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Leotychides

Lamia while besieging Antipater in that town. Leotychides, king of Sparta, reigned from 491 to 469 B.C. He commanded the Greek fleet against the Persians, and won the battle of Mycale (479). Leovigild, Löwenheld (d. 586), king of the Visigoths, in Spain from 569. In his reign the Vandals and Byzantines who occupied Andalusia were sub...' Arianism was maintained by Leovigild, in spite of the revolt of his son Herménégilde and the intervention of France; but ultimately the heresy was van; quished, and š. was reunited to the Roman Church under Gregory the Great in 590 A.D. See Bradley's Story '''. Goths (1888). Lepage. See BASTIEN-LEPAGE: Lepanthes, a genus of tropical epiphytal orchids, of which the o Fia. L. sanguinea, with red flowers, and the New Granada L. calodictyon, with small orange and red flowers, are the bestknown species. Lepan to (anc. Naupactus), seapt. of Greece, on the N. shore of the entrance to the Gulf of Leanto, 11% m. N.E. of Patras. The §. of LEPANTo, 1 m. wide, is the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth, and is defended by a castle on either side. Here, on Oct. 7, 1571, Don John of Austria, commanding the allied fleet of Austria, the Italian States, and Spain, encountered a powerful Turkish fleet under Ali Pasha, which he solo defeated, thereby releasing , about 15,000, Christian galley slaves. It is the practice of both Spain and Italy, to name ships of war in honor of the victory. For the Gulf, see CoRINTH. Lepanto-Bontoc, prov, Luzón, Philippines, in N. central region. Area, 1,232 sq. m. , The contour of the E. portion is broken by the main range of the Cordillera Central, the * of which extend into the middle of the province. Lofty peaks, measuring 4,000, 5,000 and 6,000 ft., rise on the w: boundary, which is formed by a range of the Caraballos Occidentales. The inhabitants are scattered and the communications poor. Rice, tobacco, sugar cane corn, and vegetables are the chie crops. Copper of high quality is abundant. Cervantes, the capital, is 260 m. N., of Manila. Pop. (1903) civilized, 2,467; wild, 70,283. Lepchas, people of Tibetan stock inhabiting Sikkim, Bhutan, and part of E. #. and consisting of two branches, which they §esignate. Róng and . Khamba. Their religion is Lamaism. See Von Schlagintweit's Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia (1863); Rowney's Wild Tribes of India (1882); Donaldson's In Lepcha Land (1900).

283

Lepidodendron is the generic name of a large and important group of plants, which flourished opally in the Carboniferous period. . The outer surface of the bark is marked by lozengeshaped, scale-like markings, the leaf-cushions. hese are arranged in dense spirals, which wind around the stems. Often the narrow and pointed leaves are found still adherent; they may also carry cones (lepidos:

Portion of Lepidodendron.

trobi), which in form somewhat resemble those of the fir. The branches usually fork repeatedly, and were implanted on, a massive stem which had a similar external sculpture. Some of these stems have been seen in the roofs of coal-workings with a length of a hundred feet. Their roots are enerally known as stigmaria. #. Lépidodendra belonged to the Lycopodiaceae, and have their nearest representatives in the diminutive club-mosses, which they resemble even in their superficial characters. See Solms-Laubach's Fossil Botany (1891).

Lepidoptera (lepis, ‘scale;’ pteron, “wing'), an order of insects which includes the butterflies and moths, and is marked by the solo; characteristics:–There are four pairs of wings, and both they and the body are covered with scales, frequently, bright - colored, which on the body may resemble hairs in appearance. The imago, or

rfect insect, is devoid of biting jaws, and usually possesses a long protrusible proboscis. The meta: morphosis is well marked, and the larva (caterpillar) has powerful jaws, and is almost invariably vegetarian in diet. In the pupa stage the appendages are usually cemented to the body, which is invested by a continuous horny skin ol. and reo by a cocoon in addition. See BUTTERFLIES, MoTHs, CATERPILLAR, and INSECTs.

