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in 730 B.C. Manufactures earthenware, and is a market for wine oil, grain, and cattle. Pop. (1901 17,134. Lentulus, a patrician family of the Cornelian clan, in ancient Rome, of which the best-known member was Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, who was quaestor under Sulla (81 **. (75), and consul (71). e was ejected from the senate (70) for his disgraceful life, and joined the conspiracy of Catiline. When Catisine left Rome (63), Lentulus was head of the conspirators, but was eventually arrested and executed by Cicero. Lenz, JAKoB MICHAEL REINHold (1751–92), German poet formed for a short time one of Goethe's circle at Strassburg and Weimar, but owing to his extremely unconventional behavior was forced to leave Weimar and led a wandering life until his death at Moscow. He was a typical poet of the ‘storm-andstress’ period. , Die Liebe auf dem Lande, addressed to Frederica Brion, stands high among his poems, many of which are dramatic in form. See Stöber's Der Dichter Lenz und Friederike von Sesenheim (1842), and Froitzheim's Lenz und Goethe (1891). Lenz’s Law. See ELECTRICITY, CURRENT. Leo, an ancient constellation and the fifth sign of the Zodiac, to which is affixed the symbol SA. The sun enters it about July 21. The stars in the neck and mane of the asterism form the well

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Leo's pontificate began the promulgation of papal letters and decrees. , Leo I. merits praise for having induced . Attila to spare Rome during his invasion of Italy. He also prevailed on Genseric and the Vandals to exempt the city, from incendiarism, and three old basilicas from jlunder. See Saint-Cheron's istoire du Pontificat de Saint Léon (1846).-LEo III. (795–816) crowned Charlemagne in Rome, and in return was established as temporal sovereign over the Roman states, subject to the suzerainty of the emperor.—LEo Ix. (1048–54) was a native of Alsace, of the name of Bruno, and a relative of the Emperor Conrad II. His first Easter synod enjoined the celibacy of the clergy, and throughout his pontificate he expressed strong convictions adverse to simony and incontinence.— LEO x., Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici (1475–1521), born at Florence, the second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, was elected Pope at thirty-six, (1513). , Cardinal de' Medici, before his accession to the apal chair, showed that he inherited the diplomatic, skill of his father. On o the chair of St. Peter (1513) he showed himself, during the seven years of his oc"Poo a munificent pontiff, if a vacillating and fickle politician. Leo x. made Rome the centre of the world in art and scholarship as well as in religion. See MEDICI; also Roscoe's Life and Pontificate of Leo X. (1806), and Audin's Histoire de Léon X. (1886, -LEo xIII. (1810–1903), son of Count Pecci and 258th Roman pontiff, was born at Carineto. After taking orders, he came o: delegate in succession at Benevento, Perugia, and Spoleto; archbishop of Perugia 1846); cardinal (1853); Cardinal amerlengo (1857); and finally, on the death of Pius Ix. (1877), was chosen Pope (1878). He showed himself a pontiff of enlightened views, while his foreign policy was characterized by foresight and moderation. e restored the hierarchy to Scotland, settled the o difficulty with Germany, and, though allowin É. liberty of action to the Iris ishops, denounced in general terms the methods of the ‘plan of campaign' in Ireland (1888). man of wide culture, he wrote Latin verse of a high order; while in his encyclicals he strongly upheld the supreme power and influence of the papacy. See Lives § Bartier (1892), Norbert (1894), 'Carthy (1896), and Des Houx (1900). Leo I., FLAv1Us (400–474), Byzantine emperor, native of Thrace, was the first emperor of Constantinople crowned by a

Leo Minor

bishop. He defeated the Huns in Dacia, but while on an exo to reconquer Africa, his eet was destroyed by the Vandals off the coast of Carthage. Leo III. (c. 680–741), called “The Isaurian,' emperor of Constantinople. He obtained a great victory over, the Saracens, who had besieged Constantinople for two years (718–719). Leo is best remembered by his strife against the iconoclasts or image-breakers. In 734 he transferred Greece, Macedonia, and Illyria to the patriarchate , of Constantinople,

thus initiating the separation between the Greek and Roman churches. See Gibbon's Decline and Fall. Leo, LEONARDO (c. 1694–1746), Italian composer, studied at Naples and Rome, returning in

