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Lawn Tennis

service-side, and half-court lines.
If W and X’ are playing Y and Z,
the order of service is WYXZ,
WYXZ, etc. The service is re-
turned alternately by the two
partners who are strikers-out
throughout each game; but when
once the service has been re-
turned, either partner may take
the ball.
METHOD OF SCORING. — On
either player winning his first
stroke, the score is called 15 for
that player; on winning his sec-
ond stroke, 30; on winning his
third stroke, 40; and the fourth
stroke is scored game, except
as follows: If both players have
won 3 strokes, the score is called
“deuce," and the next stroke won
by either player is scored ‘ van-
tage in" for that player. If the
same player win the next stroke,
he wins the game; if he lose the
next stroke, it is again called
deuce; and so on until either
player wins the two strokes im-
mediately following the score of
deuce. The player who first wins
six games wins a set, except if
each player wins five; in that
case, deuce and vantage sets are
played, the same as in games.
There is no fixed rule as to what
shall constitute a match, the de-
cision being left to the agree-
ment of the players. Ordinarily,

matches are decided upon the

result of three sets.
In Europe and Australasia the
game is increasingly popular.
International tournaments are
held in Homburg-vor-der-Höhe,
Scheveningen, Auteuil, and the

Riviera. In the United States, besides the annual national tournament held in Newport,

I., there are a national women's tournament (Philadelphia); a o court championship (since 1910); national indoor championships for men and for women; intercollegiate, Pacific Coast, and other sectional and State championships. The holders of the U. S. national championships for the last

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five years are as follows: THE DAvis CUP.-Competing challenges in any year, the chalChampions of the United States, 1907–11.

1907 1908 1909 1910 1911

- | - -

Men—Singles..... W. A. Larned W. A. Larned w. A. Larned w. A. Larned W. A. Larned

Men—Doubles....Hackett and Alex-Hackett and Alex- Hackett and Alex-Hackett and Alex-Touchard and Little

- ander ander | ander ander

Women—Singles.. Mrs. Barger-Wallach Miss E. Sears |Miss H. Hotchkiss Miss Hotchkiss Miss Hotchkiss

Women—Doubles. Misses Neeley and

Weimer

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Mo. . Sears and Misses Hotchkissand Misses Hotchkiss and Misses Hotchkissand

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teams for the Davis Inter-
national Challenge Cup, pre-
sented to the American Associa-
tion by Dwight L. Davis in 1900,
may consist of from two to five

Rotch

rs

lengers hold preliminary contests, the winner of which plays the challenge rounds with the champion nation. The cup was held by the United States until

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Lawn Tennis 240
1903, when it was won by Law Officers of the Crown, in
England. Recent results: Great Britain, is a general ex-
Davis Cup Winners, 1906–12.

Year. Winning Team. Losing Team. Place.
-

1906. . . . . . . . . England United States Wimbledon

1907. ... Australasia |United States Wimbledon

1908. ... Australasia |United States Melbourne

1909. . ... Australasia United States Sydney

1912. . . . . . . . . Australasia |United States Christchurch, N. Z.

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Consult Spalding's Lawn Tenmis Annual.

Law Officers. In the United States the term law officer is used

pression to designate the legal
advisers of the government.
Specifically, it includes the at-
torney-general and the solicitor-

Lawrence

feet in the river in half a mile. They include textile mills, which have an immense annual output of cotton, woollen, and worsted goods, and employ nearly 20,000 persons, the most important being Pacific, Atlantic, Washington, Arlington, Everett, and Pemberton. There are also manufactures of machinery, paper, engines, sewing machines, carriages, boots and shoes, hardware, foundry products, wooden ware, wheels, harness, bobbins and shuttles, fibre board, and chemicals. It has fine civic buildings, besides a Public Library. Masonic Temple, the Lawrence

