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1809, to enable him to ma Marie Louise of Austria. Joséhine died at Malmaison. See ubenas's Histoire de l'Impératrice Joséphine (1859); Marie le Normand's The Historical and Secret Memoirs of the Empress Joséphine (Eng. trans. 1895). l Josephine-Peary, isl., in Inglefield off. Now of Greenland. Josephus, FLAVIUS (37-c. 100 A.D.), i. historian, was a man of high birth, and was sent on a mission to Rome in 63 A.D. ” When the Roman governor left Jerusalem, he accepted the management of , affairs in . Galilee, and defended Jotapata for fortyseven days o Vespasian. Titus interceded for him, and his life was spared; but he was not released from custody until Vespasian was declared emperor in 70 A.D. Thenceforward he attached himself to the imperial family, taking the name Flavius out of respect to them, and living in Rome to the end of his life. His chief works (both written in Greek) are The History of the Jewish War, which gives a brief sketch of Jewish affairs from 170 b.c. to his own day, and a full account of the conquest of Jerusalem; and The Jewish Antiquities, narrating the history of the Jews from the creation to 66 A.D.—the latter part treats more fully what is outlined in the other work; Josephus possesses a clear and pure o, and his descriptions are vivid. . His attitude to Christianity has been much discussed. In one passage, which by many critics is considered spurious, he speaks of esus as the ‘true Christ,’ and as more than man;' but it seems clear he was not a Christian. More probably he was a Pharisee in whom Greek learning and philosophy had inspired a certain indifference to dogma, and a general toleration of all creeds. The best editions are those of Niese 1887–95) and Naber (1888–96). ng. trans. by Shilleto (1889 See Drüner's Untersuchungen ilber Josephus (1897). Joshua ("Jesus,’ Acts 7:45), the son of Nun, according to the book called by his name (see next article), succeeded Moses as the leader of the Israelites, and completed the invasion of , Canaan. After crossing the Jordan from the east he reduced Jericho and (after a reverse) Ai, defeated a large number of native kings, and occupied their territory, afterwards subdividing the land among the tribes of Israel. This is not in accord with Judges 1–2, which represents the conquest as carried through by different aggregations. {; is said to have died at Mt. phraim at the age of one hundred and ten. Joshua, THE Book of, de

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scribing the Israelite conquest of Canaan, is now regarded as the necessary supplement to the Pentateuch, and in critical works the six books are conjoined under the name of Hexateuch (q.v.). The book, was traditionally believed to have been written by Joshua himself, though Calvin abandoned the view. As a matter of fact, the same phenomena of composition as are noticed in Genesis reappear in Joshua, and the same writers . schools)—viz. J, E, D, P, to whom the various strata of the Pentateuch are attributed—are found here. The whole has been edited under Deuteronomic influence at a relatively late date. o have been raised as to the reliability of the narrative, and as to whether Joshua himself is a person or personification. See Joshua, O.T. introductions, and especially yolumes on the Hexateuch, as Wellhausen (1889), Holzinger §§ Batters by-Carpenter, (1900), Briggs's igher Criticism of Hexateuch (1897), Addis's Documents of the Hexateuch (1892); commentaries o Keil §§§ Knobel (1861), Dillmann (1886), Holzinger (1901). Josiah, king of Judah (c. 639– 608 B.C.), the son and successor of Amon, ascended the throne at the age of eight. The Scythian invasion in 630 was interpreted as a divine judgment upon the idolatry of the nation, and , shortly thereafter Josiah, assuming the regal authority, began his campaign of reform. While , the too was being renovated by public subscriptions, the book of the law (Deuteronomy) was discovered by the high priest Hilkiah, and this gave a startling . to the progress of the reforming movement. Idolatry was suppressed by drastic measures, the local sanctuaries were abolished, and the worship was centralized at Jerusalem. A period of peace and prosperity followed, which was broken when osiah attacked Pharaoh-nechoh while on a campaign against Assyria) at Megiddo, where he was defeated and slain. (See 2 Kings 22, 23 and histories of Israel.) Jósika, BARON MIKLós (1796– 1865), Hungarian novelist, was born at Torda in Transylvania, and wrote a series of romances historical and social, based on the model set by Sir Walter Scott. They are serious in intention, though enlivened with occasional touches of humor, and aim at a high moral standard. They achieved great popularity. Chief o; them are Abafi (1836), The Bohemians in Hunary, The Last % the Baithoris 1847). His complete works run to nearly a hundred volumes. Josquin, DEPR£s (1440–1521),


