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modern system of admiralty law and the laws of negotiable paper and of sales. It became incorporated in the common law of England through the efforts of a series of enlightened judges, especially Lord Mansfield. Law, Military. See MILITARY LAw. Law, Municipal. See MUNICIPALITY. Lawn. See LIN EN. Lawn Mowers consist essentially of a broad, horizontal blade, edged in front, and adjustable to move more or less close to the ground. The grass is cut by the revolution of a shaft carrying two or three spirally arranged cutting blades, which, on any forward movement of the machine, revolve with a shearing cut against the horizontal blade. The blade shaft is geared with cogwheels to the spindle of the wheels which carry the machine, and it is the movement of these wheels that causes the cutting blades to revolve. A large size of the machine is fitted with shafts to be drawn by horse, while the horse mower, in turn, has been to a large extent superseded by a machine driven by gasoline motor. See IMPLEMENTs AND MACHINERY. Lawns (GRASs) require great care in their preparation and maintenance. As the lawn is the foundation for all gardening effects, grading is of prime importance. A gently undulating surface is most agreeable, and aflords better opportunities for planting shrubbery. A new lawn should be prepared a year in advance, if possible, by growing on it a crop of clover (cowpeas in the South), and ploughing under. A substitute for this is a dressing of completely rotted stable manure, about 60 loads to the acre, ploughed under in the early spring. The soil should be of moderate lightness, and contain a proportion of clay. If it lacks this, a three-inch top dressing of clay may be dug in. The digging or ploughing should be about ten inches deep, and the surface thoroughly harrowed; if it is to be seeded, it should be raked fine. If good turf, free from weeds, is obtainable, it may then be laid down in blocks of uniform size and thickness. If seeds are to be used, the soil is rolled, and the seeds are carefully and uniformly sown at the rate of about 60 lbs. per acre, the whole being gently raked after the sowing. When the grass is well up, the lawn should be rolled. Regular rolling, mowing, raking, and watering in summer are necessary. Vol. VII.-Mar. '12
among the best for lawn-making purposes. Red Top is often used in mixture with bluegrass, making a durable and handsome lawn. In shady spots the Red Fescue is excellent. White or Dutch clover is often sown with Kentucky bluegrass in the proportion of 6 to 8 pounds of clover to 25 or 30 pounds of bluegrass. From its ability to gather nitrogen from the atmosphere, clover is an efficient preservative of the lawn. The colors of these various grasses blend harmoniously; but the most beautiful lawns are the result of sowing a single species of grass—in the Northern United States, usually blue grass. In the Southern United States, Bermuda or St. Augustine grass makes the best lawns. It is propagated by chopping up the root stocks into inch lengths, scattering them abundantly, and raking them in. Korean lawn grass, which is of maritime habitat, is especially valuable for lawns at the seashore from Charleston southward. Along the Gulf Coast, carpet grass' is the favorite. See G R Ass Es. Consult Barron's Lawns and How To Make Them (1906); Permament Lawns for the South (South Carolina Experiment Station's Bulletin No. 157); Seeding Lawns (Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station's Circular No. 106); The Lawn (U. S. Department of Agriculture Farmer's Bulletin No. 248). Lawn Tennis is a game played by two or four persons, who hit a ball with rackets to and fro over a net stretched across the centre of a court marked on the ground with lines. The game was first introduced in England in 1873, and in the United States in 1874; but the first regular laws were formulated by the Marylebone Cricket Club in 1875; and in 1877 the All-England Cricket Club changed its name to the All-England Cricket and Lawn Tennis Club. In the United States, lawn tennis was played in many places under varying rules until 1881, when the present U. S. National Lawn Tennis Association was formed. The rules formulated by this association govern the game at present. METHOD OF PLAY.-The rackets used vary in size and weight, 14 oz. being about the medium weight. The balls are of inflated India rubber covered with white cloth, from 2, 2 to 21% in. in
