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Lebanon Springs

Christian governor, with a sum: mer residence at Beit-ed-Din and a winter residence at Baabda was appointed under the generai protection of the powers. The population, variously estimated at from 260,000 to 400,000, consists mainly of Maronites in the N., Greek Christians and Druses in the s. See standard works on Syria and Palestine by Robinson, uhl, and George Adam Smith; also Fraas's Drei Monate im Lebanon (1876). Lebanon Springs, vil., Columbia co., N. Y., a summer resort 19 m. from Chatham on the Rutland R. It is noted for mineral springs. Pop. 400. Lebanon Valley College. An educational institution for both sexes established at Annville, Pennsylvania, in 1866, comprising collegiate, preparatory, and normal departments and schools of music, expression, and art. It also provides for graduate work and maintains a summer session with preparatory and college courses. The institution is under the control of the United Brethren. The students in 1905 numbered 470, with a faculty of 31, and the library contained 10,000 volumes. The income for the year amounted to $103,162. Lebedin, th:, Kharkov gov., S. Russia, 90 m. w.N.w.. of Kharkov city; famous as the centre of Peter the Great's campaign against Mazeppa in 1709. Pop. (1897) 14,206. Lebedyan, th: of Tambov gov., Central Russia, 130 m. w. of Tambov city, cap. of dist., on 1. bk. of Upper Don. Trade in cattle and horses, cereals, furs, and leather. Pop. 13,352.

Leblanc Soda Process. See Sopium and ALKALI.

Leboeuf, EDMond (1809–88), French general ; entered the

artillery in 1832, and gained distinction in the Crimean and Italian campaigns. His misfortunes began when in 1869 he was appointed war minister. Unequal to the administration of a great department, he believed the deficient armament of France to be in a state of complete preparation. After his appointment in 1870 as marshal of France, the revelation of his mistakes forced him to take a minor command, and he courted death recklessly at Gravelotte, Noisseville, and elsewhere, and was made prisoner at the fall of Metz. He returned from a German prison to face an inquiry with characteristic courage and candor, and then retired from public life. Le Bossu, RENs (1631–80), French critic, canon regular of Sainte-Geneviève, won a Euroan reputation by his Traité du oëme Epique (1675). It was


well known in England, being

praised by Dryden, used by Addi

son for his papers on Paradise Lost, and given in extract in the prefatory matter to Pope's Odyssey. An English translation, by ‘W. J.,’ appeared in 1695, and again in 1719. See Memoir by Le Courayer, prefixed to the sixth edition of the Poème Epique (1714). Lebrija (anc. Nebrissa Veneria), tn., Seville, Spain, on a declivity of the Sierra de Gibaldin, 34 m. s. of Seville, on the Seville-Cadiz Ry. Trade in grain, oil, wine, and cattle. The ruined castle exhibits a mixture of Arabic, Roman, and Gothic architecture. Pop. (1900) 11,127. Le Brun, CHARLEs (1619–90), French historical painter, born at Paris, and was employed for fifteen years by Louis xiv. on the decoration of Versailles. Le Brun enjoyed a great reputation in his day, but his style is now considered extremely artificial and affected. See Lives by Genevay (1885) and Jouin (1890). Le B run, MARIE Louis E Elisabeth Vigée (1755-1842), French painter, born at Paris; married (1776) a grand-nephew of Charles Le Brun. Her beauty and talent quickly made her a favorite at court, and she painted many of the great personages of the time, including Marie Antoinette, the Prince of Wales, Byron, and others. The Louvre contains many of her best works, notably the portrait of herself and her daughter. See her Souvenirs (1835-7). Lebrun, Ponce DENIs EcouciiARD (1729-1807), French poet; acted as secretary to the Prince of Conti, and was subsequently under the patronage of Calonne, Robespierre, and Napoleon. His satires and epigrams possess some distinction. A collection of his works appeared in 1811, and his CEuvres Choisies in 1822–8. Lebti, cap., rov. Arauco, Chili; at the mouth of Lebú R., 75 m. s. by w. of Concepción. There are coal deposits in the vicinity. Pop. (1895) 2,784. Le Caron, HENRI (1841–94), whose real name was Thomas Miller Beach, British secret service agent, born in England. A prominent member of the Fenian dy, he was aware of their conspiracy against Canada; and becoming in 1865 a spy of the British government, he supplied it with all the information which his position laid open to him. In the Parnell Commission of 1889 he was called as a witness. Henceforth he was unremittingly guarded until his death. See his Twenty-five Years in the Secret Service (1892). Lecce (anc. Lupia Civitas),