Flemish musical composer, born at Vermaud, St. Quentin. At the invitation of Pope Sixtus IV. he went to Rome, where he remained until the Pope's death (1484). He #. a great impetus to music in o Subsequently he became leading singer in the chapel of Louis XII. of France. A sesection of his works was published by Commer (1877). Jost, ISAAK MARKUs (1793– 1860), Jewish, historian, born at Bernburg in Anhalt, and taught in io school at Frankfort. e is chiefly remembered for his Geschichte der Israeliten 1820–29), which he continued in euere Geschichte der Israeliten von 1815–45 (1846–7). He also published Allgemeine Geschichte des, israelitischen Volkes (1831–2); and edited the Israelitische Anmalen o See Zirndorf's Isaak Markus Jost (1886). Jostedalsbrå. See Norway. Jotun, a legendary being of N. European folklore. In the translations of the Scandinavian Eddas, where the jotuns, figure prominently, their name is usually rendered by “giant.” According to one view, they are purely mythical creations—nature-gods. Others, again, regard them as a real race, their original characteristics, being magnified and distorted by popular fancy. One assage (Saëm, 55a), describes the jotun as a pithecoid creature. Jotunfjelde. See Norway. Joubert, Joseph (1754–1824), French moralist and critic, a native of Montignac (Périgord), became a member of the .#. literary circles of Paris, just before the revolution. After his death Chateaubriand edited a selection of his Pensées, and a fuller, edition was published in 1842 by Paul de Raynal. This was followed by the improved editions of Arnaud Joubert (1850) and Louis de Raynal (1862). Joubert, PETRUs JACQBUS (1834–1900), Boer commandant, was born at Cango in Cape Colony; migrated when young to Natal, later to the Transvaal. He represented Wakkerstroom in the Volksraad from 1863 to 1875, when , he was elected chairman of the Assembly. He was for a time attorney-general of the rol. (1874). He worked with Kruger against the annexation of the Transvaal by Sir T. Shepstone in 1877. When the flag of independence was raised in December 1880, he was appointed one of the triumvirate to whom the government of the country was entrusted. . As commandant-general of the Boer forces he defeated the British at Majuba Hill on Feb. 28, 1881. Joubert , twice unsuccessfully sought the presidency in opposi; tion to Kruger—in 1893 and Jouett

in 1898. On the outbreak of the Boer war (1899–1902) Joubert was again commandant-general, . invested Ladysmith; but illhealth compelled him to return to Pretoria, where he died. Jouett, MATTHEw HARRIs (1788–1827), American artist, the son of a oo:: was born in Mercer co., Ky. He studied law, but found that his interest lay in the direction of art work. After service in the war of 1812, he devoted himself to the study of portrait and miniature painting taking a brief course under Gilbert Stuart. He lived at Lexington, Ky., where and in other parts of the South he painted many portraits of which the best known is that of Lafayette, ordered by the Kentucky legislature. Jouffroy, THéodore - SIMON 1796–1842), French philosopher, rn at Pontets (Jura); became (1833) professor of Greek , and Roman philosophy at the Collège de France. His varied studies were gradually concentrated upon the . y of the Scottish school, and in 1836 he published a translation of Reid's works with a biographical account of the Šoš philosopher... He also published Mélanges Philosophiques (1833; new ed. 1883), Cours de Dror, Naturel (1833– 42), and Cours d'Esthétique (1843). See Life in French by Tissot (1876). Jouffroy d'Abbans, CLAUDE

FRANÇois, MARQUIs DE (1751–

1832), French inventor, was born at Roche-sur-Rognon, dep. HauteMarne. In 1776 he launched upon the Doubs, a , boat the motive power of which was supplied by steam, and in 1783 produced a vessel propelled by paddles, but was unable to float his invention before Fulton produced his steam boat in 1803. See monograph by A. C. J. Prost (1889).