1717 to the former city to become choirmaster and director of the musical school of San Onofrio. Among his works are the oratorios Santa Elena and La Morte d'Abele, and the operas Sojonisbe, Olimpiade, La Clemenza di Tito, and Achille in Sciro; while his sacred music includes his celebrated Miserere. Leo Africanus, Berber traveller and geographer, who, toward the end of the 15th ceno travelled through W. Asia and N. and Central Africa. While returning by sea from #P. he was seized by pirates and sent to Rome, where he became a Christian. His account of his travels, written in Italian and published by Ramusio (1550) was for long the chief source o information on the Sudan. Leoben, th:, prov. Styria, Austria, 27 m. N.N.w.. of 8. with a mining academy. There are lignite mines and iron works in the vicinity. ... Here were signed in 1797 the preliminaries of peace between Austria and France embodied in the treaty of Campo Formio. Pop. so 10,204. Leobschütz, tr., in Silesia, Prussia, on the Zinna, 20 m. N.N.w.. of Ratibor. Manufactures woollen goods, glass, and machinery. Pop. (1900) 12,627. Leochares , (fl. 352–338 B.C.), famous Greek, sculptor of the later classic school. and a contoo. of Scopas and Praxiteles. e was o by Philip II. to execute the portrait statues of himself, Alexander, Amyntas, Olympias, and Eurydice, placed in the Philippeum at Olympia. A copy of his masterpiece, Ganyme carried off { the Eagle of Zeus, is in the atican at Rome. See Murray's Hist. of Greek Sculpture (1890) and Gardner's Handbook of Greek Sculpture (1896). Leo Minor, a small constellation between Leo and Ursa Major, formed by Hevelius Leominster


(1690). The chief star, 46 Leonis Minoris, is of the fourth magnitude and of solar type. Leominster. (1.) Tn., Worcester co., Mass., on the Bost. and Me... and on the N. Y., N. H., and H. R. Rs., 40 m. N.w.. of Boston. It is an important industrial town, its manufactures including pianos, piano cases, combs (over 30 fac$ories), paper, jewelry, furniture, toys, woollen goods, etc. The philanthropic institutions include an Old Ladies' Home. It has a fine park and a public library of .# 20,000 volumes. The town was incorporated in 1740. . Pop, (1905) 14,297. (2.) Municipal bor., (anc. Leojminstre) Herefordshire, England, 12% m. N. of Hereford. #. parish church is in part Norman, and formerly belonged to a priory. The history of the town begins in 658, when a convent was established by Merewald, king of Mercia. Implement works, and trade in cider and hops. Pop. (1901) 5,826. See Townsend's Leominster. Leon. (1.) Province in N.W. of Spain, intersected by the Douro and the Minho. It is mountainous in the N. and w., and covers an area of 5,936 sq. m. Agriculture is important, wheat, rye, oats, barley, and maize to: largely cultivated. Cattle, mules, coal, iron, and leather are among the chief exports. Pop. (1900) 386,083. The kingdom of Leon was founded in 915, when Garcia, son of Alfonso 111. became king. It suffered much from Moorish attacks and from internal feuds until the vigorous reign of Alfonso v. From 1037 to 1157 it formed part of Castile. After the latter date there was bitter strife between Leon and Castile till 1230, when Ferdinand III. Hono united his father Alfonso Ix.'s kingdom of Leon with his mother Berengaria's kingdom of Castile. (2.) Capital of above prov., 77 m. N.w.. of Palencia, lies on a fertile plain between the Bernesga and the Tario; has a fine Gothic cathedral dating from the 13th century. The celebrated church of St. Isidore is of Byzantine architecture. In Roman times Leon was the country of the Seventh Legion. Parts of the Roman wall still exist. Pop. (1900) 17,022. (3.) Largest th: of i. Central America, and formerly cap. of the state, 35 m. x.w.. of Managua; stands on a fine plain near the Pacific Coast, and is surrounded by plantations. Pop. 45,000. (4.) #.. state of Guanajuato, Mexico. Copper and silver are worked in the neighborhood, and leather is manufactured. Alt. 5,865 ft. Pop. 63,263. (5.) Pueb., in Iloilo prov., Panay, Philippines, 15 m. N.w.. of Iloilo. Pop. (1903) 10,277. (6.) IsLA DE, flat, sandy, and marshy