Lepontine Alps

Lepidosiren, or c of the three living genera of Dipnoi; it is S. American. See DIPNOI. . Lepidus, the name of a distinguished family of the AEmilian clan in ancient Rome, co, patrician rank. Its most famous members were: — (1.) MARCUs AEMILIUS LEPIDUs, who was praetor in Sicily (81 B.C.), and consul (78 B.C.), as representing the popular faction, with Catulus as a colleague. , Subsequently the senate ordered Lepidus to retire to his province *"...h. Gaul; but he remained in Etruria, collected an army, and marched on Rome. He was defeated in the Campus Martius by Pompey and Catulus. (2.) MARCUs AEMILIUS LEPIDUs, one of the triumvirs with Augustus and Antony, a son of the above, was prietor (49 B.C.), and took Caesar's side against Pompey. He was consul #. B.C.), and was governor of Gallia Narbonensis and Hispania Citerior (44 B.C.). At the time of Caesar's death he was near Rome, and aided Antony, afterwards becoming pontifex maximus. . In 43 B.C., Antony, after his defeat at Mutina, took refuge with Lepidus, when they together crossed the Alps at the head of a strong army, and were joined by Octavian (Augustus), whom the senate of to oppose them. In October of that year, they formed the second triumvirate. After the battle of Philippi (42 B.C.), he received the government of Africa, and remained there until 36 B.C., when Augustus called him to Sicily to help in the war against Sextus Pompeius. pidus came, but tried to secure Sicily for himself. Augustus easily subdued him, and deprived him of his triumvirate, his army, and his province, but allowed him to retain the pontificate, and to live in retirement at Circeii, where he died (13 B.C.). Le Play, PIERRE GUILLAUME FR£DÉRIC (1806–82), French economist, was born at La Rivière Saint Sauveur in the Calvados. Napoleon III. appointed him to organize the exhibition of 1855; e was also prominently connected with the London Exhibition of 1862, and the Paris Exhibition of 1867. In 1881 he commenced the publication of Lu Réforme Sociale, a fortnightly journal. He is regarded in France as the founder of social economy; and on this subject he has published La Réforme Sociale en France (1864), L'Organisation du Travail (1870); Eng. trans. by Emerson (1872), La Constitution Essentielle de l'Humanité (1881), and Higgs's article in vol. iv. Quarterly }o of Economics (1890). Lepontine Alps, the name of

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Leprosy

that portion of the main chain
of the Alps included between the
Simplon Pass on the w. and the
Splügen Pass on the E. In the E:
half (Adula Alps) are included all
the various sources of the Rhine;
the hills round the Italian lakes
form part of this range. See
Conway and Coolidge's Climbers,
Guide to the Lepontine Alps (1892),
and Guide to the Adula Alps
(1893).
Leprosy, (Gr. lepros, “scaly:
or ‘rough’) is a disease caused
by the bacillus leprae, and char-
acterized by nodules or tubercles
on the skin, or by anaesthetic
changes in the nerves. Leprosy
is very widely spread, and at one
time was common in Europe, but

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Kaltwasser Pass.
Helsenhorn ..
Geisspfad Pass
Albrun Pass... .
Ofenhorn . . .
Hohsand Pass,
Blindenhorn..... ----

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it is found in any quantity o in France, Russia, Norway and § y some authorities it is believed to be communicated by $o while others favor the view that a fish diet has some influence in creating a susceptibility to the disease. Clinically two forms of leprosy are recognized —(1) the tubercular, and (2) the anaesthetic. In the former, the tubercles are composed of masses of cells which vary in size and are embedded in connective tissue. Around and in the cells are great numbers of the bacilli leprae. The skin becomes covered with the outgrowths, and is subject to ulceration between them. Considerable deformity is pro

Ft.

6,595 10. Mt. Basodino. Gries Pass.... 9,351 12. Nufenen Pass .. 10,742 13. Pizzo Rotondo 8.120 14. Cavanna Pass.. 7,907 15. St. Gothard Pass '%. 16. Pizzo Centrale.