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Lawrence

of Douglas co., on the Kansas R.,
and on the Union Pac. and A., T.
and S. Fé R.Rs., 38 m.w.. of Kansas
City. It has manufactures of iron
and brass foundry ... products,
paper, flour, wire, nails, sashes,
and doors, and exports dairy
products. Its chief educational
institutions are the University of
Kansas and the Haskell Institute,
a government industrial school for
Indians. Lawrence was notable
from 1854, the date of its settle-
ment by opponents of , slavery
and especially during the Civil
War, for its opposition to the pro-
slavery y, and was the head-
uarters of the abolitionists in
ansas. The notorious Con-
federate guerilla leader, Quan-
trell, attacked it in 1863, burned a
large part of the city, and killed
123 of its citizens. op. (1905)
11,708. (3.). Township, 60 m.
S. of Dunedin. New Zealand,
the centre of a large gold-mining
district. Pop., (1901) 1,159... See
Vincent_Pyke's. Hist. of Early
Gold Discoveries in Otago
(1887).
Lawrence, ABBOTT (1792–
1855), American merchant, legis-
lator, and diplomatist, brother of
Amos Lawrence (q.v.). In addi-
tion to his business operations, he
filled several public offices, in-
cluding those of U. S. congress-
man, 1835–7 and 1839–40, com-
missioner for the settlement of the
Northeastern boundary question
with Great Britain, 1842, and that
of minister to Great Britain, 1849–
52. See Memoir, by Hamilton A.
Hill (1883).
Lawrence, AMos (1786–1852),
American merchant, was born at
Groton, Mass., and studied at its
*.*. After serving as clerk,
he established a dry-goods busi-
ness, at Boston, 1807, receiving
his brother Abbott as partner,
1814. The firm were instrumen-
tal in developing the manufacture
of cotton goods in the U. S., and
started a factory of their own at
Lowell, Mass., 1830. During
his life he gave $639,000 for edu-
cational and charitable purposes.
See his Diary, edited by his son
(1855).
Lawrence, GEORGE NEwBoLD,
(1806–95), American ornithologist,
was born in New York, 1806, re-
ceived his education, in private
schools, and , entered the drug
business of his father, retirin
in 1862. . He began ornithologica
work early in life and besides con-
tributing a great number of ar-
ticles, to scientific journals, per-
sonally made the collection of
8,000 and more American birds
now in the American Museum of
Natural History in New York.
Member of various learned so-
cieties. Collaborated with Baird
and Cassin, in The Birds of
North America (1860).
Lawrence, SIR HENRY MONT-

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241

GomERY (1806–57), Anglo-Indian
soldier and statesman, elder
brother of Lord Lawrence, was
born in , Ceylon. He joined, the
Bengal Arti o fought in
the Burmese War (1824–6), the
Afghan War (1838), and the Sikh
wars of 1845–9, besides holding
important political posts at La-
hore and at the court of Nepal:
When the Punjab was annexed
(1849), he was appointed first
administrator. On the outbreak
of the mutiny, Sir Henry's wise
recautions saved the European
inhabitants of Lucknow, enabling
the Residency to withstand a four
months' siege after the city was
in the hands of the rebels. Here
he was mortally wounded on the
second day of the defence. See
Lives by Edwardes and Merivale
§: and Sir C. Aitchison
1892
Lawrence, JAMES (1781–1813),
American naval officer, was born
at Burlington, N. J., and was
appointed midshipman, 1793:
e became lieutenant in 1802, and
passed five years on the Barbary
coast, distinguishing himself in
the war with Tripoli, being second
in command in Decatur’s dash
into the harbor of Tripoli to burn
the captured Philoh; He
was promoted captain, 1811, and
in the War of 1812 sank the Pea-
cock off Demerara, while in com-
mand of the Hornet. He was
placed in command of the frigate
Chesapeake at Boston harbor, and
being challenged by Capt. Broke
of the Shannon, went out with a
new crew and fought an unsuc-
cessful battle (June 1, 1813), his
ship being taken after he himself
had been shot down. His cy
while being carried below, ‘Don’t
give up the ship, became a noted
saying.
Lawrence, JoHN (1750–1810),
American statesman, , was born
in Cornwall, England, came to
New York, 1767, and practised
iaw until the Revolutionary War,
in which he served as aide-de-
camp to Washington, and was
judge advocate at the trial of
ajor André. He was a sup-
rter of the Constitution and a
ederalist. He served several
terms in Congress, and was a
United States senator, 1796–
1800.
Lawrence, JoHN LAIRD MAIR,
LoRD (1811–79), who distin-
guished himself in the Indian
mutiny, was born at Richmond,
Yorkshire. He was sent to India
1829), and co-operated with his
rother in the settlement of the
Punjab, of which he was lieu-
tenant-governor when the mutin
broke out. He instantly o
the most vigorous measures, and
through his influence with the
Sikhs was able to raise a fresh
army of 60,000 men to replace
the mutinied regiments. He