diameter, and from 1 # to 2 in weight. The single - handed game played by two persons in a sing court. For this game the col is 27 feet wide and 78 lor divided across the middle by net attached to posts whi stand 3 feet outside the coul on each side. The net is 3 fe 6 inches high at the posts, and feet high at its centre. (S diagram.) The winner of the toss has the option of serving first, or of selecting his side, or of giving his opponent first choice. The o ponents place themselves on of posite sides of the net. In sers ing, the server must comply with the following rules: (1) He may stand anywhere behind the bas, line (i.e., farther from the net ; the toe must not be over the lin. , under the penalty of a ‘foolfault.' ... (2) He must serve by ‘ volley' alternately from right and left courts, beginning fronn the right. (3) The ball must cross the net and fall in the rectangle diagonally opposite the server, which is bounded by the service-side and half-court lines, or on any of these bounding lines. It is a fault if any of the above rules are broken. After a fault the server shall serve again from the same court, unless the fault was in serving from the wrong court. Two faults count a stroke to the ‘strikerout -i.e., the server's opponent. If the service is not a fault, but the ball touches the net, or if the striker-out was not ready, or where a casual accident obstructs the play, it is a let, and the server serves again from the same court. Neither faults nor lets may be returned. The striker-out must return the service from the first bound of the ball. After that the ball may be volleyed (i.e., hit before it touches the ground) or taken first-bound, until one of the players scores. If a player fails to hit the ball before it touches the ground twice, hits it into the net, or so that it falls outside the bounding lines of the court, or before it reaches his side of the net, or hits it twice, or is touched by the ball, or touehes the net in making his stroke, his opponent wins a stroke. A ball falling on the line is considered to have fallen within the court. The four - handed game is played by two persons on each side in a double court (4% feet wider on each side than the single court), in a manner similar to the single-handed game. In the service the ball must drop in the rectangle bounded by the service,
Considerably reinforced, he again took the offensive, and entered Pennsylvania, hoping to defeat the Army of the Potomac, capture Washington, and bring the war to a close, but in the terrific battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863) he was defeated by Gen. Meade, and once more was forced back into Virginia. In 1864-5 he was engaged, against Gen. Grant, in the final campaigns of the war, fighting stubbornly and with consummate ability against heavy odds, but being finally forced to surrender at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. With his surrender the Confederacy collapsed. Gen. Lee saw with the utmost clearness what this meant for him and for the South, and on June 13th, in accordance with Pres. Johnson's amnesty proclamation of May 29th, he made formal application for a pardon, which he never received; however, an indictment for treason which was found against him was never pressed to a trial. Personally Gen. Lee wished to pass his remaining days in peaceful retirement, but realizing that the future of the South would depend largely on the education of the Southern youth, he accepted (Aug. 24, 1865) the presidency of Washington College at . Lexington, Va.; which position he retained until his death. At this time, says Lee's son, “the college, through the calamities of the Civil War, had reached the lowest point of depression it had ever known.' He devoted all his energies to his task, virtually re-creating the college, and through his personality exerting a great influence over his students. After his death the institution was renamed the Washington and Lee University. His position during the trying Reconstruction Period was characteristic: he saw the necessity of adjusting himself to conditions as they were, and the folly of cherishing animosities and of wasting time in vain repinings over a ‘lost cause.” To Gov. Letcher of Virginia, he wrote: “The questions which for years were in , dispute , between the State and General, Government - - having been decided against us, it is the part of wisdom to acquiesce in the result, and of candor to recognize the fact. The interests of the state are, therefore, the same as those of the United States. . . . The duty of its citizens, then, appears to me to be too plain to admit of doubt. All should unite in Thonest efforts to obliterate the effects of war, and to restore the blessings of peace. They should remain, if possible, in the country: promote harmony and good feeling; qualify themselves to vote, and elect to the State and