11.10: 18. Unteralp

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The Lepontine Alps. Name. Ft. No. Name. Ft. No. Name. Ft. ... 10,749 19. Pizzo Campo Tencia. 10,089 28. of---------- 6,945 . 8,098 20. Uomo Pass......... ,258 29 Mt. Sistella. 9,450 . 8,006 21. Lukmanier Pass. 30. Sonnenhorn 9,144 .10,489 22, Pizzo Medel 31. Bortelhorn. 10,482 . 8,566 23. Lentalucke Pa; 32. Mt. Giove .. 9,872 6,936 24. Rheinwaldhorn 33. Pizzo Cristalli 9,547 . 9,853 25. Walserberg 8,225 34. Mt. Cramalina... 7,612 17. Six Madun Badus .... 9,619 26. San Bernardino Pass. 6,770 35. Mt. Zucchero.. 8,980 Pass........ 8,301 27. Pizzo Tambo......... 10,749 36. Weisshorn............ 9,990 37. Pizzo Aul.............. 10,250

fests itself first by pains in the
limbs, which are soon succeeded
by numbness or by absolute loss
of sensation. The nutrition of
the tissues suffers severely, and is
shown by the formation of bullae
and spots, which later may break
down into deep, necrotic ulcers.
The course of this form of the
disease is very slow. . No remedy
is as yet known for leprosy, but
general tonics and antiseptic
treatment of such local mani-
festations, as ulceration may
mitigate the patient's sufferings.
Isolation, cleanliness, and meas-
ures of sanitation are of use as
Fol. The celebrated
#. ... settlement, at , Molokai,
Hawaii, is described by R. L.

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et Oscar (1841). In 1842 he was
charged with the Prussian scien-
tific mission to Egypt and Nubia;
the result of his researches ap-
peared in Denkmäler aus AEgyp-
ten und . AEthiopien (1849–60).
Appointed professor in Berlin
(1846), he led the way to a fuller
scientific knowledge of Egyptian
history with his Šio der
AEgypter (1849) and Ueber den
ersten Ægyptischen Götterkreis
§: He wrote numerous other
hilological works; was a mem-
ber of the Royal Academy, and
a director of the Egyptian section
of the Royal Museum. See Ebers's
Richard Lepsius, ein Lebensbild
(1855; Eng. trans, 1887).
Leptis. (1.) MAGNA, or NEAP-

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Leptospermum

olis, the modern Lebda, seapt., N. coast of Tripoli, Africa. It was a Phoenician colony, and ssessed a flourishing commerce. 2.) L. MINOR, city in N. Africa, a little N. of the ancient Thapsus in Tunis. It was a Phoenician colony. See Davis's Ruined Cities within Numidian and Carthaginian Territories (1862). Hoopoo. a genus of half-hardy shrubs, order Myrtaceae, natives of Australasia. They have small, hard leaves, and bear white flowers. The leaves of L. lanigerum were used by the early settlers in Tasmania as a substitute for tea leaves. Lepus, an ancient constellation situated beneath the feet of Orion. a Leporis, called by the Arabs Arneb (the “Hare’), is of 2.7 magnitude, and of an advanced Sirian type. . Hind's ‘crimson star, R. Leporis, varies from 6.0 to 8.5 magnitude in 436 days, and gives a spectrum marked by carbon absorption. Le Queux, WILLIAM (1864), English novelist, born in London; educated, in London, and Italy, and studied art, in Paris. On his return to London he became editor of Gossip and Piccadilly, and sub-editor of The Globe (1891–3). Among his numerous novels are Strange Tales #; Nihilist (1890); The Great hite Queen §: The Day of Temptation 1897); England's Peril (1899); , The Tickencote Treasure (1902); Secrets of the Foreign Office (1903); The Mask (1904); The Czar's Spy (1905); Confessions of a , Ladies. Man 1905); Who Giveth this Woman? §: and A Spider's Eye (1905). Lercara, th: in Palermo prov., Sicily, Italy, 28 m. s.S.E. of Palermo; has sulphur mines. Pop. 14,000. Lerdo de Tejada, SEBASTIAN (1825–89), a president of Mexico, was born at o: He had the rtfolio of foreign affairs for a ew months (1857) under President Comonfort, but resigned because of his sympathy with the new Liberal movement. As a member of Congress in 1861–62, he %. the treaty *i. the English debt, on the groun that such measures should not become operative, until they had received the sanction of Congress. Under President Juarez (1862– 63), however, he favored vesting the executive with extraordinary É. because of the impending rench invasion, and advised him to extend his term (expiring in 1865) until the forthcoming constitutional elections. He declined to intercede with Juarez for Maximilian; in 1867 was minister of foreign relations and then chief justice of the supreme court, by virtue of which office he became president upon the death of