Lawrence

marched on Delhi, and after, a
three months' siege. retook the
city, Yo: the title of ‘the
saviour of India.” He was granted
a life pension of £2,000 a year,
and created a baronet (1859). In
1863 he became governor-general
of India. He was made a peer
in 1869. See Lives by Smith
§§ and Sir R. Temple
1889).
Lawrence, SIR THOMAs (1769–
1830), English portraitist, was
born at Bristol. T. At the age of
five he was famed for his recita-
tions and for his crayon por-
traits. . In Oxford many dis-
tinguished people were among
his sitters; and his studio at
Bath, before he was twelve, was
frequented by beautiful women
and men of rank and taste. He
began to use oil colors at seven-
teen, and entered the Royal
Academy schools (1787). is
F. and social success in
ndon was immediate. . By the
king's desire he was elected a
supplemental A.R.A. (1791), and
appointed his Majesty's painter
(1792). . When he received full
academical honors (1795), he was
already, without a rival in public
estimation. Knighted , by the
rince regent (1815), three years
É. he went abroad on a com-
mission to paint the allied sover-
eigns and principal continental
personages in , commemoration
of the treaty of peace. On the
death of West (1820) he was unani-
mously, elected president of the
Royal Academy. See Williams's
#. and Correspondence of Sir
T. Lawrence (1831), Cunning-
ham's Lives of the Most Eminent
British Painters (1829 – §
Gower's Sir T. Lawrence (1900),
Knepp's An Artist's Love Story
(1904), and Ward's English Art
in the Public Galleries (1888).
Lawrence, WILLIAM (1819–99),
American jurist, was born in
Mount Pleasant, Ohio, and grad-
uated (1838) at Franklin Co ege.
He filled public legal, offices
in Logan, có. for several years,
edited a local paper, was editor
of the Western Law Journal,
and served in the state legisla-
ture. He was judge of the Court
of Common Pleas, 1857–64,
served as colonel of volunteers in
the Civil War, and sat for several
terms in Congress. From 1880 to
1885 he was comptroller of the
currency. His Decisions as comp-
troller were published, 1881–5,
and amon is '# writin
were The ja. of Religious So-
cieties and Church Corporations
(1873) and The Law of Claims
against the Government (1875).
Lawrence, WILLIAM (1850),
American P. E. bishop, grandson
of Amos Lawrence, was born at
Boston, Mass., and graduated
(1871) at Harvard, studying, for
the ministry at the Cambridge