cap., prov. Lecce, Apulia, Italy, 23 m. s.E. of Brindisi. Its ancient fortifications are now in ruins; several monumental gateways, however, still remain. Trade in Lecce oil, tobacco, cotton, wool, soap, and leather, while the district produces fruits and grain. The city is connected by electric cars with San Cataldo, much visited on account of its castle. Pop. (1901) 32,687. Lecco, city, prov. Como, Lombardy, Italy, 15 m. N.E. of Como, on the s.E. arm (Lake Lecco) of Lake Como. Manufactures iron, copper, silk, and cotton. Manzoni describes the district in his I. Promessi Sposi. Pop. (1901) 10,275. Lech, r. bk. trib. of the Danube, Austria, and Germany, rising in Lake. Formarin, (6,120 ft.) in the Vorarlberg, flows N.E. through Tyrol, then N. through Bavaria, and after a course of 180 m. falls into the Danube below Donauwörth. It is not navigable, but timber is floated down its waters from the Bavarian frontier. Lechler, GoTTHARD VICTOR (1811 - 88), German theologian, was born at Kloster-Reichenbach, Würtemberg, and studied under Baur at Tübingen; in 1858 he became a professor at Leipzig, where he died. His most important works are Geschichte des englischen Deismus (1841); Das apostolische und machapostolische Zeitalter (1851 ; Eng. trans. 1886); Commentary on Acts, in Lange's Bibelwerk (trans. 1879); and Johann von Wiclif (1873; trans. 3d ed. 1884.) Lecithin, a compound, or mixture of compounds, of complex composition, having approximately the formula Cahs. NPOs, which is an important constituent of brain and nerve tissue and yolk of egg. It is prepared from the latter, and is soluble in alcohol, from which it crystallizes in waxy needles, hygroscopic but insoluble in water. Vegetable lecithin is also prepared. Lecky, WILLIAM EDWARD HARTPole (1838-1903), Irishman of letters, was born near Dublin, and educated at Trinity College there. He published anonymously (1861) The Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland (new ed. 1903), and devoted himself chiefly to historical work till 1895, when he was elected one of the parliamentary representatives for Dublin University, a position which he resigned in 1902. Among his other works were History of Rationalism in Europe (1865); History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne (1869); History of England in the Eighteenth Century (1878–90); Poems (1891); Democracy and Liberty (new ed.

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Le Clerc, JEAN (1657–1736), Swiss writer and theologian, born at Geneva; was professor at the Remonstrant seminary, Amsterdam (1684-1728), ... His greatest works were the Bibliothèque Universelle et. Historique (25 vols. 1686-93), the Bibliothèque Choisu (1703-13), and the Bibliothèque Ancienne et Moderne (1714-27); but his wide learning was also proved by his editions of the ancient classics and his Ars Critica (1712-30). , See Hoeven's De Johanne Clerico (1845). Leclercq, Rose (c. 1845–99), English actress, younger sister of Carlotta Leclercq, born at Liyerpool; was the original Mary Vance in Burnand's Deal Boatman at Drury Lane, and played Desdemona, to Phelps's Othello. Later she played Lady Dawtry in The Dancing Girl, and Mrs. Beechinor in Henry Arthur Jones's Manaeuvres of Jane, at the Haymarket Theatre, London (1898). Lecocq, ALEXANDRE CHARLES (1832), French... composer, of comic operas. His style is light and happy, and many of his works are popular. They include Les Cent Vierges (1872); La Fille de Madame Angot (1873); Les Prés St. Gervais (1874); GirofléČirofla (1874); and La Mariolaine (1877). Lecompton, th:, Douglas Co., Kan.; on the Kan. R. and on the Atch., Top. and Santa Fé R. R., 11 m. w. by N. of Lawrence. It was the territorial cap., and is the seat of Lane University. It was settled in 1854 and figured in the slavery troubles, in Kansas preceding the establishment of statehood. Pop. (1900) 408. Lecompton Constitution, a constitution drawn up by a proslavery convention in Kansas which met at Lecompton in Sept.Nov., 1857. It provided, among other things, that ‘the legislature shall have no power to pass laws for the emancipation of slaves without the consent of the owners,” and that ‘free negroes shall not be permitted to live in this state under any circumstances.” In October, after the assembling of the convention, but before the constitution had been adopted by it (Nov. 7), an election for the


