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Lefebvre, FRANÇois Joseph, Duc DE DANtzick (1755-1820), marshal of France, born at Rouffach, Alsace. He assisted Napoleon in overturning the Directory (1799); and to mark his successful operations at the siege of Danzig (1807), when that city surrendered to the French, he was created Duke of Danzig. He served in the Peninsular War, and throughout the Russian campaign (1812), and assisted in the defensive operations against the allied armies before the surrender of Paris.

Lefebvre JULEs Joseph (1836), French painter; studied at Paris under Cogniet, and won

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gineer and merchant he became resident of New York, New Engand and N. Y. State telegrap companies (1849–60), retiring to develop a system of automatic transmission. This was sold to the Western Union (then American) company, of which he became electric engineer. He became president of the Gold and Stock Telegraph o Company, 1869. , Colonel Lesserts was in command of the 7th N. Y. regiment during the Civil War, and led it to the field in 1861, 1862, and 1863. Leffler, ANNA CARLoTTA. See EDGREN. Lefkosia. See NICOSIA.

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ium), fore arm †.} wrist (carpus), and hand (manus); thigh (femur), shank (crus), ankle (tarsus), and foot (pes). The upper segment of both limbs contains a single bone, known as humerus and femur respectively; but the next segment primitively contains two, the radius and ulna in the fore arm, and the tibia and fibula in the shank. There are never more than five .complete digits, but in amphibians and some reptiles traces of extra digits may be observed. Some idea of the adaptive modifications displayed by the limbs of the higher vertebrates may be obtained by consulting the artiLegacy

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cles BIRDs and MAMMALs, as well as those on individual animals.

In human anatomy the leg— i.e. the crus or shank—contains a third bone, the patella or kneecap, which lies in the tendon of the quadriceps extensor muscle, and articulates with the femoral condyles. The tibia, or shin bone, articulates with the femur above, and at its lower end with the astragalus, as well as laterally with the fibula. The fibula, or peroneal bone, lies externally to the tibia, and articulates with it at its upper end without entering into the formation of the knee joint. At its lower end the fibula articulates with the astragalus and with the tibia. Between the two long bones of the leg is stretched the strong peroneal or interosseous membrane, which with the bones affords attachment to the muscles of the calf. At the upper end of the tibia is inserted the ligamentum patellae, or tendon of the quadriceps extensor muscle, which straightens the limb. Behind are attached the hamstring tendons. The chief muscles arising from the anterior aspect of the leg flex the ankle and extend the toes, while those on the posterior aspect have the opposite effect. The superficial muscles of the calf, the gastrocnemius and soleus, have a common tendon, the tendo Achillis, which is inserted into the os calcis, or heel bone. The arteries of the leg are the anterior tibial, posterior tibial, and peroneal, which are all branches or divisions of the popliteal artery. The chief veins are the anterior and posterior tibial and the internal and external saphenous. The chief nerves of the leg are the posterior tibial and the external saphenous. The nomenclature of arteries, veins, and nerves sufficiently indicates their positon in the leg.

Legacy. gift of personal property, by last will and testament. , A. legacy , is either | general—i.e. payable out of the residue of an estate; (2) demonstrative—i.e. primarily, payable out of a specific fund, but if the fund is exhausted then out of residue; (3) o a legacy of a special oo: or a particular investment. he term legacy is often loosely , applied to devises of land, all of which are specific. A specific legacy is paid in preference to all other legacies, but is liable to ademption—i.e., revocation in whole or in part in some other way than by a testamentary instrument-as, for example, by a gift during, life. Specific legacies are not subject to abate: ment until all the other personal R. has, been , exhausted;

