 1719. A Company was formed, and the wild speculations in its stock brought widespread ruin and disaster when the bubble burst. Law died in poverty at Venice. See Mississippi Scheme. Consult Weston-Glynn's Life (1908). Law, WILLIAM (1686 – 1761), English divine, was born in King's Cliffe, Northamptonshire, and was educated at Cambridge. His controversial works include Remarks on a Late Book Entitled ‘The Fable of the Bees’ (1724), and The Case of Reason (1732), in which he deals effectively with Mandeville and Tyndall respectively. His most notable works are a Practical Treatise on Christian Perfection (1726), and A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life (1729). Consult his Collected Works (9 vols.); Overton's Life. Law Agent. In Scotland the general term for all lawyers of the class known in England as attorneys or solicitors. See SoLICITOR. Law, Canon. See CANON LAw. Law, Civil. See Civil LAw. Law, Constitutional. See CoNstitution.
Law Courts. See Courts. Law, Criminal. See CRIMINAL LAw.
Lawes, SiR JOHN BENNET (1814–1900), English agriculturist, was born near St. Albans. After studying chemistry, he started systematic experiments at Rothamsted (1834), particularly on the effect of bones as a manure. In 1843 he began at Deptford the manufacture of superphosphate for manure. He was created a baronet (1882). The results of his experiments are recorded in various scientific journals, especially those of the Royal Agricultural and Royal Societies.
Law, Feudal. See FEUDALISM.
Law, International. See INTERNATIONAL LAw.
Lawler, John J. (1862), American Roman Catholic bishop, was born in Rochester, Minn. He completed his classical studies in the Seminary of St. Francis, in Milwaukee, and then studied philosophy and theology in Belgium, at the University of Louvain. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1885, and took a post-graduate course at the University of Louvain, where he received his degrees in theology. On his return home he was appointed professor of Scripture at the College of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minn. He became pastor of St. Luke's Church, at St. Paul, and later pastor of the Cathedral. In 1910 he was appointed auxiliary bishop of the archdiocese.
Law, Maritime. See MARITIME LAw.
Law, Martial. See MARTIAL LAw.
Law Merchant. An ancient body of mercantile law, common to the nations of Western Europe in the Middle Ages, and originally administered by separate tribunals in the principal ports, which has in the course of centuries become a part of the municipal law of the several countries in which it flourished, as well as of the United States. It was in an era of legal stagnation a singularly enlightened body of rules for regulating the relations of merchants engaged in international trade, and its subsequent recognition by the principal commercial nations as a part of their municipal or domestic law secured to the commercial law of the family of nations a remarkable degree of uniformity. It was founded on the customs of merchants which were from time to time embodied in the form of written rules, such as the famous Laws of Oléron. Its principal monuments are the