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isl. (10 m. by 2 m.), on the sw. coast of Spain, between the Bay of Cadiz and the Atlantic. (7. Prov., Ecuador, centrally situate in the Andes. Cotopaxi (q.v.) is on the N. boundary. Area, 2,595; Pop. (1902) 109,000. (8.) City, a., co. seat of Decatur co., on two branches of the Chi., Burl. and Quin. R. R., 60 m. s. of Des Moines. It is situated in an agricultural region, and has extensive dairy and poultry interests. The city has a Carnegie Library. The first settlement here was made in 1851. o (1905) 2,027. Leon, FRAY LUIS DE. Ponce DE LEoN. Leonardo da Vinci (1452– 1519), Italian painter, head of the Umbrian Lombard School, one of the most remarkable and manysided intellects of the middle ages, appropriately named “the aust of the renaissance.’ He was painter, sculptor, architect, musician, poet, engineer, mathe


matician, and ilosopher, as also the great rival of Michael Angelo. Records of his early life

are scanty. The illegitimate son of a peasant woman and a Florentine notary, he was educated in Fiorence, where he studied painting under Verrocchio. ... His unfinished Adoration of the Kings and his Medusa's Head belong to his, Florentine period; and to his Milanese period are ascribed his most celebrated productions, the two versions of 8. Lady of the Rocks (Louvre and National Gallery), and The Last Supper

(Milan). He also founded an academy of arts, for which he wrote Notes for a Treatise on Painting. Owing to the French

occupation of Milan (1499) Leonardo returned to Florence, and was commissioned, with Michael Angelo, to decorate the council half of the Signoria—paintings subsequently destroyed. The famous Mona Lisa, in the Louvre, was painted in, 1504. For ten 3. (1506-16) he spent his time etween , Florence, Rome, and Milan; also painted his St. Anne and St. John the Baptist, now in the Louvre. Thereafter he accompanied, Francis I. to France, and died three years later in the Château de Cloux, Amboise. A man of extraordinary physical beauty and of physical strength, his endless invention, his curiosity in science, and his ceaseless quest after the ideal and the marvellous are reasons for the small number of pictures finished by him. Of these, the Last Supper is practically destroyed through his experimentation with oil methods. ut he created a symbolical type of ideal female beauty, subtle, enigmatic, with the mysterious smile that has haunted and perplexed his students of succeeding generations.

Leonid Meteors

Da Vinci's influence through his numerous important pupils, has been potent; and many of his seat works can be studied in the ffizi, in Turin, in the Ambrosiana at Milan, in the Louvre, in S. Kensington Museum, and in the royal collection at windsor. See Brown's The Life of Leonardo da Vinci (1828), Rio's Léonard de Vinci et son Ecole (1855), Heaton and Black's Léonardo da Vinci, and his Works (1873). Houssaye's Histoire de Léonard de Vinci (1876), Richter's Literary Works g eonardo da Vinci o and Seailles's Léonard de inci, l'Artiste et le Savant (1892). Leonforte, walled tn. in Catania prov., Sicily, Italy, 49 m. W. by N. of Catania; trades in sulphur, cattle, wine, and oil. From the town N.w. through the mountains to Termini Imerese is a highway, 63 m. long, the mediaeval route of raiding Arabs from Palermo into the interior. Pop. 19,751. Leoni, LEONE (1509–90),Italian sculptor, goldsmith, and medallist, was born at Arezzo. Through the influence of Ferrante Gonzaga he entered the service of the Emperor Charles v., and remained attached to the imperial household during the remainder of his life. Statues of Charles v. and the queen of Hungary are at Madrid, and other examples of his work are in the Museo del Prado, Madrid, in the Louvre, and at Vienna. Leonidas, in ancient Greek history, the famous Spartan who commanded and died at Thermopylae. He was king at Sparta (491–480 B.C.), in , which latter fear he went to hold the pass of hermopylae against the forces of Xerxes, with only 300 Spartans and 5,000 allies. For two days leonidas and his soldiers held the pass against the flower of the Persian army; but the next night a traitor showed the Persians a path over the mountains, which enabled them to attack the Greeks in the rear. They fell to a man. Leonid Meteors, a swarm of minute bodies revolving round the sun in 33} years, and crossing the earth's orbit at the point traversed by it about November 15. Hence arises a periodical shower of falling stars, called Leonids, because they appear to diverge from a small sky area near & Leonis. The position of the “raidant’ in: dicates the trend of their parallel tracks, and is merely their perspective vanishing point. e Leonids are characterized % their swiftness, their greenis tint, and their persistent trains. Being retrograde travellers, they meet us with a velocity of fortyfour miles a second. The first