territorial legislature had taken place, and the Free-state settlers, who had previously refrained to a large extent from voting, chose a large majority of the legislators. To forestall any action by this new Free-state legislature, the convention, in submitting the constitution to a popular vote, allowed voters to chose only between the constitution with slavery' and the ‘constitution without slavery,’ the right of masters to the slaves then in

their possession, haying, been declared inviolable. On this account Free-state men refused

to vote, and by a vote of 6,266 to 567 the constitution was adopted with slavery. Congress was then asked to admit Kansas as a state under the Lecompton Constitution, and the question became a national one, the Republicans and the Anti-Lecompton Democrats opposing admission and the Democrats advocating it. Meanwhile the Free-state legislature of Kansas had submitted the constitution as a whole to popular yote (Jan. 4, 1858), 10,226 votes being cast against the constitution, 162 for it. The U. S. Senate passed a bill (Mar. 23, 1858) for the admission of Kansas under the constitution, but the House demanded a re-submission to the people, and a compromise, known as the English Bill, was finally adopted (April 30th). . By this bill the land ordinance of the constitution was to be submitted to popular vote, and the fate of the constitution was to depend upon this vote; the land ordinance was rejected (Aug. 3d), and the Lecompton Constitution was thus finally disposed of, Kansas being ultimately admitted to the Union (1861) under the ‘Wyandotte Constitution.' The text of the Lecompton Constitution may be found in Vol. I. of Poore's Federal and State Constitutions. Le Conte, Joseph (1823–1901), American geologist and educator, born in Liberty co., Ga. He graduated at Franklin College, University of Georgia, in 1841, at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in N. Y., in 1845, and at Harvard, where he came under the influence of Louis Agassiz, in 1851; and was professor of geology and natural history at Franklin College (1852-6), of geology and chemistry at South Carolina College (1857–69), and of geology and natural history at the University of . California (1869-1991). Among his numerous publications are Religion and Science (1873); Outlines of the Comparative Physiology and Morphology of Animals; Elements of, Geology (1878); Sight: An Exposition of the Principles of Monocular and Binocular Vision (1880); Evolution: Its Nature, its Evi