285

Juarez (July 18, 1872), and in Nov. of that year was formally elected, taking office Dec. 1. is candidacy for , re-election in , 1876 brought about the revolution of that year. ... He was declared reelected by Congress (ś 26), but José Maria Iglesias, chief justice of the supreme court, decided that the election had been irregular, and , proclaimed himself provisional president. The government forces were defeated Diaz, at Tecoac (Nov. 16), and Lerdo and his ministers were captured and held for ransom by the bandit, Huato, a supporter of Diaz. After his release, Lerdo made his way to N.Y. City, where he afterward lived in retirement. Lérida. (1.) Province, Spain, in s., part of principality of Catalonia. Watered by the Ebro and its tributaries, it is a pros: perous and advanced agricultural country. There are 324 townships. Area, about 4,770 #. m.; pop. 300,000. (2.) (Anc. Ilerda), cap. of above prov., on the Segre R., trib. of the Ebro, 80 m. w. of Barcelona, on the railway to Saragossa. The city contains a 13th-century cathedral, built in a strange mixture of the Byzantine Gothic, and Moorish styles, an the 12th-century church of San Juan.... Manufactures wool, cotton, silk, leather, and glass. Pop. (1900) 21,352. Lérins, ILES DE, group of isls. in the Mediterranean, about 2 m. off the s. coast of dep. Alpes-Maritimes, France, comprising SainteMarguerite, Saint-Honorat, and other smaller islands. In the fort of Sainte-Marguerite Bazaine, the French commander who surrendered at Metz, was imprisoned. Lerma, Rio DE. See MExico. Lerma, tm., state of Mexico, Mexico, 40 m. S.W. of Mexico city. Pop. 7,200. Ílermontoff, MIKHAIL YUREvitch (1814–41), Russian poet and novelist, of Scottish descent, born at Moscow; became an officer in the Russian ...}. The death of Pushkin inspired his first poem. This incurred the displeasure of the Czar, who sent him to serve in the Caucasus, where the remainder of his life, except from 1838 to 1840, was spent. He was killed in a duel. The best edition of his works is that published by Viskovatoff (1891). See Macherski's Les Poètes Russes. Leros, isl. in the Sporades, AEgean Šea, 32 m. s. of Samos, o: to Turkey; has white marble ois. Chief town, Marina or Leros. Area, about 25 sq.m.; pop. 4,000. Leroux, HENRI or Hugues (1860), French journalist and novelist, born at }. He was early interested in social subjects and his articles in Le Temps and Le Journal, as well as his various