Jougs, jointed collars of iron, by which misdemeanants in Scotland and elsewhere were held captive. culprit's neck being encircled by the jougs, the two free ends of the iron band were slipped over each other and secured by, a padlock. Qn the opposite side, was a movable iron ring fastened into the collar by a small fixed ring, and by this ring the jougs were attached to a stone projecting from a con* part of the churchyard wall.

Joule is the practical electric unit of work; it equals 107 c.G.s. electro-magnetic units of work or ergs, and represents the work done or heat generated by a watt per second, or an ampère flowing through an ohm in a second, or a coulomb. *†: through the P.D. of one volt. Taking Joule's equivalent (see THERMODYNAMICs) as


41.6 x 10" in the C.G.s. system, then the Joule being 107 ergs is the amount of heat required to raise .24 gram water 19 c. See ELECTRICITY, CURRENT. Joule, JAMES PREScott (1818– 89), English physicist, was born at Salford, and became a pupil of Dalton. His first work was on magnetism, particularly as to the magnetizability of iron by electric currents—a research which led to a definition of a Fo unit of current, and to is , discovery that the quantity of heat set free by the passage of a current through a conductor is proportional, to the square of the current. These investigations in their turn paved the way for Joule's great discovery in 1843 of the mechanical equivalent of heat, careful determinations of which, by various methods, occupied his attention during, the reater part of the rest of his ife. Joule was awarded the Royal (1852), and Copley (1860) medals of , the Royal Society. His Scientific, Papers were collected and published (1885–7). Jourdan, EAN BAPTISTE, Count (1762–1833), French military commander, born at Limoges. After service in America (under Count d'Estaing), he was placed at the head of the army of the north, and inflicted upon the Austrians a signal defeat at Wattignies, (1793). In another command he drove them across the Rhine (1794), and besieged Kastel and Mainz (1795). Crossing the Rhine again in 1796, he was defeated at Amberg and Würzburg. Once more, in the field in 1799, he suffered further defeats, owing to his o being immensely outnumbered by that of Austria. He defended himself in the Précis des Opérations de l'Armée du Danube sous les Ordres du Général Jourdan (1799). Napoleon entrusted him with the direction of affairs in Piedmont (1800). He was created a marshal in 1804, and in 1806 was appointed governor of Naples. Journal, the cylindrical supporting parts of a horizontal revolving shaft, frequently made of length about one and a half diameters. In lines of shafting it is often made of length about four diameters. To minimize frictional losses, the journal is made as narrow as is consistent with strength. The journal box is a fixture on which a journal rests and revolves. Journal des Débats, LE, a French journal of moderate reublican opinions, was founded in 1789 to report the proceedings of the National Convention. ; was acquired in 1800 by Louis François Bertin, and conducted by him till his death, in 1841, when the direction passed to his sons,


Amiard and Edouard Bertin. The Débats is one of the most authoritative of the French newspapers. Journal de St. Pétersbourg, LE, is the official organ of the Russian foreign minister. It is a daily paper, and is printed in the French language. It was founded in (1825).

Journalism. Definitions of modern journalism agree in describing it as the business of gathering and publishing current news for periodicals; or, more narrowly, and in deference to the later phases of its development, in limiting that business to the reToo of a daily newspaper. here is room for differences of opinion in regard to unessential features. In the United States jo has progressed along lines freer from interference than in European countries. In colonial days there were a few suppressions of newspapers by arbitrary governors, and after the organization of the Federal Govwo o i." jo çts (q.v.), passe uring the administration of i.e.:*j. Adams, and designed to meet virulent political opposition, imposed certain restrictions on the public press. But these interruptions—for they could be called nothing more serious—were onl o Both before and after the Revolution, popular sentiment , was so overwhelmingly 9pposed to any tampering with the free printed utterances of the ople that no attempt in that direction, was, tolerated. The Jury in Zeno's case (q.v.), in acquitting the defendant, expressed a deep-rooted popular conviction, and President Adams's vigorous measures, though operative only during 1798–1801, aroused a fierce opposition that went far to overthrow the Federalist party. ... Henceforth American journalism, free from an trammels beyond libel laws wiłł have o ly been construed on the side of o of opinion, developed under all the favorable conditions that immense natural resources, an expanding population, and a liberal support of ublic schools could so Beore the building of railways and the perfecting of the power press, its influence was necessarily local, and provincial, though the position of an editor was more powerful than at present. #. nals of that time were influential through the personality of the editor, who was expected and believed to be a man of superior intellect, with , the qualifications of a political leader. Commercialism had not yet absorbed the guiding power of the editorial page. During the moral agitation that resulted in the civil war, the editorial office was most comJoust