dences, and its Relations to Religious Thought (1887). See his Autobiography, edited by Armes. Leconte de Lisle, CHARLES MARIE (1818–94), French poet, born at St. Paul, Isle of Bourbon; son of an army surgeon; intended by his father for a mercantile career, with a view to which the boy was sent upon extensive travels in the East. But he returned to Paris, and assisted in the foundation of a paper, Le Sifflet. Leconte de Lisle's first poem, Venus de Milo (afterwards incorporated in his Poèmes Antiques), was published in 1848, and showed a keen interest in politics, with a strong republican bent. After the establishment of the second empire, however, Leconte de Lisle ceased to take an interest.in public affairs. His Poèmes Antiques, which appeared in 1852, contained some of his best work. From this he secured the friendship of such men as Léon Dierx, Sully Prudhomme, François Coppée, Armand Silyestre, José Maria de Heredia, Villiers de Lisle Adam, and, greatest of all, Paul Verlaine. Leconte de Lisle was a strong pessimist and anti-Catholic. But even when he is dealing with themes which might evoke these sentiments, he treats them only with a poetic passion. In 1872 Leconte de Lisle was made librarian to the Senate, and in this post he died. His works include Poèmes Antiques (1852); Poèmes et Poésies (1854); Le Chemin de la Croix (1859); Poèmes Barbares (1862): Erinnyes (1872); Poèmes Tragiques (1884); Derniers Poèmes (1899); L'Apollonide; with translations of Theocritus (1861), Anacréon (1861), The Iliad (1866), The Odyssey (1867), Hesiod (1871), AEschylus (1872), Horace (1873), Sophocles (1877), and Euripides (1885). See, Bourget's Nouveaur Essais de Psych. Cont. (1886); Dornis's Leconte de Lisle (1895). Lecouvreur, ADRIENNE (1692– 1730), French actress, celebrated alike for her brilliant gifts and the tragic ending of her life, was born near Châlons. . Going to Paris, she quickly achieved success by her talent and beauty; and her real life, like her acting, was a stormy Elysium, filled with the loyes of many famous men, including Marshal Saxe and Vol: taire. Her death was attributed to poison administered by the Duchesse de Bouillon, a rival for Saxe's affections; whence, the plot of . Scribe , and Legouvé's play drienne Lecouvreur. See Lettres D'Adrienne Lecouvreur (1892). Le Creusot. See CREUsot. . Lectern, a reading stand, used in churches for reading the lections or lessons from, and for Lectionary

supporting the massive service books from which the antiphons were sung, as also for use in libraries. They were generally movable, of wood or brass, perhaps the commonest form being that of an eagle with outspread wings on which the book rested. Lectionary, a book containing “lessons' or portions of Scripture appointed to be read in the public service of the church in the course of a year. The oldest Latin lectionary, ascribed to St. Jerome, was known as the Comes (“companion'), distinguished as ‘major' and “minor.’ The socalled Gallican lectionary is believed to represent the rite of the ancient Church of Gaul; it exists only in a single imperfect copy. Leda, in ancient Greek legend, was the daughter of Thestius, and wife of Tyndareus, king of Sparta, to whom she bore Timan: dra and Philonoe. Zeus visited Leda in the form of a swan, and by him she was the mother of Castor and Pollux. The story is told by Homer, Euripides, and other ancient writers.

Ledeberg, N.E. suburb of Ghent, Belgium. Pop. (1900) 14,230.

Ledochowski, MIECzYSLAw,

CARDINAL Count (1822–1902), Polish Roman ecclesiastic, born at Gorki in Galicia. For many years he resisted the repressive measures of the Prussian government against the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. The celebrated “May laws,' promulgated at the time of the Kulturkampf, were enforced in 1873, and Ledochowski was imprisoned (1874-6). After his release he resided in Rome. From 1892 till his death he was prefect of the Propaganda. Pius Ix. made him cardinal (1875). Ledru - Rollin, ALExANDRE AUGUSTE (1807-74), French barrister and politician, born at Fontenay. At the revolution of 1848 he became a member of the provisional government, and later a candidate against Louis Napoleon for the presidency. An unsuccessful attempt at rebellion forced him to seek refuge in England. In 1870 he returned to France under the law of amnesty. He was the author of De la Décadence de l'Angleterre (1850). His collected works appeared under the title Discours Politiques et Ecrits Divers (1879). Leduc. See VIolleT-LE-DUc. Ledum, a genus of dwarf, hardy, evergreen shrubs, belonging to the order Ericaceae, and having aromatic foliage. The flowers are white, and are borne in umbels. The chief species are L. palustre, the so-called wild rosemary, about eighteen inches in height, and L. Groenlandicum.