nything which may be identified may be the subject of a specific

264

legacy, even money in a particular place or fund, or out of a claim due the testator. A demonstrative legacy is not subject to abatement with general legacies, that is, made o to pay debts, or reduced because of insufficient assets to pay all in full, except as to any portion of it remaining unpaid after , the particular fund out of which it was payable, is exhausted, this balance o treated as a general legacy. eneral legacies being payable out of the general or residuary estate, abate ratably in case there are not sufficient assets to pay them all, or there is not sufficient personal .."; erty remaining after ment o debts to oš .*. in full. However, a testator may specify the order in which general legacies shall be paid, and his wishes will be carried out, even if all cannot be satisfied. If a legatee is indebted to the testator, the executors may set off the legacy; unless it is specific, against the debt. In some states, if the testator is indebted to the legatee, the presumption is that the legac is in payment of the debt; but this resumption is easily rebuttedor example, by showing that the legacy is less than the debt, and the modern tendency, is to construe a legacy as a gift and not as payment. In England and many of the United States, a bequest to an attesting witness is void. but some states have made legatees competent witnesses and the bequests to them valid. A legacy must be accepted before title will vest in the legatee. If a person accepts a legacy with a condition attached, he is bound by the latter, as a condition not to contest the will, or that a wife accept a legacy in lieu of her statutory dower. At common law, where a legatee dies before the testator, a legacy, to him is said to o that is, become void, and his heirs therefore, do not get the benefit of it. If the testator wishes to provide for this he may make the legacy payable to the legatee's heirs or children in the event that the legatee dies before the testator. In some states this is provided by statute. . A contingent legacy may lapse by change of condition before or after death of testator; as a legacy, to the widow of testator's son while she remains unmarried, in which case the marriage of the widow either before or after the death of the testator would cause the legacy to lapse. The general rule is that legacies are payable in one year after the death of the testator, but this is regulated by statute, and in some states time of payment may be extended by the court to eighteen months or

Legal Education

longer. , In, most states payment of legacies is enforced in the surrogate's or probate court. See DEVISE; WILL. Legal Education. The im: portant rôle played by the legal profession in the administration and development of the law has in most civilized countries resulted in some form of regulation of legal education by the state. In most of the nations of Western Europe admission to the bar is a function

of the state and is usually based

on a professional education in universities under governmental supervision. In some instances, as in Germany, an elaborate apprenticeship served partly, in private practice and partly in judicial service is also required. In Great Britain, on the other hand, the whole business of preparation for the bar and of admission thereto has for centuries been in the hands of the great lawyers' guilds, the Inns of Court, though admission to the inferior order of the profession, that of the solicitor, has been gained only through a long Polio served in the office of a practising attorney. In the United States admission to practice has always been regarded as a function of the state, but the professional education on which it was based has been and still is in private hands. In most of the states, however, an examination in law set by the courts is prescribed for all candidates for admission to the bar. Up to the middle of the last century law students had no opportunity, other than that afforded by the law offices for acquainting themselves with , the principles and practice of the law, and the official examinations for the bar are still in all the states open to candidates who have had no other training therefor. The advantages of systematic study of the law under competent instruction have, however, become so apparent that a large and growing proportion of students are pursuing their legal studies in the numerous law schools of the country. The best of these, especially, those connected with the great universities, now afford an admirable training, extending, over three years Sf professional study, and covering all the important sub#. of the legal curriculum.

hese schools are the result of a demand for systematic instruction in the law, instead of desultory suggestions from a , practising lawyer. However, it is probable that when the lectures were first given in our colleges they were only intended to give the average student a general idea of the . ject, which he must *Hook if he desired to practise law, with an apprenticeship in a lawyer's office. A professorship in law was established in 1779 at William