manding. Men like Horace Greeley, Thurlow, Weed, and Henry J. Raymond belonged to

an order that existing conditions have made almost impossible. Since about 1875, the unprecedented increase of the means communication, by o telegraph and telephone has largely effaced the old local wercentres of journalism; while the business side of the profession, rigorously organized to compete for advertising, add to the subscribers' list, and sell to the general public, has less regard to ideal claims made in behalf of the press as a director of the public conscience. Some journals struggle against this commercializing tendency, while few will openly admit, that they are carried along with, it; but the eneral fact is indisputable. . It is none the less true that public opinion in this country is more independent and disgriminating than during the first half of the nineteenth century, more, likely to resist *}. o leadership; and doubtless that result is itself due, in large measure, to the educative power of journalism. In the more advanced European countries influences similar to those already noticed have long been at work, and with similar results. See NEwsPAPER. Joust. See TournameNT. Joutel, HENRI (c. 1650–?), a French explorer in America, born at Rouen, France. He was a friend and fellow-townsman of the explorer La Salle, whom he accompanied , on the expedition of 1685–7, which resulted in the establishment of a temporary colony in Texas and finally in La Salle's assassination. During this period |#. was La Salle's most trusted lieutenant; he commanded the fort on Matagorda Bay during La Salle's absences in search of the Mississippi River, and accompanied his leader on his last trip (1686–7). After La Salle's, assassination, Joutel's life was also threatened; but he finally (in July, 1687), after what Parkman calls “one of the most adventurous journeys on record,” reached Montreal by way of the Arkansas, the Mississippi and the Illinois. He immediately returned to France and was seen at Rouen thirty-five years later by o; His Journal his– torique du dernier voyage que feu La $ii. fit dans le % # o: ique (1713), an abstract. of his narrative which was published in full by Margry in his Découvertes et Éiablissements. des. Français (1879), and republished in English by the Caxton Club of Chicago, is the best contemporary narrative of La Salle's last voyage. Jove. See JUPITER. Jovellanos, GASPAR MELCHOR


DE, (1744–1811), Spanish author and statesman. born at Gijon; was for a time resident in É. la d, and a friend of Lord oil. He was a lawyer, minister of justice (1797), and a very prolific writer of political and economic works, greatly esteemed , both for style and matter, and also of verse and etic dramas. El Delincuente onrado and El Pelayo are his principal plays, and oi. Con# is , best-known epic. e translated Young's Night Thoughts and the first canto of Paradise Lost. All his works are ublished in Rivadaneyra's colection (vols. xlvi. and 1.). Jovian, whose full name was Fi Avius ČLKūsus Jovi.ANUs, was emperor of Rome from June, 363, to February, 364 A.D. He was born in 331, and was captain of Julian's life guards on the latter's expedition against the Persians, being elected emperor by the army after lo.' eath in battle. He gan to retreat, and was forced to purchase peace by surrenderin five provinces. When he reache Mesopotamia he, promulgated the famous edict which placed the Christian religion on a legal basis, thus putting an end to Julian's persecution.