Having been used as a substitute for tea, by northern travellers, the genus is known, in America, as ‘Labrador tea.' Ledyard, John (1751–88), American traveller, was born at Groton, Conn., and studied at Dartmouth. He prepared for the ministry, but being rejected as a candidate for ordination, adopted a seafaring life, and sailed with Capt. Cook on his third voyage (1776-9). He afterward travelled extensively in Northern Europe and Russia. . He was the author of Journal of Captain Cook's Last Yoo (1782). See extracts from his journals and correspondence in Jared Sparks's Life (1828). Ledyard, WILLIAM (c. 1740– 1781), American soldier, born at Groton, Conn., who is remembered chiefly as the defender of Fort Griswold, one of the defences of New London, and as one of the victims of what has been described as the massacre of the defenders, by the British troops of Benedict Arnold's command. When the fort, manned by about 150 poorly armed militiamen, was forced to surrender to a greatly superior force, the British officer, Major Montgomery, in command of the storming party, upon receiving Ledyard's sword, immediately stabbed him to death with it, and the slaughter of about 100 of the other defenders followed. Lee, a word meaning a sheltered place, and, in its nautical sense, those parts that are away from the windward side. ‘Leeway ' is the way a ship makes away from the windward quarter when under sail, so that her wake is not in the same straight line as her keel. “Lee-side,’ all that part of a ship which is away from the windward quarter, consisting of half the ship, divided by an imaginary line fore and aft. “Lee-shore': a ship is said to be on a lee-shore when she is near the land with the wind blowing from her to it. ‘Helm a-lee” is the order to put the helm down towards the leeward side, so as to bring a ship nearer to or into the wind. Lee, th:, Berkshire co., Mass., on the Housatonic R. and on the N. Y., N. H., and H. R. R., 11 m. s. of Pittsfield; situated in a beautiful hill region, it is well known as a summer resort. The leadin industries are the manufacture o paper and paper-mill machinery, marble quarrying and lime burning. Memorial Hall commemorates the men of Lee who fell in the Revolution and in the Civil War. Fern Cliff, a high ridge in the centre of the town, is of special scenic and geologic interest. (See Emerson, Bulletin of


the U. S. Geological Survey, No. 159, pp. 85, 86.) Lee, South Lee and East Lee are post offices in the town. It was settled in 1760 and incorporated in 1777. Pop. (1905) 3,972. Lee, ANN (1736–84), foundress, of the American Society of Shakers, was born at Manchester, England, the daughter of a blacksmith: . She took to open-air Fo: in Manchester, which ed to imprisonment for Sabbathbreaking (1770), and while thus confined a vision of Christ and a revelation regarding His second coming was said to have been granted, to her, as well as the Shakers' doctrine of continence. Subsequently she became head of the Shakers, and was styled ‘..Mother Ann.’ Emigrating to America (1774), she founded the first American Shaker settlement at Niskenna, now Watervliet, N.Y. (1776). See SHAKERs. Lee, A R T H U R (1740–92), American diplomatist, the young: est son of Thomas Lee, and brother of Richard Henry, and Henry, Lee; born at the Lee homestead, Štratford, Westmoreland co., Va. He studied in Great Britain—at Eton and at the University of Edinburgh (graduating M.D., 1765), and (after practising medicine for a time at Williamsburg, Va.) at the Temple London, (1766–70). He practise law with considerable success in London, where he also, as a pamphleteer and writer for the press, took an active part, on behalf of the American colonists, in the political discussions preceding the Revolution, and became more , or less, intimately , acuainted with the leaders of the Whig party. Early in 1775 he became the agent of Mass, in London; in Nov. of the same year he was chosen as the secret agent of the Committee of Secret Correspondence of the Continental Congress; and in Oct., 1776, was appointed with Franklin ani'sins Deane, a commissioner of the U. S. in France. In 1777-8 he was a commissioner to Spain, but spent only, a short time (early in 1777) in that country, proceeding no further than Burgos, received no official recognition, and accomplished nothing besides securing a loan of about 170,000 livres. In Paris he was one of the negotiators of the treaties of Feb., 1778, with France, but he quarrelled with both of his associates, and in particular made charges (now known to have been unjust) against Silas Deane, who was recalled in consequence. In Sept., 1780, Lee returned to the U. S. He was subsequently a member of the Va. legislature (1781), of the Continental Congress 1782–5), and of the ‘Board of Treasury'