Legal Education

and Mary College, at Columbia College in 1794, at Harvard in 1815. The last-named school o: to give technical instruction a few years later, and on Chancellor Kent's return to Columbia in 1823 his lectures were designed to prepare students, for admission to the bar, and later formed the basis of his famous work, Commentaries on the American Law, a book still recommended to law students, by lawyers, and formerly used in many law schools. There are now over 100 law schools in the United States, over two-thirds of which are connected with universities. The methods of instruction vary: in a few schools the student attends lectures and then reads over his notes and text books on the subject; in the majority of schools, which follow the text-book system,” the student reads a designated portion of a text book, and then attends a lecture on the subject-matter covered in what he has read. In a number of schools, principally those connected with universities, the “case system,” which was introduced at Harvard, in 1870, b Professor Langdell, is employed. Under this system the student reads selected reported cases, either from reprints in “case books’ or from the original reports, and then. is called upon in the lecture-room to state the cases and the result of his thought and analysis of them. Discussion and argument, within proper bounds, are encouraged among the students in the lecture-room, and eventually the instructor gives his views. The details vary somewhat according to the ideas of the instructor, but are substantially the same in all “case schools.’’ Harvard and Columbia have taken the lead in requiring the equivalent of a college course as a pre-requisite to admission to their law schools, but many excellent law schools only require the equivalent of an ordinary high school course, and over .# of the law schools have a lower standard in the matter of preliminary education, Membership in the Association of American Law Schools is now restricted to schools requiring a three years' course, and, it is a notable fact that the majority of schools in this association employ the “case system.” The graduate of an American law school usually receives the degree of bachelor of laws (LL.B.), and many schools make provision for further study leading to higher degrees, such as master of laws (LL.M.) and doctor of civil law (D.C.L.). In England legal education is now in the hands o: Council of Legal Education, an unincorporated society consisting of delegates appointed by each of the four Inns of Court §§ Inn, the Inner and

265

Middle Temples, and Gray's Inn), from among its benchers, five being appointed by each inn. The council appoints a Board of Studies, and readers and assistant readers in (1) Roman law, and jurisprudence and international aw; (2) constitutional law and legal history; (3) evidence, procedure, and criminal law; (4) the law of real and personal property and conveyancing; o common law; and (6) ...]"; hese deliver lectures and hold classes which are open to all members of the several Inns of Court, and also to nonmembers upon payment of fees. Examinations are held four times a year, and no student can be called to the bar by his inn until he has received pass certificates in all the above-named subjects from the council. See LAwyER. Consult the reports of the committee on legal education in the annual reports of the American Bar Association. Legal Fiction. ForMs, PLEADING. Le Gallienne, RICHARD (1866), English author and journalist, was educated at Liverpool College, and after some years' training as an accountant, became literary secretary to Wilson Barrett (1889). Appointed literary critic to the Star (1891), he was afterwards connected with the Daily Chronicle and the Speaker, while he has contributed frequently to the Nineteenth Century and other periodicals. Among his works are Volumes in Folio (1888), George Meredith : some Characteristics (1889); The Book Bills of Narcissus (1891); English oems (1892); The Religion of a Literary Man (1893); Robert Louis Stevenson, and other Poems (1895); The Quest of the Golden Girl (1896); The Life Romantic (1900); and An Old Country House (1902). Legal Tender. See TENDER. Legaspi, Seapt., prov. *f; Luzón, P. I., on Albay Gulf. It has a telegraph station and a garrison, and is active in the shipment of hemp. Pop. (1903) 9,206. Legato, a term in music signifying that the passage must be played very smoothly, the notes succeeding each other with the least possible break. Legazpe, or LEGASPI, MIGUEL Lopez (c. 1510–72), Spanish soldier, who led the Spanish expedition for the conquest of the Philippines (1564). This he successfully accomplished, and founded Manila (1571), naming the island group after the Spanish king, Philip II. Legend was at first applied to written chronicles, or narratives, especially those of the mediaeval church. hat was pre-eminently known as ‘The Legend' was the

