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service-side, and half-court lines.
matches are decided upon the
result of three sets.
Riviera. In the United States, besides the annual national tournament held in Newport,
I., there are a national women's tournament (Philadelphia); a o court championship (since 1910); national indoor championships for men and for women; intercollegiate, Pacific Coast, and other sectional and State championships. The holders of the U. S. national championships for the last
five years are as follows: THE DAvis CUP.-Competing challenges in any year, the chalChampions of the United States, 1907–11.
1907 1908 1909 1910 1911
- | - -
Men—Singles..... W. A. Larned W. A. Larned w. A. Larned w. A. Larned W. A. Larned
Men—Doubles....Hackett and Alex-Hackett and Alex- Hackett and Alex-Hackett and Alex-Touchard and Little
- ander ander | ander ander
Women—Singles.. Mrs. Barger-Wallach Miss E. Sears |Miss H. Hotchkiss Miss Hotchkiss Miss Hotchkiss
Women—Doubles. Misses Neeley and
Mo. . Sears and Misses Hotchkissand Misses Hotchkiss and Misses Hotchkissand
teams for the Davis Inter-
lengers hold preliminary contests, the winner of which plays the challenge rounds with the champion nation. The cup was held by the United States until
Lawn Tennis 240
Year. Winning Team. Losing Team. Place.
1906. . . . . . . . . England United States Wimbledon
1907. ... Australasia |United States Wimbledon
1908. ... Australasia |United States Melbourne
1909. . ... Australasia United States Sydney
1912. . . . . . . . . Australasia |United States Christchurch, N. Z.
Consult Spalding's Lawn Tenmis Annual.
Law Officers. In the United States the term law officer is used
pression to designate the legal
feet in the river in half a mile. They include textile mills, which have an immense annual output of cotton, woollen, and worsted goods, and employ nearly 20,000 persons, the most important being Pacific, Atlantic, Washington, Arlington, Everett, and Pemberton. There are also manufactures of machinery, paper, engines, sewing machines, carriages, boots and shoes, hardware, foundry products, wooden ware, wheels, harness, bobbins and shuttles, fibre board, and chemicals. It has fine civic buildings, besides a Public Library. Masonic Temple, the Lawrence
of Douglas co., on the Kansas R.,
GomERY (1806–57), Anglo-Indian
marched on Delhi, and after, a
ing as acting governor. He lived at Newport for the remainder of his life, and busied himself with the collection of a great law library, and the writing of his works on law, of which there are a great number, occasionally ap: pearing in some case of national importance. Lawrenceburg, city, Ind., co. seat of Dearborn co., on the r. bk. of the Ohio R., and on the B. and O. Southwestern and the Cle., Cin., Chi. and St. L. R. Rs., 22 m. w. of Cincinnati. Its chief manufactures are buggies, flour, coffins, steam pumps, staves, beadings, ...P liquors, fireworks, etc. It was first settled in 1802. Pop. (1900) 4,326. Lawrence, St. (d. 258), martyr, one of the deacons at Rome under Sixtus I. During the persecution of Valerian he was called upon to surrender , the church treasures; but instead he o the poor and sick under is charge, declaring that these “were his treasures.’ He suffered martyrdom by burning. His day is August 10. Lawrence, University. An undenominational institution for both sexes at Appleton, Wis., founded in 1847 as Lawrence Institute, the present title being assumed two years later. It comrises an academy, a college of Hol arts, and schools of expression, commerce, music, and correspondence, the last not leading to a degree. It had in 1905 526 students, 31 instructors, and a library of 22,000 volumes, with a property valuation of over $500,000. Lawrenceville School. An important F. school for boys ... at Lawrenceville, N. #: established in 1882 on the John C. Green foundation. It occupies a beautiful tract of 250 acres, with modern _buildings thoroughly equipped. The school is divided into five forms, and all students, except those of the fifth form, iodge and board with mas. ters. The entire income of the school is expended for the benefit of the pupils. In 1905 it had a student body of 400 and 31 instructors. he school maintains a summer camp for needy young boys from the city. Law Reports. Printed reports of judicial decisions collected in volumes and published for the information and guidance of judges and lawyers. In a system of jurisprudence which is developed through the decisions of the courts and in which every recorded decision becomes a precedent which the judges are bound to follow in future cases, it is of the utmost importance that the record of such decisions shall be available for consultation and reference. The common law of Great Britain and Lawson
the United States is contained in a long series of reports of decided cases, extending from the Year Books of Dyer (1513–82), down to the latest volume of the so-called official reports of an American State. As the reporting of the cases during the greater part of this period, consisted in recording oral opinions from memory or from notes taken by a member of the bar who happened to be in attendance, the earlier English reports are of very unequal value, some of them being almost worthless as evidence of the law. The modern judicial practice of handing down written opio in all important cases and the assumption by the state or the organized bar of the business of law reporting, has completely obviated these imperfections of the system; though the reproduction, in extenso of the written opinions of judges who are restrained by no considerations of time or space is in itself an evil from which the earlier rerts were free. The business of aw Poing continued in private hands in England until 1866, since which time it has been conducted by the Council of Law Reporting, instituted by the bar. In the United States , judicial roceedings are everywhere of#. reported and published by authority of the several states and, in the case of the federa courts, under that of the national