of , the Confederation (1785-9), and in 1784, with Oliver Wolcott and Richard Butler, negotiated the treaty of Fort Stanwix with the northern and northwestern Indians. See R. H. Lee, Life of Arthur Lee with his Political and Literary Correspondence and his Papers on Diplomatic and Political Subjects (2 v. 1829). Lee, CHARLES (1731–82), an English-American soldier, prominent in the American Revolution. He was born in Dernhall, England, entered the English army in 1751, took part (1755-60) in the French and Indian War in America, and in 1762, as a lieutenantcolonel, was in the Portuguese service, efficiently assisting in repelling a Spanish invasion of Portugal, then the virtual ally of England. He was then in the Polish service (1764–6 and 1769– 70), in the second period ranking as a major-general. In 1773 he emigrated to America, and on the outbreak of the Revolution, having previously identified himself with the Whigs or Patriots, he was made a majorgeneral in the Continental army, his rank being higher than that of any officer except Washington and Artemas Ward (who soon resigned). He commanded the Southern Department (1776), hampering rather than assisting in the defence of Charleston and receiving, without desert, the thanks of Congress (July 20, 1776). In Dec., while leading the right wing of Washington's army across N. J., he was captured near Morristown, N. J. While a captive he betraye Washington's plans to Sir William Howe, the British generalin-chief, and drew up plans for a British campaign against the American army, but this was unsuspected at the time on the American side, and in May, 1778, he was exchanged. By a courtmartial, presided over by Gen. Alexander (Lord Stirling), he was suspended for a year for his conduct at the battle of Monmouth (June 28, 1778), in which he disobeyed Washington's orders and attempted to play into the hands of the British, before whom, without cause, he made a ‘disorderly retreat '; and subsequently, for insolence to Congress, he was discharged form the service (Jan., 1780). See Moore, Treason of Charles Lee (1860); Sparks, Life of Charles Lee (1846), and Langworthy, Memoirs ; the Life of Charles Lee (1792). Lee, FitzHUGH (1835–1905), American soldier and diplomat, was born at Clermont, Va. He graduated at West Point in 1856. Qn the outbreak of the Ciyil War (1861) he joined the Confederate

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army, afterwards serving with distinction, in Va. as a cavalry officer. He became brigadiergeneral (1862), and major-general (1863); and from March, 1865, until the close of the war was in command of the cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia, surrendering to Gen. Meade at Farmville, Va. He was governor of Virginia (1886–90). He was U. S. consul at Havana, Cuba (1893-8), during the trying period preceding the Spanish-American War; during the war he was a major-general of U. S. volunteers (commissioned May, 1898), and afterwards was for some time military governor of Havana. He became a brigadier-general in the regular U. S. army (Feb., 1901), and in the following month retired from active service. He wrote a military biography of his uncle, Robert E. Lee (1894). Lee , FRANCIS LIGHTFOOT (1734–97), signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Stratford, Va., of the Richard Lee family, and was the fourth son of Thomas Lee. He received a private education. After serving in the Virginia House of Burgesses (1765–75), he was elected a delegate to the Continental Congress, 1775-9, signed the Declaration, and helped to draw up the Articles of Confederation. He took a firm attitude against Great Britain in the matter of the Newfoundland fisheries and the navigation of the Mississippi. Mr. Lee practically retired from public life in 1779. See Sanderson's Biography of the Signers (1827). Lee, FREDERICK RICHARD (1799–1879), English landscape painter, was born at Barnstaple. He is known as a clever exponent of English landscape and seaScape. Among his works are The Coast of Cornwall at the Land's End and The Plymouth Breakwater. The National Gallery possesses four of his pictures, and there are other examples in S. Kensington Museum. Lee, HENRY (1756 – 1818), American soldier, the father of Robert E. Lee; born at Leesylvania, Va. He graduated at Princeton in 1773, and, like his brothers, was an ardent Whig or Patriot before and during the American Revolution. He entered the Continental army as a captain in Mar., 1777, was engaged in scouting and foraging duty, rendering particularly valuable services during the winter of alley. Forge (1777-8); became a major in April, 1778; was placed in command of a corps of light-armed horsemen; and by the celerity of his movements earned the sobriquet “Light-horse Harry.' His most brilliant exploit was his successful attack on Paulus Hook,