See CoMMON

Legendre

13th-century compilation of the lives of saints, by Jacobus de Voragine, archbishop of Genoa, more popularly spoken of as ‘The Golden Legend,' or Legenda Aurea. The Legend of the Three Kings was a religious drama or miracle play, of which the earliest Ms. appears to belong to the 11th century. The term legend' was also applied to any inscription or motto, as it still is by numismatists. Thus, the word was primarily used to denote something read, and it is in this original sense of a written narrative that Scott employs the word in his Legend of Montrose, although doubtless keeping in view its later meaning. As understood at the present day, legends are popular traditions current among uneducated people in civilized countries, or constituting the unwritten history and mythology of primitive races, inherited from a remote past. Legend, indeed, is the basis of the history of all nations, and in many cases it is difficult to draw the line between legend and true history. Oral traditions have a certain value; more particularly when they have been preserved by a specially trained caste, such as that once existing among the Celtic nations, who carefully passed on the records of the national life from one generation to another. Consequently, the ‘legendary period of a country has its historical aspect; and one cannot absolutely dismiss as non - historical such legendary accounts as the Scandinavian Sagas and Eddas, the Finnish Kalevala, the Teutonic Heldenbuch and Nibelungenlied, the Nihongi of the Japanese, and many doubtful passages in Sanskrit, Persian, Greek, Roman, and Hebrew chronicles. Besides containing a certain amount of historical truth, legendary lore further embodies much of the religious faith of a people. Of recent years there has been a growing recognition of the importance of these inherited beliefs, which, under the modern name of folklore, are studied by scholars of all nations. One result already apparent is that there is an inter-relation between the legends of races widely separated alike by time and by distance. See Folklore. Legendre, ADRIEN MARIE (1752-1833), French mathematician, born at Toulouse, went to Paris, and after attracting the notice of D'Alembert, obtained the chair of mathematics at the military school. For his excellent paper on L'Attraction des Ellipsoides, Legendre was in 1783 admitted member of the Acadé; mie des Sciences, and appointed to the Bureau des Longitudes. In Legge

his Nouvelles Méthodes pour la Détermination des Orbites des Comètes (1806) he invented the rule of the “least square of, errors,' a mathematical device which has since become familiar. His Eléments de Géométrie (1794) is well known, especially in France, while Davies' English edition of this and other works have been popular text-books in American schools and colleges, passing through numerous editions. His greatest work, Traité des Fonctions Elliptiques only appeared in 1825–32. Legge, JAMEs (1815–97), English sinologist, born at Huntly, Aberdeenshire; was sent by the London Missionary. Society to the East (1839), being stationed at Malacca, and afterwards for many years at . Hong-kong. He achieved world-wide reputation through his writings on China, particularly by his edition of the Chinese classics, begun in 1841, and finished shortly before his death. He was appointed professor of Chinese language and literature at Oxford (1876). His other works include The Notions of the Chinese concerning God and Spirits. (1852); Life and Teaching of Confucius (1867); The Religions of China (1880); and Record of Buddhistic, Kingdoms (1886). See Life by his daughter (1905). Leghorn (It. Livorno; anc. Labronis), fort. seapt. and city, prov. Leghorn, Tuscany, Italy, on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, 12 m. s.w.. of Pisa; is situated on a low and somewhat marshy plain. In the 11th century it came into the hands of Pisa. Towards the close of the 14th century it was taken by Viscomti of Milan. The French occupied it from 1404 to 1407. From the latter date it belonged to the Genoese, who in 1421 sold it to the republic of Florence. In that year there were only 1,200 inhabitants. Much of its prosperity, which dates from 1421, was due to the energy and enterprise of the Medicean grand-dukes, who, recognizing the value of its situation largely extended and beautifie the town. In 1541 it was connected by a canal with the Arno at Pisa. In 1605 it was proclaimed a city, and strongly fortified. Its harbor was constructed between 1587 and 1621, and the city was declared a free port by Cosimo I. In 1855 a double harbor was constructed. The harbor is protected by a mole over half a mile long, with a lighthouse at each end. It exports hemp, hides, marble, olive oil, coral, candied fruit, wine, soap, boracic acid, and hats; and imports coal, fish, tobacco, wheat, and raw hides. Forty, per cent. of the trade is with Britain. Shipbuilding, glass

266 Legislation and Legislative Processes

making, copper and brass founding are the principal industries. It is the seat of a bishop, and has a beautiful 17th-century cathedral and a large naval academy. On March 4, 1653, a naval battle with the Dutch was fought in the roads. Pop. (1901) 98,321. Legion, in Latin legio, was the name of the divisional unit of a Roman army. The number of soldiers contained in a legion varied at different epochs, from 3,000 under the early kings, 4,200 after the time of Servius Tullius, 5,000 during the second Punic war, to 6,000 after the time of Marius (100 b.c.); 300 cavalry also were attached to each legion. Before Marius each legion was divided into thirty maniples; he introduced a new division into ten cohorts, and also gave each legion a silver eagle as a regimental standard. In republican times four legions were an ordinary yearly levy; at the death of Augustus, in 14 A.D., the regular standing army consisted of twenty-five legions. Legion of Honor, French order of merit, created in 1802 by Napoleon, when first consul,