don, where he was an active partisan of Wilkes, and where, in 1775, he was elected as an alder: man. He was , a commercial agent of the U. S. in France in 1777-8, and in 1778-9 was nominally the diplomatic representative of the U. S. to Austria and Prussia, but had no official standing at Vienna or Berlin owing to the refusal of the two countries at that time to recognize the U. S. as an independent nation, and actually resided in Paris and in Frankfort-on-the-Main. The draft of a commercial treaty which he drew up with an Amsterdam merchant (1778), and which was approved by the burgomaster of Amsterdam, was among the papers taken by the British from Henry Laurens (q.v.) in 1780, and served as a pretext for Great Britain's declaration of war against Holland. Lee was recalled by the Continental Congress in June, 1779. Lee, WILLIAM LITTLE (182157), American lawyer, was born at Sandy Hill, N. Y., and graduated at Norwich academy, Vt. He studied law at Harvard, and practised at Troy, N. Y. Set: tling at Honolulu, he became chief justice and chancellor of the Hawaiian Islands, a position he held for life. He drew up the revised constitution, and headed the committee in charge of the proposed gift of lands by the king and chiefs to the people. Leech, John (1817–64), English artist and caricaturist, born in London. At eighteen he revealed the bent of his genius in his Etchings and Sketchings, by Pen, Esq. (1835). These illustrated various phases and types of every-day London street life, humorously portrayed. Various magazines also engaged his pencil; but it is as a political cartoonist in the pages of Punch that Leech is pre-eminently known. He also illustrated A'Beckett's Comic History of
England (1847-8) and Comic History of Rome (1852), and Hood's omic Annual. His
Punch drawings were republished as Pictures of Life and Character (1854-69) and Pencillings from Punch (1864–5). See Frith's Life (2 vols. 1891), and Brown's John Leech (1882). Leechburg, thi, Armstrong co., Pa., on the Kiskiminetas R. and on the Pa. R. R., 25 m. N.E. of Pittsburg. It has iron and steel works and flour mills. Natural gas is used for fuel. Pop. (1900) 2,459. Leechee. See NEPHELIUM. Leeches are modified annelids, or ringed worms, adapted to a special method of life. A typical example is Hirudo medicinalis, one of the medicinal leeches, still
used in blood-letting. It lives in fresh water, and is common in Germany, Bohemia, and Russia. The diet consists of the blood of vertebrates, to which the leech attaches itself by its suckers. Of these, one is posterior and imperforate, the other anterior, with the mouth in the centre. Within the mouth lie three triangular tooth-plates, by means of which a small triradiate incision is made in the skin of the animal attacked. This done, the leech proceeds to fill its crop, which extends almost from end to end of the body, and has eleven lateral pockets. When these have become distended with blood, the leech drops from its temporary
1. Medicinal leech. 2. Horse leech. 3. Skate-leech.
host, and the slow process of digestion begins. Leeches usually move by attaching alternately the anterior and the posterior suckers, somewhat after the fashion of a ‘looping caterpillar,’ but they can also swim by movements of the whole body. The eggs are laid in cocoons in damp earth. Apart from the familiar medicinal leech, a number of other leeches occur, some in fresh water, some in salt, and some on land in damp places, and many species inhabit the United States. The European horse-leech (Harmopis) feeds chiefly on earthworms and on other leeches; the skateleech (Pontobdella) is a parasite on skates, rays, and sharks, and makes ugly wounds. To the genus Harmadipsa belong the land-leeches of the vegetation of moist places in the tropics, which, though of small size, are exceedingly voracious, and, on account of their numbers, even dangerous. Leeches vary much in size, for while some are as thin as a hair, certain marine forms reach a length of about one and a half feet. In one genus (Branchellion) well-developed gills are present, while in another (Acanthobdella) bristles are found. These facts are regarded as proving that the leeches are descended from bristle-bearing and gill-bearing forms. Leeches constitute the order Hirudinea or Discophora.