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Leonine Verse

authentic notice of a Leonid display was in 902, brilliant recurrences being observed in 1202 and 1366, in 1799 by Humboldt at Cumana, and universally on Nov. 12, 1833. The periodicity of the phenomenon was then recognized, and the prediction of its conspicuous visibility on Nov. 13, iS66, obtained full verification. Its retardation by about three days in each century depends upón the progression of #. node resulting from perturbative planetary action. , Planetary disturbance, too, doubtless occasioned the failure of the expected meteors on Nov. 15, 1890; for the main y of Leonids, having swerved aside, may never again encounter the earth. These meteors follow in the wake of Tempel's comet of 1866, and, according to Leverrier, were #. introduced with it into the solar system through the influence of Uranus, 126 A.D., when comet and meteors presumably formed one compact mass. At present Leonid stragglers are dis round the entire orbit, and the denser portion of the swarm is distributed over a section of it measured by hundreds of millions of miles. Leonine. Verse, a popular mediaeval form of Latin verse, in which the syllables immediately Fo the caesura of a line rhyme with the final syllables—e.g.:

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The origin of the term is attributed to Leoninus, canon of St. Victor's, Paris (circa 1150), as also to Pope Leo II. For an account of rhyme in classical Latin, see Munro's Lucretius, preface to notes. Leonnatus, a Macedonian of Pella, and one of the principal officers of Alexander the Great, having, previously served as one of the bodyguards of Philip. In 327 he helped Peucestes to save Alexander's life in battle. For this and for other services Alexander presented him with a golden crown at Susa in 325 B.C. After Alexander's death he was made satrap of Lower Phrygia. He


fell in battle while attempting the relief of Antipater, who was blockaded at Lamia in Thessaly by the revolted Greeks. Leonotis, a genus of shrubs and herbs belonging to the order Labiatae, natives of tropical or subtropical regions. They are characterized by dentate leaves and by sho red or yellow sessile flowers. The most valuable species is L. Leonurus, or lion's tail, a hairy shrub from S. Africa, with whorls of long scarlet flowers in winter. Another good species is L. nepetaefolia, which bears orange-colored flowers in autumn. Propagation is easy by means of cuttings taken in spring. Leon Pinelo, ANTONIO DE (c. , 1590–1675), Spanish lawyer and author, born at Cordoba, Argentina. fleon Pineio was judge of the tribunal of the Casa de Contratacion at Seville, and was appointed royal historiographer (1637). His most important works are the colonial code. Recohilación general de las Łeyes de las Indias (finished in 1635 made authoritative by royal command in 1680), and Biblioteca Oriental y Qccidental, náutica y geográfica (1629), the first bibliography of the Spanish colonies. Leontini. See LENTINI. Leontodon, a genus of composite-flowering plants with dentately-lobed , leaves, the lobes inting backward, an involucre imbricated with scales, a flattened fruit with a long beak, and a hair white pappus. The flowers are all strap-shaped, and the flower-stalk is hollow and smooth, with a single flower-head on its summit. e leaves are radicle. The fall dandelion, L. autumnale is a member of this genus. Leon to podium, or LION's Foot, a genus of herbaceous lants belonging to , the order §osi. They bear dense es of flowers at the summits of the branches, and all are hairy or woolly plants. . The most interesting species is L.; alpinum, the edelweiss, a well-known Alpine plant, frequently cultivated in gardens. It is a dwarf plant, and bears its flowers in summer. Leopard £o pardus), a carnivore closely allied to the lion and the tiger, but differing in its inferior size, and in the fact that its tawny coat is covered with dark spots, formed by an incomlete ring of black enclosing a É.it central patch. In addition to this oft tly-colored form there exists also the black leopard or panther, formerly regarded as a distinct species, but now proved to be merely a variety. Leopards occur throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, in Persia Palestine, Syria, Arabia, and Africa; whiić formerly their distribution was even more extensive. They are


yery active animals, and differ from lions and tigers in that they habitually climb trees. The total length, iiicluding the tail, is sometimes as much as eight feet. . In India the leopard preys chiefly on dogs and on various kinds of monkeys; , but it is capable of killing a bullock or the samber


deer. The litters consist of from two to four cubs, which in India are born in spring. ... Leopards chiefly inhabit rocky hills covered with scrub, and in the neighborhood of villages are often a dreadful scourge to herds and flocks and sometimes become habitual man-eaters. See Baker Wild Beasts and ... their Ways (1898); Ingersoll, Life % Mammals (1906).