Jowett, BENJAMIN §§§ tutor and master of Balliol Co lege, Oxford (1870), exercised a reat influence over the intelectual life of Oxford. He belonged to the Broad ... Church school, and was a contributor to Essays and Reviews (1860). He was appointed regius, professor of Greek in 1855. In addition to his translation of the Dialogues of Plato (4 vols. 1871), he wrote a Commentary on the Epistles of St. Paul to the Thessalonians, Galatians, and Romans (2 vols. 1855); College Sermons (1895); and translations of Thucydides (2 vols. 1881) and of The Politics of Aristotle (1885). See E. Abbott and L. Campbell's #% and Letters 1897–9), and Lionel Tollemache's . Jowett (1895). Joy, CHARLEs ARAD (1823–91), American chemist, was born at Ludlowville, Tompkins co., N.Y., and graduated (1844) at . Union College. He studied for the law, but did not practice, taking up chemistry instead, at the univer: sities of Berlin, Göttingen, and Paris. He was professor of chemistry at Union, College for several years until his appointment §. to the same position at Columbia. He retired, 1877, owing to a sunstroke received at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, where and at several other world’s fairs he was a member of the juries. The latter part of his life was passed in Germany. He contributed many analyses of minerals, to Prof. Dana’s Mineralogy and was an editor of and frequent


contributor to several popular scientific iournals. Joyce, Rob ERT Dw YER (1836– 83), Fish American poet, , was born in co. Limerick, Ireland, and Food in medicine at Queen's ollege, Dublin. He practised as a physician in Dublin, at the same time giving instruction in English literature at the Roman Catholic preparatory school in that city. Dr. Joyce came to the U. S. in 1866, and afterward lived at Boston, where he became well known as a contributor to the Pilot and other Irish-American }. Some of his books are allads, , Romances, and Songs §§ Deirdre (1876), Blanid 1879), besides several volumes in prose.

Joyce's Country. See GALWAY.

J.P., Justice of the Peace. Juan, DoN. See JoBN of AUSTRIA. Juan Fernandez, group of three volcanic islands, on one of which (Más-á-Tierra) Alexander Selkirk was marooned in 1704–9, in the Pacific Ocean, about 380 m. W. of Valparaiso, Chile, to which they belong, Selkirk's adven; tures are said to have suggested Robinson Crusoe to Defoe. It has a few Chilian and German inhabitants. Juan Manuel (1282–1347) randson of Ferdinand III. o Castile, was one of the regents in the minority of Alfonso XI. (1312), and a moving spirit in the civil wars that ensued. He wrote chronicles and treatises, and, best known of all, Libro de los Estados § didactic political narrative). ut his masterpiece is Count Lucanor § trans. 1888), a collection of amusing moral tales or apologies, resembling the Arabian Nights. See Obras in Rivadaneyra's collection, vol. ii., ed. by Gayangos. Juarez, BENITo PABLO (1806– 72), president of Mexico, born of Indian parentage, at Guelatao, in the state of Oajaca, of which he was governor (Í847–52). Forced in 1853 to leave Mexico during Santa, Anna’s ascendency, he returned in 1855 to join Álvarez, became minister of justice (1855) and secretary of the interior an jo (1857), and finall was elected president in 1858. He had to struggle, however, against Miramon, who was recognized as the chief executive by the reactionary, party. At last, Dec., 1860, Miramon was utterly defeated in battle. In the civil war the treasury was exhausted and Juarez's suspension of payment of public debts caused the inter: vention of France, England, and Spain. , A Spanish expedition invaded Mexico in 1861. England and Spain soon withdrew, however, but France engaged in a Juarez-Celman

regular war, the object of which was finally the seating of the Archduke Maximilian of Austria upon the throne of Mexico, converted into an empire. After the entry of the French into the city of Mexico (1863) Juarez retreated to the northern provinces and continued the struggle. At the beginning of 1867, the French forces were withdrawn from