Cross of the Legion of Honor.

with the view of specially marking exploits and services in the military and civil departments. Napoleon himself was first grand master. Its present constitution comprises Knights Grands Croix, Grands Officiers, Commandeurs, Officiers and Chevaliers, the number of the last being unlimited. The head of the republic is the grand chancellor of the order. The decoration at present is a star of five double rays, with wreath of oak and laurel. On the obverse appears the female head personifying France, and

the words, , “République Française'; on the reverse, two tricolors, and the motto, “Honneur et Patrie.” Legislation, THE SOCIETY OF CoMPARATIVE. This society was formed in England in 1894 to promote, the comparative study of law, by collecting evidence as to how the numerous legislatures of the world deal with the same subjects. The objects of the so: ciety , are both practical and scientific, and special attention is paid to the laws which are in their effects international—e.g. mercantile law. The society pos: lishes. The Journal of Comparative Legislation. Legislation and Legislative Processes. Legislation may be defined as the enunciation of general rules of conduct in exDress terms. The process through which every complete legislative act or statute must necessarily pass may be analyzed into the three stages of proposal, criticism, and acceptance. The power of proposing or initiating legislation is more important than it might at first view seem. The framer of a motion generally has a powerful influence over its character and scope. At the least he obtains most of the credit if the result is successful, while he divides the obloquy if it is a failure. Accordingly, we notice that the right of proposing legislation is often jealously guarded. In most of the states of the ancient world it could be exercised only by a magistrate. In ancient times a change in the law was looked upon as a rare expedient of doubtful piety, which could not safely be left to lay enterprise. In modern days similar restrictions have existed, and still exist. In the early constitutions of the Australian colonies no one was allowed to propose legislation but the governor. The same rule, it is believed, prevails at the present day in the smaller crown colonies of the British empire. Before the appearance of representative assemblies in mediaeval Europe, the kings jealously reserved to themselves the prerogative of proposal. The duty of the feudal assembly was to give advice when asked, not to dictate the policy of its suzerain. In Russia, until 1711, the right to propose legislation was with the Czar alone ; even now its exercise is jealously confined to the senate and the ministers. The demand by , the Finnish Estates of the right to initiate legislation in their own Diet was one of the steps which provoked the suspension of the constitution. The Irish Parliament during the existence of Poynings' Act, the Convocations of Canterbury and York since the reformation, are well-known examples of legislative bodies having no power to initiate legislation. The parliamentary right of proposing legislation came in through the side path of petitioning. Petitions by individuals or small communities to government authorities are frequent in all stages of political organization; and few rulers are so brutal and so unmindful of their own interests as to prohibit them. But these petitions are, in the vast majority of cases, of a purely personal character, and a favorable response produces merely an executive order. It was only when the practice of petitioning was taken up by the representative bodies that the right of initiating legislation was extended. The period of criticism and discussion is the next stage in the process of legislation. This right has, at different times, been exercised by different authorities. The intensely , democratic character of the Athenian constitution is evinced by the curious process known as nomothesia, by which the question of revision and amendment was discussed by advocates for and against the existing law before a body of heliasts or jurors. But this was at a very advanced stage of Athenian politics. As a general rule, no discussion took place in the popular assemblies of the ancient world. Measures submitted to them had been carefully considered by an aristocratic body, a boulé or senate; and the function of the assembly was to say ‘yes’ or ‘no.' Such was the character of the early assemblies of the Teutonic kingdoms, and even, it can hardly doubted, of the earliest representative parliaments of mediaeval Europe. That famous Scottish institution, the Lords of the Arti