N. J., in August, 1779; for this he received from Congress a commemorative medal and a vote of thanks for his “remarkable prudence, address, and bravery. In Nov., 1780, he became a lieutenant-colonel, and thereafter served in the South under Gen. Greene, who said of him that “no man in the progress of the campaign had equal merit.” Unlike his brother, Richard Henry Lee, he advocated the ratification by Va. of the Federal Constitution of 1787, and supported Madison in the Va. convention of 1788; and though he was at first strongly opposed to the centralizing policies of Alexander Hamilton after the organization of the national government, he gradually identified himself with the Federalists. He was governor of Va. (1792– 5), led the militia sent to suppress the Whisky Insurrection (1794); in 1798–1800, when war with France seemed imminent, was a major-general in the U. S. army; and in 1799–1801 was a Federalist representative in Congress, delivering a memorial oration at the time of Washington's death, in which Washington was spoken of as “first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.'. In June, 1812, while attempting to defend against a Baltimore mob his friend A. C. Hanson, a Federalist editor who had criticised Madison's Administration, he received wounds from which he eventually died. He published Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department of the United States (1812; new ed., containing a biography by Robert E. Lee, 1869). Lee, JEsse (1758–1816), Ameriican home missionary, was born in Prince George co., Va., prepared for the Methodist ministry, and, after service as a chaplain in the Revolutionary War, was associated with Bishop Asbury in reorganizing the Virginia and North Carolina circuits, which had been

broken up by the war and formed new circuits in New England. In this way Lee be

came known as ‘The Apostle of Methodism.’ His later life was passed in the South. He suggested and carried through the plan for a general conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Was chaplain of Congress and of the U. S. Senate during his last years. Author of History of Methodism in America (1807). Lee, RICHARD HENRY (1732– 94), American political leader, born at the Lee homestead, Stratford, Westmoreland co., Va., and the brother of Arthur'and William Lee. He was educated in England, returning to Va. in 1752; was a member of the Va. House of Burgesses (1761-88), in which he advocated the suppresLee

sion of the slave trade, and both before and during the American Revolution was one of the foremost of the Whig and revolutionary leaders in Va. He also became a member of the Va. “Committee of Correspondence’ (1773), and from 1774, to 1789 was an influential member of the Continental Congress, being remembered particularly as the introducer of the resolution of June 7, 1776 (adopted July 2) that “these united Colonies are and of a right ought to be free and independent states, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.’ With Patrick Henry, he opposed the ratification by Va. of the Federal Constitution of 1787, but after the inauguration of the new government under the Constitution was a member of the U. S. Senate (1789-92), and, though elected as an Anti-Federalist, supported the administration of Pres. Washington. He drew u and proposed, substantially as it was later adopted, the Tenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution. See his grandson's Life and Correspondence of Richard Henry Lee (2 v. 1825).

Lee, RoberT (1804–68), Scottish divine, was born at Tweedmouth. He held the charges of Arbroath, Campsie, and the Old Greyfriars' Church, Edinburgh, and was appointed professor of Biblical criticism in Edinburgh University (1847). His name is associated with contests regarding so-called unlawful innovations in the service of the Church of Scotland, and the question of the publication of a service book was pending at the time of his death.

Lee, Robert Edward (1806– 70), a celebrated American soldier, the greatest of the Confederate leaders during the Civil War, born on Jan. 19, 1807, at Stratford, on the Potomac, in Westmoreland co., Va., the estate of his father, the famous “LightHorse Harry' Lee of the American Revolution. His mother (d. 1829) was a member of the Carter family, and both the Lees and the Carters had long been among the foremost families of Va. in social standing and influence. Robert graduated in 1829, second in his class, at West Point, and in June, 1831, he married Mary Randolph Custis (the great-granddaughter of Washington's wife), whose father's home, Arlington, just across the Potomac from Washington, D. C., was thereafter the home of the Lees. Lee was assigned ... to the engineer corps, was stationed at Hampton Roads (1829–34), was assistant to the chief engineer of the U. S. army, Col. Charles Gratiot, at