Leech Lake, in Cass co., Minn., situated in the Leech Lake Indian Reservation, a well-timbered reion N. of the centre of the state. # is drained by a short outlet directly into the Mississippi R. It is 20 m. long and 15 m. wide. Leeds, munic, parl., and co. bor., in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 31 m. w.s.w. of York, and an important railway centre on the Great Northern, Lancashire and Yorkshire, Great Central, Midland, North Fastern, and London and North Western R. Rs. It is situated on the Aire, by which it has water communication with the Humber, while the Leeds and Liverpool Canal connects it with the western seaboard. . The town hall, with fine Corinthian columns, was opened by Queen Victoria in 1858. Other public buildings are the municipal offices (erected 1884), art gallery and museum, free library, county court, post office (1896), Royal Exchange, Corn Exchange, new Market Hall. and Coliseum. The Yorkshire College, constituted 1874, became in 1887 one of the constituent colleges of the Victoria University. Manchester, and is now established as a self-contained university. It includes textile and art departments, founded by the Clothworkers' Company, affording, practical instruction in the various branches of cloth manufacture. The university is attended by over 1,300 students, and has numerous scholarships. The medical department occupies a separate building. Kirkstall Abbey, 2% miles from the city, belonging to the corporation Leeds, is probably the best preserved of English monastic houses, with the exception of Fountains Abbey. Leeds is the chief centre of the woollen industry in England. This industry was established in the middle ages; but the modern development of Leeds dates from the introduction of steam-power machinery towards the close of the 18th century. Other large industries include locomotives, machinery, heavy iron and steel goods of all kinds, chemicals, glass, printing, leather Fo and pottery. Area 21.596 ac. Qp. łoś. See Taylor's Churches of Leeds, and Neighborhood (1875; Wardell's Antiquities % Leeds (1853); and Robinson's elics of Old Leeds (1896). Leeds, THOMAS Osborn F, DUKE of (1631-1712), English statesman, was the son of Sir E. Osborne, Bart. of Kiveton, Yorkshire, a prominent royalist. He became treasurer of England (1673), and Earl of Danby (1674); and laid Oates's plot before the House of Lords (1678). A zealous Protestant, in political
England, near the Churnet, 10 m. N.E. of Burslem. Manufactures sewing , silk, waterproof , silk, braids, laces, and covered buttons. In the vicinity are the remains of Dieu le Cres Abbey, several ancient camps, and an earthen rampart. The town charter was granted in 1208. Pop. (1901) 15,500. Leer, th:, Prussian prov. of Hanover, 14 m. s.E. of Emden; has brick works, iron foundries, distilleries, paper factories, and toppins trade. Pop. (1900) 12,301. Leetonia, vil., Columbiana co., O., 20 m. E. by s. of Alliance, on the Niles and Lisbon branch of the Erie R. R., and the Pitts., Fort Wayne and Chicago branch of the Pa. R. R. It is surrounded by coal fields and excellent farming lands, and has iron smelters and manufactures wood working machinery. It was settled about 1865. Pop. (1900) 2,754. Leeuwarden, th:, Netherlands, cap. of prov. Friesland, 33 m. wi of Gröningen; contains a Frisian museum, and a royal palace (1587-1747). It has manufactures of linens, musical instruments, vehicles, and glass, and large cattle and fruit markets. Pop. (1900) 32,162. Leeuwenhoek, ANTON van (1632-1723), Dutch microscopist, who made an extraordinary number of discoveries with relatively very imperfect instruments. He lived and died at Delft, but was a member both of the Royal Society of London and of the Paris Academy of Sciences. Most of his observations are described in the Philosophical Transactions of the former and the Memoirs of the latter body. He studied the circulation of the blood in the frog's foot, thus confirming Harvey's discovery. He attempted to disprove spontaneous generation; and succeeded in proving the natural generation of weevils in wheat, of eels, of aphides, of mussels, and of some other forms, at that time supposed to rise de novo from inorganic substances. Leeuwin, cape S.W. point of Australia, 150 m. w. of King George's Sound;. so named , by Flinders after the Dutch ship which first sighted it in 1622. Leeward Islands, groups of the Caribbean Is. They are divided into the presidencies of Antigua (including Barbuda), St. Kitts (with Nevis and Anguilla), Dominica, Montserrat, and the Virgin Is. They are under British rule, except St. Thomas, Santa Cruz, and St. John in the Virgin Is., which belong to Denmark. The islands are of volcanic origin, and contain some lofty peaks, the , highest being the Morne Diablotin (5,314 ft.) in Dominica.