Mexico. Maximilian was besieged by the followers of Juarez e was

in Querétaro, and in * taken prisoner and shot. Juarez retained the presidency until his death. He was a man of few words and of honest purposes. See Bancroft's History of the Pacific States (Mexico). Juare z - Celman, MIGUEL (1844–), South American politician, was born in Cordova, Argentina, and graduated in law (1870) at the Cordova University. As a member of the Libera rty he was elected to the legislature, of his province, of which he became overnor (1880). He served in the national senate, and was elected president of the republic, 1886. is administration was marked by wild speculation and dishonesty on the part of those in charge of public funds, and he was obliged to resign in 1890. Juba, riv., forming from about 6° N. lat. to its mouth the boundary between British and Italian E. Africa. It rises about 7° N. lat. and flows E. and s.E., then s., an empties at 0° 14's. into the Indian Ocean. It is navigable for 140 m. above its mouth, at which is a bar. The Yanana, the Web, and the Daua flow into the Juba. Juba. (1.) King of Numidia from about 61 to 46 B.C. In the civil war between Caesar and Pompey he took the latter's side, and after the battle of Thapsus, which Caesar won, committed suicide. (2.) Son of the above (d. c. 19 A.D.). Caesar took him to Rome as a child. There he gained the favor of Augustus, who in 30 b.c. restored him to his father's throne. In 25 B.C. Numidia was made a Roman province; and Augustus gave Juba the kingdom of Mauritania, in exchange for it. He wrote histories of Africa, of As#: of Arabia, of Rome, of the theatre, of painting, and also works on botany and grammar, all lost. Jubal, the son of Lamech and , was, according to Gen. 4: 21, the inventor of musical instruments. His name is doubtless connected with yobel, a “ram's horn.’ See JUBILEE. Jubaland, prov. of British E. Africa, between Tanaland and Juba R. The N. and w. boundaries are still, undefined. Exports include, shee, gums, senna, ebony, manilla fibre, and ostrich feathers.


Jubbulpore. See JABALPUR. Jubilaté, the , 100th Psalm, which begins with that word in the Vulgate version. It is used as an alternative canticle for the Bénedictus at morning service. Jubilee, the fiftieth anniversary of any important public event, or the fiftieth year of any important institution. The sixtieth anniversary is termed the ‘diamond jubilee.' The word comes from the Hebrew ‘Year of #: which is described in the Holiness Code (Lev. 25, 8–55). As here instituted it recurred at intervals of seven sabbatical years (i.e. 7x7 years), was ushered in by the blowing of the yobel ‘ram’s horn,' and was celebrate with universal rejoicing. Agriculture was brought to a standstill, mortgaged property was restored to its hereditary owners, and slaves of Jewish birth were liberated. There is no evidence that such an institution was ever observed, and some of its provisions seem impracticable. The narrative is probably an elaboration of the law of the Sabbath (cf. the Sabbatical year, Lev. 25, 1-7). In the Roman Catholic Church a jubilee feast was instituted by oniface viii. in 1300, and was intended to recur with every new century thereafter; but the interyal was successively reduced by later popes to fifty, thirty-three, and twenty-five years. or the Year of Jubilee see the commentaries on Levitical and the Hebrew archaeologies; for the pope's ; Lea's History of Auricuar Confession, iii. (1896); Waal's Das heilige Jahr in Rom (1900).

Jubilees, THE Book of, one of the "Öri festament Apocrypha, called also the Little Genesis. The former name is due to the fact that the book divides the whole stretch of time between the creation and the arrival of the Israelites in Canaan into fifty jubilees of forty-nine years each, and describes the various incidents in this period by reference to the particular sabbatic year and # ilee in which it occurred. he other name of the book arises from its being a recast of the narrative given in Genesis, though, while it only gives a selection of the events, its lengthy comments and Midrashic legends actually swell it beyond the compass of the canonical book. Besides attempting to fix the early chronology, more definitely, it seeks to explain the difficulties of the sacred narrative, and lays great emphasis upon religious seasons and observances. The complete book is extant only in an Ethiopic version (found by Dr. Krapff in Abyssinia, and translat by Dillmann in Ewald's Jahrbücher, 1851–3; original published by