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Legislation and Legislative Processes 267

cles, is sometimes looked upon as

an encroachment on the popular right of discussion. It is equally likely to have been a compromise between the growth of parliamentary ambition and the conservative attitude of the crown. After the stage of criticism and discussion has been passed, and the measure is ready for completion, it not infrequently happens that the formal assent of some external authority has to be obtained, in order to render it binding. This is more especially the case when the proposal and framing of the measure have been the work of a representative body, as in the examples of the Parliaments of Western Europe and Australia, and the Congress of the United States. But it has also happened in bureaucratic systems, such as the French monarchy of

the 17th and 18th centuries, when the parlements or supreme law courts of France claimed the right to register, or to refuse to register, the royal edicts; and a similar provision may be found in some of the earlier Australian constitutions, in which enrolment by the chief-justice was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of an ordinance. Usually the right of acceptance involves the unlimited right of rejection; but the president of the United States, and the governors of the respective states, although in most cases vested with the socalled ‘ veto,’ cannot maintain it against the determined resolution of the houses expressed by substantial majorities. The most novel, and in some respects important, form of the accepting power is that practised regularly in Switzerland, and rarely (and only on certain questions) in France and the United States, known as the referendum. By this practice the consent of the electors to a measure framed by the legislature is directly asked, and on their answer depends, of course, the entire fate of the measure. The referendum, it should be noticed, is regularly

practised in England in local mat

ters. Hardly less important than the proper wording of a statute is the publicity with which its terms are announced. In any given country the persons actively interested in politics and legislation are comparatively few. Once the right of parliamentary discussion is secured, these persons have little difficulty in following the course of legislation. But all are interested in obeying the laws; and to assume that all persons will follow the course of debates in Parliament or the press is to make a somewhat excessive demand on ordinary human nature. Accordingly, enlightened reformers have begun to urge, hitherto without much success, that a machinery for bringing home the actual provisions of legislation to the public is greatly to be desired. In conclusion, it may be noticed that the growth of public business in representative assemblies has led to the development of an important system of indirect legislation. Parliaments are now content, in many cases, to lay down general provisions, leaving the special application of them to smaller or less-occupied bodies. In Britain, nothing is clearer testimony to the confidence in the executive produced by popular government than the willingness which Parliament has recently shown, when passing important statutes, to leave the detailed application of them to the

Legitimacy

crown in council, to public boards and committees, and even to individual ministers. The Elementary Education Acts, the Hous Acts, the Public ealth Acts, are striking examples of this policy. Under due safeguards, this practice tends to economize the time of Parliament, as well as to render legislation more practical. See Bryce's Studies in History and, Jurisprudence . (1901) ; Ilbert's Legislative. Methods and Forms . (1901); Gilbert's Constitutional Antiquities of Sparta and Athens (1895); Lowell's Governments and Porties in Contimental Europe (1896); Adams and Cunningham's she Soiss Confederation (1889); , Bryce's American Commonwealth ed., 1893-5); Burgess's Political Science and Comparative Constitutional Law (1896). . Legislature. The legislature is the law-making authority of a country or state. The highest degree of authority in making laws is exemplified by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The King in Parliament—i.e. the King acting by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons in Parliament assembled—can make or unmake any law whatsoever, including laws which alter the constitution of the realm. Parliament is therefore said to be a sovereign legislature, or to be at once a legislative and constituent assembly. In countries such as the United States and France the power of the legislature is limited by the constitution, and is therefore not sovereign. This subordinate character of a legislature is still more apparent in the case of the states of the Union, for the powers of their legislatures are limited by both federal and state constitutions. The powers of the legislatures of the British colonies are limited by general or special statutes of the Imperial Parliament, and might be altered the same authority. Many bodies not called legislatures have minor legislative powers, which vary in extent and importance from the large and important powers of such a body as the Legislative Council of India down to the mere power of making by; laws possessed by a municipal corporation or a railway company. See Dicey's Law of the Constitution (9th ed. 1902), and Todd's Parliamentary Government in the British Colonies (2d ed. 1904). Legitimacy. Under the common law a child born in wedlock is presumed to be legitimate in the absence of conclusive evidence to the contrary, as, for example, that the husband had been away from

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