Lesage

novels, display an intimate knowledge of the life of the ‘submerged tenth.' Among his works are La Russie Souterraine (1885), L'Attentat, Sloughine (1885), Łfinjer Parisien (1888), Marins et Soldats (1892), plays, and travel sketches. Leroy, vil., Genesee co., N.Y., 24. m., S.W. of Rochester on, the Erie, N. Y. C. & H. R., Lehigh Valley and Buf. and Sus. R. Rs. It has manufactures of farm implements, flour, and patent medicines. Pop. (1905) 3,395. Leroy-Beaulieu, HENRI JEAN BAPTISTE ANATOLE (1842), French ublicist, was born at Lisieux. is Essai sur la Restauration de mos Monuments historiques dewant, l'Art et, devant le. Budget go was followed by L'Empire s Tsars et les_Russes (1881–9); La France, Ja Russie et oft (1888); La Révolution et le Libéralisme (1890); and La Papauté, le Socialisme et la Démocratié (1893). In 1881 he became professor of modern history at the Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques. Leroy-Beaulieu, PIERRE PAUL (1843), French political economist, brother of the preceding, was born at Saumur. e was appointed professor of finance in the School of Political Sciences, Paris (1872), a member , of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences (1878), and professor of political economy in the College of France (1880). Leroy-Beaulieu became the leading free-trade exponent in France, and founded the Economiste Français (1873) to give utterance to his views. For his treatise De l'Etat Social et Intellectuel des Populations Ouvrières 1868) he was crowned by the cademy. He published De la Colonisation chez les Peuples Modernes (1873), L'Etat Moderne et ses Fonctions (1889; 3d ed. 1900), Traité theorique et pratique d’Economie politique (1896; 3d ed: 1900), La rénovation de l'Asie, Sibérie, Čhine, Japan (1900; Eng. trans., The Awakening of the East, 1900); Le Sahara, le Soudan et les Chemins de jer Transsahariens % and Eng. trans., The nited States in the Twentieth Century (1906). Lerwick, cap. of the Shetland Is., Scotland, on the E. coast of Mainland. Exports fish, ponies, sheep, cattle, and knitted goods. The shores of the sound are fringed with herring-gutting and packing stations. É. is the seat of the law courts; and Fort Charlotte, at the N. end of the town, is an important British

Naval Reserve Station. Pop. (1901) 4,061. Lesage, ALAIN-RENá (1668–

1747), French author, was born at Sarzeau, in Brittany. He went to Paris, studied law, and became a member of the bar. In 1743

Lesbos

he retired to Boulogne-sur-mer. Lesage may be called the first French ‘mān of letters,’ in the modern sense of the term. He resembled the writers of the 17th century, with whom he had much more in common than with Voltaire and his set. Lesage wrote two novels of note and merit-Le Diable boiteux, and Gil Blas; also one, play, Turcaret. . . His other works Évé fallen into merited oblivion. Turcaret is the first work in which a cruel realism makes its appearance. Le Diable botteux is a novel whose title and scheme are both taken from the Spanish writer Guevara. Gil las is on the same lines as Le Diable boiteux, but is larger in scope. It is certain that .#. took the idea of the book from the Marcos Obregon , of . Vincente Espinel, as also the scheme and some of the adventures. The first part of the novel was written during the closing years of the reign of Louis XIv., and published in 1715. The second #. appeared in 1724, and the third in 1735. Gil Blas is the type of the honnéte homme who becomes so after experience that dishonesty is not the best policy. What is chiefly remarkable about Lesage is his style, which is natural to the point y negligence, and yet is more ori; wrought than one thinks at first. It is light, and yet strong; lively, and full of pith and point. It is by that he will live. He is the true-begotten child of Molière, and has no 18th-century marks about him. See Lintilhac's Le Sage, ('Grands Ecrivains Frgocais'); Lanson's Histoire de la Litiérature Française (1896); Doumic's Histoire de la Littérature Française (1900). Lesbos. See MYTILINI. Leschenaultia, a genus of Australian "hoo" and s rubs, order Goodenoviaceae. L. biloba bears beautiful corymbs of blue flowers; L. formosa, solitary scarlet flowers; L. linarioides, yellow flowers; and L. chloranthes, solitary greenish flowers. Lescot, PIERRE (c. 1510–78), famous French architect of the renaissance, of whose early life there is no record. His plans for the Louvre were carried out by himself and his friend, the sculptor Jean Goujon (1540–8). e was rewarded by many ecclesiastical gifts, and became counsellor to François I., Henri II., François II., and Charles Ix. See Palustre's La Renaissance en France (1880). Lesghians, one of the names so Lezghines, Leks, and eki) applied to the collection of petty tribes which, along with the Tchechenzes, inhabit Éago tan (HFo in the Caucasus. hey number some 600,000, Kurins,