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Law Reports

ing as acting governor. He lived at Newport for the remainder of his life, and busied himself with the collection of a great law library, and the writing of his works on law, of which there are a great number, occasionally ap: pearing in some case of national importance. Lawrenceburg, city, Ind., co. seat of Dearborn co., on the r. bk. of the Ohio R., and on the B. and O. Southwestern and the Cle., Cin., Chi. and St. L. R. Rs., 22 m. w. of Cincinnati. Its chief manufactures are buggies, flour, coffins, steam pumps, staves, beadings, ...P liquors, fireworks, etc. It was first settled in 1802. Pop. (1900) 4,326. Lawrence, St. (d. 258), martyr, one of the deacons at Rome under Sixtus I. During the persecution of Valerian he was called upon to surrender , the church treasures; but instead he o the poor and sick under is charge, declaring that these “were his treasures.’ He suffered martyrdom by burning. His day is August 10. Lawrence, University. An undenominational institution for both sexes at Appleton, Wis., founded in 1847 as Lawrence Institute, the present title being assumed two years later. It comrises an academy, a college of Hol arts, and schools of expression, commerce, music, and correspondence, the last not leading to a degree. It had in 1905 526 students, 31 instructors, and a library of 22,000 volumes, with a property valuation of over $500,000. Lawrenceville School. An important F. school for boys ... at Lawrenceville, N. #: established in 1882 on the John C. Green foundation. It occupies a beautiful tract of 250 acres, with modern _buildings thoroughly equipped. The school is divided into five forms, and all students, except those of the fifth form, iodge and board with mas. ters. The entire income of the school is expended for the benefit of the pupils. In 1905 it had a student body of 400 and 31 instructors. he school maintains a summer camp for needy young boys from the city. Law Reports. Printed reports of judicial decisions collected in volumes and published for the information and guidance of judges and lawyers. In a system of jurisprudence which is developed through the decisions of the courts and in which every recorded decision becomes a precedent which the judges are bound to follow in future cases, it is of the utmost importance that the record of such decisions shall be available for consultation and reference. The common law of Great Britain and Lawson

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the United States is contained in a long series of reports of decided cases, extending from the Year Books of Dyer (1513–82), down to the latest volume of the so-called official reports of an American State. As the reporting of the cases during the greater part of this period, consisted in recording oral opinions from memory or from notes taken by a member of the bar who happened to be in attendance, the earlier English reports are of very unequal value, some of them being almost worthless as evidence of the law. The modern judicial practice of handing down written opio in all important cases and the assumption by the state or the organized bar of the business of law reporting, has completely obviated these imperfections of the system; though the reproduction, in extenso of the written opinions of judges who are restrained by no considerations of time or space is in itself an evil from which the earlier rerts were free. The business of aw Poing continued in private hands in England until 1866, since which time it has been conducted by the Council of Law Reporting, instituted by the bar. In the United States , judicial roceedings are everywhere of#. reported and published by authority of the several states and, in the case of the federa courts, under that of the national government. The preparation of the report , (which consists of a headnote giving the precise point decided in the case, a brief statement of the facts, the opinion or opinions of the court, and, the judgment rendered) is committed to an official reporter, usually appointed by the court, who also collects the cases into a volume, usually in chronological order, and publishes them. It has always been the practice of the courts and the bar to cite reports by the name of the reporter, and these are usually abbreviated in practice (as ‘9 Co.,' meaning the ninth volume of Sir Edward Coke's reports; ‘2 W. Bl.,’ indicating the second volume of Sir William Blackstone's reports, etc.), but it is, since the institution of official reporting, becoming more and common to cite a report by its number in the official series of which it forms a part § “150 U. S.,” “150 N. Y.,' signifying the 150th volume of the reports of the United States Supreme Court and of the reports of the Court of Appeals of the State of New York, respectively). Complete lists of the British and American reports, in the order of their appearance and indicating the manner in which they are cited, may be found in Soule's Reference Manual of Legal Literature (Boston). Lawson, CECIL. GoRDON (1851–