government. The preparation of the report , (which consists of a headnote giving the precise point decided in the case, a brief statement of the facts, the opinion or opinions of the court, and, the judgment rendered) is committed to an official reporter, usually appointed by the court, who also collects the cases into a volume, usually in chronological order, and publishes them. It has always been the practice of the courts and the bar to cite reports by the name of the reporter, and these are usually abbreviated in practice (as ‘9 Co.,' meaning the ninth volume of Sir Edward Coke's reports; ‘2 W. Bl.,’ indicating the second volume of Sir William Blackstone's reports, etc.), but it is, since the institution of official reporting, becoming more and common to cite a report by its number in the official series of which it forms a part § “150 U. S.,” “150 N. Y.,' signifying the 150th volume of the reports of the United States Supreme Court and of the reports of the Court of Appeals of the State of New York, respectively). Complete lists of the British and American reports, in the order of their appearance and indicating the manner in which they are cited, may be found in Soule's Reference Manual of Legal Literature (Boston). Lawson, CECIL. GoRDON (1851–
82), English landsca painter, born in Shropshire. . He did much of his best work in black and white for the Graphic and other journals, and in 1870 exhibited a view of Cheyne Walk at the Academy, and other works at the Grosvenor Gallery. Paintings by him are in the Manchester, Liverpool, and Tate , Galleries. His principal works have been reproduced in a Memoir by E. W. Gosse (1883). . Lawson, John (?–1712), American historian, was born in Scotland, and sailed to America from Cowes, England, landing at Charleston, § C., in 1700. He travelled extensively, among the Indians of North and South Carolina, and became surveyor-general of the former colony, serving for twelve years. His A New Voyage to Carolina (1709), afterward republished as A istory of Carolina (1714), is an important contribution to colonial history. Lawson was killed by Indians on the Neuse river, N. C. Lawson, THoMAS WILLIAM 1857), American financier, was rn at Charlestown, Mass., and received a public-school education. He began business as a banker and broker in 1870, and, while residing at Boston, took an active art in New York financial afairs, also, acquiring a large fortune... He became a frequent contributor to o and has published The Krank (1887) Secrets of . Success (1888), an Frenzied Finance (1905). Lawson, SIR WILFRID (1829), English statesman and temperance advocate, entered the House of Commons as Liberal representative for Carlisle (1859–65 and 1868–85), for Cockermouth (1886– 1900), and for Camborne Division, Cornwall, since 1903. In March 1864 he first brought in his Permissive Bill, “to enable owners and occupiers of property in certain districts, to prevent the sale of , intoxicating liquors , within such districts.' This cost him his seat. In 1880 he carried his Local Option resolution by a majority of twenty-six. The resolution was also passed in each of the two succeeding years. Sir Wilfrid is considered “the licensed wit’ of the House of Commons, and published in conjunction with F. C. Gould a book entitled Cartoons in Rhyme and Line (1904). Lawsonia, a genus belonging to the order Lythraceae, containing only one species, L. alba, the henna plant. This is a tropical shrub, from whose fragrant white flowers is, prepared the alhenna used in Arabia, and Egypt for whitening the nails. Law Terms. See TERMs of Court. Lawton, th:, Comanche co.,
Okla., on Cache Creek and on Čhi, Rock is and Fac. R. R. 35 m. s. by w. of Anadarko. Pop. 7,000.
Lawton, HENRY WARE (1843– 99), American soldier, was born at Manhattan, Ohio. He entered the army as a private in 1861, served with an Indiana regiment during the Civil War, and was brevetted a colonel of volunteers (1865). In July, 1898, he was advanced to the rank of majorgeneral of volunteers for distinguished gallantry before Atlanta, Ga. (1864). After the war he entered the regular, army as a lieutenant, served with the 41st and then with the 24th Infantry, was transferred to the 4th Cavalry (1871), and was promoted to the rank of major and inspector-general (1888), and then brigadier#. (1898). He served with
istinction against the Sioux and Ute Indians (1879) and captured Geronimo (1886). In the Spanish: American War, he commanded the 2d Div. of the 5th Army Corps, at Santiago. Then he was transferred, to the Philippines, captured Santa Cruz (April 10, 1899), and San Isidro (May 15), and the next month was put in command of Manila. While conducting a campaign against Aguinaldo, he was killed (Dec. 19, 1899) in the battle of San Mateo. He was a fearless and able commander, and his death was universally lamented.
Lawyer. The Roo. term for a member of the legal profession. Specifically a lawyer is a person who has been trained in the principles and practice of the law of the land and licensed by the state or under its authority to conduct legal proceedings for others. Every developed system of law calls for a body of trained experts to administer it and to advise others as to their rights and duties thereunder, and these, owing to their association with each other in the conduct of legal business and their common relation to the courts, tend to become an exclusive profession, admission to which is guarded and regulated by themselves. A code of unwritten rules regulates the relations of lawyers to one, another and to their clients, and a serious infraction of these rules subjects a lawyer to loss of professional standing and, in grave cases, to disbarment or exclusion from the profession. A lawyer, is not permitted by law to disclose any communications from a client without the latter's consent, even though his employment has ceased. He may become liable to a client for negligence in conducting proceedings or for breach of faith. He cannot represent both parties to a controversy, but may serve any number of persons who have