Washington (1834–7), directed the work of improving the navigability of the Mississippi river at St. Louis (1837-41), became a captain in 1838, and from 1841 to 1846 was stationed at Fort Hamilton, in military charge of N. Y.; harbor. During all, this period, in all that he did, he was characterized by thoroughness and a great capacity for work. His first active service was in the Mexican War (1846– 7), in , which he took a distinguished part as a member of Gen. Scott's staff in all the battles of the Southern campaign from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico, repeatedly winning the highest praise in the official reports of his superiors. He was brevetted a major at Cerro Gordo (Scott's plan for this battle was based on the report and recommendation made by Lee after a reconnoissance), lieutenant-colonel at Contreras and Churubusco, and colonel at Chapultepec. Probably no subordinate officer came out of the war with a reputation so greatly enhanced; from that time he was regarded as one of the ablest, and by many as the ablest, of the younger officers of the U. S. army. He was stationed at Baltimore, Md. (1849-52), engaged in the construction of Fort Carroll in the Patapsco river; was superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point (1852-5); was made a lieutenantcolonel in March, 1855, and was stationed in Texas 1856-61, after Feb., 1860, as commander of the Department of Texas, being called upon to protect the settlers against the Indians, and in 1860 vainly attempting for five months to capture the notorious brigand Cortinas. While at Arlington, on a leave of absence, in 1859, he commanded the U. S. troops, which overcame and captured John Brown at Harper's Ferry. After the secession of Texas he was recalled to Washington and reported to Gen. Scott on Mar. 1, 1861. His position at this time when an outbreak of hostilities between the North and the South seemed certain was a difficult one. Though himself a slaveholder, he had long believed that slavery was an evil, both for the blacks and for the whites. In 1856 he had written, “There are few, I believe, in this enlightened age, who will not acknowledge that slavery as an institution is a moral and political evil in any Country. . . . think it a greater evil to the white than to the black race.’ He regarded emancipation as certain to come in time, but believed that ‘it will sooner result from the mild and melting influences of Christianity, than from the storms and tempests of fiery controversy.' He,


therefore, was opposed to all antislavery agitation from outside, and particularly resented the propaganda of the Abolitionists. In this he thoroughly agreed with the South, but he did not believe in secession and he loved the Union, though he felt that his first duty was to his state. On April 18, 1861, Pres. Lincoln offered to him the command of the army of invasion; this he refused, and two days later he resigned from the U. S. army, writing on the same day to his sister, “With all my dev9tion to the Union and the feeling of loyalty and duty of an American citizen, I have not been able to make up my mind to raise my hand against my relatives, my children, my home.’ On April 22d, as major-general, he was placed in command of the military forces of Virginia, which he thoroughly organized; on May 25th, he became a brigadier-general in the Confederate army, and was for some time in close and constant association with Pres. Davis as his military adviser. In August he took command, in person, of the Confederate forces in the mountains of what later became West Virginia; but he was hampered by ill-advised orders and by , the inefficiency of his subordinates, and met with little success. He was then sent to strengthen the defenses of the Southern seaboard, and in March, 1862, was charged with the direction, under Pres. Davis, of all military operations of the Confederate armies. He superintended from Richmond the operations in the Peninsula against McClellan, whom he unquestionably out-generaled, and when Gen. J. E. Johnston was wounded at Seven Pines, Lee assumed command in the field (June 1, 1862) of the Army of Northern Virginia, at whose head he remained throughout the war. The history of the war, on the Confederate side, in the East is, therefore, largely a history of Lee's operations, the details of which are given in the article Civil WAR and in the article dealing with the various battles. Lee opposed McClellan in the Seven Days' Battle (June–July, 1862), forcing him to abandon his .#" against Richmond; he defeated Gen. Pope in the second battle of Bull Run (Aug. 29–30, 1862); invaded Maryland, but was stopped at Antietam (Sept. 16 and 17) and forced back across the Potomac by Gen. McClellan, took up a strong position at Fredericksburg, where |P. 13) he repulsed with terrible loss to the enemy a reckless attack by Gen. Burnside; and on May 3 and 4, 1863, inflicted a great defeat on Gen. Hooker at Chancellorsville.

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