Leopardi, QUNT GIAcomo (1798–1837), Italian writer, born at Recanati, of a noble but impoverished lo was a cripple through life. e devoted his youth to a close study of the classics and became one of the most brilliant scholars of the day, while all his earlier work is thoroughly imbued with a classical sense of . form. Unhappy at home, he left it in 1822, and led a wretched and penurious life at Rome, Milan, Bologna, Florence, and Pisa.” fate; he'found a. refuge in the house of Antonio Ranieri at Naples, where he died. Leopardi's pessimism is justified by his physical sufferings and by the circumstances of his life.

he poems of his first period (1819–26), consisting of the Idilli and the first ten canzoni, are freer in their style, though still bound by classical form. The canti of the second period (1826– 36) represent the struggle between the poet's pessimism and his lost j. In the Paralipomeni della Batracomiomachia he satirizes the political and other *Hi!. tions of contemporary Italy. His prose is no less admirable than his verse. The Epistolario, in which Leopardi reveals his innermost self, is a most valuable and touching human document. Ranieri collected Leopardi’s works in six volumes (1845–9), and afterward published his Sette anni di sodalizio con G. soft (1880). The best editions of the poems are those of Chiarini, (1886) and Mestica (1886); while Straccali wrote a g commentary on

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Leopold II., King of the Belgians.

Francis I. and, Maria. Theresa, became grand-duke of Tuscany | 765), and succeeded his brother, oseph II., as or (1 7% In 1792 he concluded an alliance with Prussia for the restoration of Louis, xvi. of France, but died ust as hostilities were about to gln.

Leopold I., GEORGE CHRISTIAN FREDERIC (1790–1865), king of the Belgians, son of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg. At an early age Prince, Leopold took service with Russia, and in 1813 fought against Napoleon at LütZen, Bautzen, and Leipzig, and entered Paris with the allied soverPrince Leopold visited England in 1815, and the following year married the Princess


Charlotte, o: of George Iv.,

was naturalized, created Duke of Kendal, and made a general in the British army. The princess died in 1817. In 1830 he declined the crown of Greece, and in 1831 he was elected first king of the Belgians; In 1832 he married. Louise, daughter of Louis Philippe. He bore the title “Juge de Paix de l'Europe’ for his good offices as unmpire in international disputes. Leopold II., Louis PHILIPPE MARIE VICTOR (1835–1909), king of the Belgians, was born at Brussels, and succeeded his father, Leopold 1., Dec. 10, 1865. He was the virtual o of the Congo Free State with its thirty millions of people and immense resources. He set apart for himself the Crown Domain, more than ten times the size of Belgium, and accumulated a fortune estimated at $50,000,000 at his death. Reports of atrocities committed upon the natives of the Congo under his administration aroused the protest of the whole civilized world during the last years of his reign, but they remained unanswered. At his death, these charges and indignant ...condemnation of , his private life completely overshadowed the many improved conditions that he had established in Belgium, especially among the industrial classes. In 1853 he married the Archduchess Marie Henriette Anne of Austria, and by her had four children—the Duke of Brabant (d. in 1869), Princess Louise (m. 1875 to Prince Philip of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha), Princess Stephanie (m. in 1881, to Archduke Rudolf, who died in 1889 and in 1900 to Count Lonyay), and Princess Clementine (b. 1872). The Queen of the Belgians died on Sept. 19, 1902. See MacDonnell's King Leopold II.: his Rule in Belgium and the Congo (1905). Leopold, KARL GUSTAF (1756– 1829), Swedish poet, was born at Štockholm, in 1786 he became literary assistant to Gustavus III. and in 1788 his private secretary, and an academician. His tragedies Odin and Virginia excited much admiration in his time. See his Poetiska Skriften (1873). Leopoldville, trading station in the Soo Free State, W. Africa, on 1. bk. of the Congo, at the cntrance to Stanley Pool. Beyond it the river is open for navigation for 1,000 m. There is a government organized transport service of thirty steamers for the Upper Congo trade. Seaward the river's course is beset with cataracts, and a railway (250 m.) has been constructed tween Matadi and Leopoldville. Leosthenes, an Athenian who commanded the confederate Greeks in the Lamian war (322 B.C.), and fell in battle before

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