Dillmann, 1859), but a considerable portion of a later translation has been issued by Ceriani, and extracts from the Greek version, are found in the Byzantine theologians. . It was probably written in Hebrew c. 125–100 B.C.,' but the Fo translator must also have used the Greek version. See R. H. Charles's translation in Jewish, Quarterly Review (1893– 95), Ethiopic version (4 Mss. collated, 1895), and complete trans: lation with introduction and commentary (o Júcar, riv. of Spain, rises in the Sierra Albarracin, and flows S. and E., through remarkable defiles, and enters the Mediterranean 25 m. s.s.E. of Valencia. Length, 270 m.; area of basin, 7,620 sq. m. Juch, EMMA JoHANNA ANTON (1863), America: singer, was born in Vienna, Austria, while her go; were visiting that city. She was brought as an infant to New York, and received her musical education from her father and from Murio-Celli. Her operatic début was made at Her *i. Grand Italian Opera in 1.ondon (1881) in the part of Felina, in Thomas's Mignon, and she continued there in leading soprano rôles for three seasons. Returning to the U.S., she appeared in concert and operatic performances with great success, and in 1889 organized her own English , opera company with which she toured, the country. She was noted for her singing at festivals and in the Wagnerian drama. Miss Juch was married (1894) to Francis L. Wellman, a rominent member of the New ork bar. J.U.D. (Juris Utriusque Doc: tor), Doctor of Laws—i.e. both of civil and canon law. Judaea, one of the districts into which Palestine was divided in the time of Christ. The captives who returned from Babylon were ...} of the tribe of Judah, and settled largely in the territory of the ancient kingdom of Judah. The name Judaea sometimes connotes Galilee and Samaria as well—i.e. all Palestine west of the Jordan (Luke 23:5; A.V. Jewry). The wilderness of Judaea, or Judah, was the desert tract to the west of the Dead Sea, which is sometimes called Jeshimon in the Authorized Version. Judah, the fourth son of Jacob and the eponymous ancestor of the tribe of the same name. When the Hebrews settled in Canaan as described in the Book of Joshua, the tribe of Judah pressed southwards and established itself in a broad strip of territory to the west of the Dead Sea. It comprised the following four districts: the Hill Country, forming the southern portion of the great cen.

Judah ha-Levi

tral ridge of Palestine; the Shephelah, to the west; the wilderness of Judah, or S.", to the east; and the Negeb, or South Country. The tribe seems to have absorbed large portions of the aboriginal clans. The first king of Israel, Saul, was a Benjamite; but from the accession of David his successor, the ascendency of Judah becomes marked. The revolt of the ten tribes certainly É. her supremacy, in dispute; ut Judah, with only one other tribe, Benjamin, on her side, was able to resist the eastern invaders for more than a century long. than did her northern rival. ISRAEL. Judah ha-Levi (c. 1085—after

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and physician, born at To Spain; was the greatest mediaeval poet who wrote in Hebrew: His poetry, largely adopted in the litof the o, reflects the sufferings as well as the aspirations of his people... He died in the Holy Land while on a pilgrimage there. Heine pays a fine

tribute to him in ontanzero. Editions of his works by Edelmann and Dukes (1851), and Diwan des

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Brody (new, ed., 1901). ina Davis translated some of his ms as Songs of Exile }}}} §. Kaufmann's Jehuda Halevi (1877). Judaizers, those early Christian Jews who maintained that the sole difference between Christians and Jews was the acknowledgment on the part of the former that Jesus , was the Messiah. They desired to force even upon the heathen converts of the new faith the observances of the Mosaic law, and this explains their o hostility towards Paul, who advocated Christianity without observance of the Jewish , forms. . They long dis; uted the position of Paul, raised actions against him in many of the churches, and professed to adhere to the older apostles, especially Peter. See Conybeare and Howson's Life and Epistles of St. Paul (1852), ch. xiii. Judas, “not Iscariot,' one of the o of Jesus (John 14:22) calle so the son (R. V} or brother V.; see JUDE, EPIs. TLE OF) of James (Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13). He is generally identified with Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus in order to harmonize the discrepant list of the twelve apostles. Judas Iscariot, one of the disciples of Jesus, and His betrayer, is believed to have belonged to the village of Kerioth (whence his surname, 'Ish-Kariyoth—i.e. ‘man of Kari oth') now ElKarietein in § Judah. When he came a disciple, he was chosen to carry and administer the funds (John 13:29). He dis