243

82), English landsca painter, born in Shropshire. . He did much of his best work in black and white for the Graphic and other journals, and in 1870 exhibited a view of Cheyne Walk at the Academy, and other works at the Grosvenor Gallery. Paintings by him are in the Manchester, Liverpool, and Tate , Galleries. His principal works have been reproduced in a Memoir by E. W. Gosse (1883). . Lawson, John (?–1712), American historian, was born in Scotland, and sailed to America from Cowes, England, landing at Charleston, § C., in 1700. He travelled extensively, among the Indians of North and South Carolina, and became surveyor-general of the former colony, serving for twelve years. His A New Voyage to Carolina (1709), afterward republished as A istory of Carolina (1714), is an important contribution to colonial history. Lawson was killed by Indians on the Neuse river, N. C. Lawson, THoMAS WILLIAM 1857), American financier, was rn at Charlestown, Mass., and received a public-school education. He began business as a banker and broker in 1870, and, while residing at Boston, took an active art in New York financial afairs, also, acquiring a large fortune... He became a frequent contributor to o and has published The Krank (1887) Secrets of . Success (1888), an Frenzied Finance (1905). Lawson, SIR WILFRID (1829), English statesman and temperance advocate, entered the House of Commons as Liberal representative for Carlisle (1859–65 and 1868–85), for Cockermouth (1886– 1900), and for Camborne Division, Cornwall, since 1903. In March 1864 he first brought in his Permissive Bill, “to enable owners and occupiers of property in certain districts, to prevent the sale of , intoxicating liquors , within such districts.' This cost him his seat. In 1880 he carried his Local Option resolution by a majority of twenty-six. The resolution was also passed in each of the two succeeding years. Sir Wilfrid is considered “the licensed wit’ of the House of Commons, and published in conjunction with F. C. Gould a book entitled Cartoons in Rhyme and Line (1904). Lawsonia, a genus belonging to the order Lythraceae, containing only one species, L. alba, the henna plant. This is a tropical shrub, from whose fragrant white flowers is, prepared the alhenna used in Arabia, and Egypt for whitening the nails. Law Terms. See TERMs of Court. Lawton, th:, Comanche co.,

Lawyer

Okla., on Cache Creek and on Čhi, Rock is and Fac. R. R. 35 m. s. by w. of Anadarko. Pop. 7,000.

Lawton, HENRY WARE (1843– 99), American soldier, was born at Manhattan, Ohio. He entered the army as a private in 1861, served with an Indiana regiment during the Civil War, and was brevetted a colonel of volunteers (1865). In July, 1898, he was advanced to the rank of majorgeneral of volunteers for distinguished gallantry before Atlanta, Ga. (1864). After the war he entered the regular, army as a lieutenant, served with the 41st and then with the 24th Infantry, was transferred to the 4th Cavalry (1871), and was promoted to the rank of major and inspector-general (1888), and then brigadier#. (1898). He served with

istinction against the Sioux and Ute Indians (1879) and captured Geronimo (1886). In the Spanish: American War, he commanded the 2d Div. of the 5th Army Corps, at Santiago. Then he was transferred, to the Philippines, captured Santa Cruz (April 10, 1899), and San Isidro (May 15), and the next month was put in command of Manila. While conducting a campaign against Aguinaldo, he was killed (Dec. 19, 1899) in the battle of San Mateo. He was a fearless and able commander, and his death was universally lamented.

Lawyer. The Roo. term for a member of the legal profession. Specifically a lawyer is a person who has been trained in the principles and practice of the law of the land and licensed by the state or under its authority to conduct legal proceedings for others. Every developed system of law calls for a body of trained experts to administer it and to advise others as to their rights and duties thereunder, and these, owing to their association with each other in the conduct of legal business and their common relation to the courts, tend to become an exclusive profession, admission to which is guarded and regulated by themselves. A code of unwritten rules regulates the relations of lawyers to one, another and to their clients, and a serious infraction of these rules subjects a lawyer to loss of professional standing and, in grave cases, to disbarment or exclusion from the profession. A lawyer, is not permitted by law to disclose any communications from a client without the latter's consent, even though his employment has ceased. He may become liable to a client for negligence in conducting proceedings or for breach of faith. He cannot represent both parties to a controversy, but may serve any number of persons who have

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