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played a grasping disposition and §§§j esus to the Jewish authorities for thirty pieces of silver. Overcome with remorse at the dreadful outcome of his crime, he committed suicide, of which rash act two discrepant accounts are ño, (Matt. 27:3 f.; Acts 1:18). e Quincey and others have maintained that the dark deed of Judas was dictated solely by the desire to force the hand of Jesus—i.e. to compel Him in self-defence miraculously to substantiate his claim of Messiahship. See Lives of Christ as given under JESUS CHRIST. Daub's Judas Ischariot (1816–18) is a profound and ingenious work founded on the New Testament narrative. Judas Maccabaeus, the deliverer of the Jews from the Syrian oke, in the reign of Antiochus §. was the third son of attathias, the priest who began the revolt. Judas met and routed in succession the Syrian generals Apollonius and Serón (1 Macc. 3), and captured Beth-horon; defeated Ptolemy, Nicanor, and Georgias near Mizpeh, and Lysias at Beth-sur (164 B.C.). He then devoted himself to the purification of the temple at Jerusalem. . He subsequently made successful attacks upon à: neighboring tribes, Edom, Ammon, etc.; but after the death of Antiochus (164) his ood fortune began to desert him. e suffered a i. at BethZacharias; and although he again defeated Nicanor at Ådasa 161), his army, now shrunk in numbers, was crushed by a large force under Bacchides at Elasa, and himself slain (1... Macc. 9). Judas had every gift of , a great general– bodily strength, ready judgment, power of organizing, courage zeal, and, above all, faith—an is to be regarded as one of the most heroic figures in the history of Israel. His career forms the subject of one of Handel's greatest oratorios, Judas Maccabaeus. See 1 Maccabees, and art. MACCABEES.

Judas the Gaulonite, or JUDAs of GALILEE, with a Pharisee named Sadduk, raised a Jewish insurrection, against ‘the taxing’ under the Roman governor ''. rinus (A.D. 6). According to Acts 5:37 he perished and his §. were dispersed; but of. Josephus, Antiquities,...,xviii, vi. 1; xx, v, 2; Jewish War, II, viii, 1; xvii, 8; VII, viii, 1.

Judas Tree, a name sometimes applied to the elder tree, and to various trees belonging to the leguminous genus Cercis, each in turn reported to be the tree on which, Judas hanged himself. The European C. siliquastrum is the species most frequently meant and the name has been transferr to the American representative of the genus Cercis, C. ca.


sis, most common in the Middle States, where it reaches a height of about 50 ft., and a trunk diameter of 1 foot. The pink-purple, papilionaceous flowers appear in profusion before the foliage. Judd, Norman BUEL (1815– 78), American lawyer, politician, and diplomatist, born at Rome, N. Y., where he was admitted to the bar in 1836. , Removing to Chicago o he drafted the first charter of that city (1837), became prominent as a lawyer and took an active part in politics first as a Democrat and afterwards as a Republican. He was a member of the Illinois senate (1844–60), was a delegate to the Republican national conventions of 1856 and 1860, was U. S. minister to Prussia during all the Civil War period (1861–5), was a Republican representative in Congress (1867–71) and was collector of the port o oiew under Pres. Grant (1873–

Judd, OR A N G E (1822–92), American editor and publisher, was born near Niagara Falls, N. Y., and graduate § 7) at Wesleyan University. After some years of work as a teacher he took a course at Yale (1850–3) in analytical and agricultural chemistry, and began to contribute to agricultural papers: Editor of the American riculturalist (1853– 83), of which É. became proprietor in 1856. Mr. |''. was actively engaged in field work with the U. itary Commission during the Civil War. He removed to Chicago, 1883, and there established the Orange, Judd, Farmer and the fo by, which it is published. He founded the Hall of Natural Science, at Wesleyan (1871), which bears his name, an was active as a trustee of the university (1871–81). His writings are contained in the periodi

s which he edited.

Judd, SYLVESTER §§. American author, son of the antiquarian of the same name, was born at Westhampton, Mass., and graduated (1836) at Yale. He was brought up in Orthodox beliefs, but adopted the Unitarian faith, and after completing his course at the Harvard divinity school, was pastor of the Unitarian church at *ś Me., from 1840 until his death. His first creative work was the wellknown novel Margaret, a Tale of the Real and Ideal (1845), an ‘attempt to fill up a gap long left open in Unitarian literature— that of imaginative writings. It represents life in New England under the severe clerical dispensation of the day, and is notable for sympathetic appreciation of the auties of nature. Mr. Judd was prominent as an advocate of temperance, anti-slayery and other reforms. His Philo,

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