and include the Avars and many smaller and

of their famous leader

286

wilder tribes. They are a people of fine features and physique, even for Caucasians, P high intelligence, and industrious. . They proved, their daring and endur: ance §§ their thirty years' struggle with Russia. The capture Shāmyl, in 1859, brought their independence to an end. In religion they are Mohammedan Sunnites. Lesina, isl., Austria, off the Dalmatian coast, in 43° 10' N. lat.; roduces dates, figs, and wine. rea, 120 sq. m.; pop. (1900) 18,010. The chief town, of the same name, is a bishop's see, a seaport, and a health resort. Pop. (1900) 3,820. Leskovac, th:, Vran Co., Servia, on the i. bk. of the Bui. garian Morava. Trade in hemp and cloth. Pop. 12,000. Les lic, ALEXANDER, FIRST EARL OF LEVEN (?1580–1661), Scottish general. e §." the army of Gustavus Adolphus as a common soldier, and rose to be lieutenant-general, some time, before 1626, when he was made a knight. During the Thirty Years' war he held the chief command under Gustavus. He raised the siege of Stralsund (1628), and for his brilliant feats against Wallenstein received many rewards and honors. After the death of Gustavus at Lützen (1632), he continued in the Swedish service, and in 1636 his achievements were rewarded by the rank of fieldmarshal. n Charles setting out in person against Scotland, he was named lord general of the Scottish forces on land and sea; and in June, 1639, he advanced southwards with an army of thirty thousand to Duns Law, this bold attitude leading to a treaty of pacification. On the resumption of hostilities (1640), Leslie advanced to Newcastle, of which he retained ssession until the treaty of É. Aug. 7, 1641. In 1644 he was appointed general of the Scottish army sent to the support of the English Parliament. Some time afterwards , he successfully stormed Newcastle; and after the capture of Charles (1646), he retained him there until his delivery to the o Parliament (1647). He served as a volunteer against Cromwell at Dunbar (1650), and was afterwards captured by General Monck (1651), and confined for some time in the Tower. See Terry's The Life and Campaigns of Alexander Leslie, First Earl of en (1899). Leslie, CHARLEs (1650–1722), Irish non-juring divine and controversialist, born at Dublin; took holy orders (1680), becoming chancellor of Connor (1686). zealous Protestant as well as a Jacobite, he lost his chancellorship for... refusing to acknowledge William III. He accompanied

Leslie

the Pretender to Italy (1713), returning in 1721. He wrote many political and theological }. hlets, his Short and Easie Method with the Jews (1699) being the most notable. See Life by R. J. Leslie (1885). Leslie, CHARLES RoberT (1794– 1859), English painter, of American descent, born in London. He worked under West and Allston in the Royal Academy, schools. His Sir Roger de Coverley going to Church (1819), the first of his great series of drama-pictures, ensured his election as A. R.A., and full honors followed (1826). Queen Victoria commissioned him to paint her coronation and the christening of the Princess Royal. In 1848 he was elected professor of painting at the Royal Acad: emy, his lectures being printed (1855). He had previously written Memoirs of the Life of John Constable. (1843), and begun his Life and Times ". Sir Joshua Reynolds (1865). He provided the illustrations for Irving's Knickerbocker. History of New York and the Sketch Book. There are fine examples of his pictures in the Tate. Gallery and the South Kensington Museum, and several reproductions of his works, to§ with the original of the turder of Rutland in the Philadelphia Academy. See his Autoo Recollections (1860), and Dafforne's Pictures of C. R. Leslie (1872). Leslie, DAVID, LoRD NEwARK (d. 1682), Scottish general, was the fifth son of Sir Patrick lie of Pitcairly, Fifeshire. . He served under Gustavus Adolphus but returned to Scotland to ai the Covenanters against Charles I. In 1645, by a rapid movement, he surprised and almost annihilated the forces of Montrose at Philiphaugh; and it was to him that Montrose owed his defeat and capture. For some time he completely out-manoeuvred Cromwell and the disaster at Dunbar (1650) was doubtless caused by the incompetent urgency of the Committee of Estates. He also displayed skill in delaying Cromwell's, progress northwards; and though his march on nqon ended in overwhelming defeat at Worcester, he did at ico the best he could for a cause that had become hopeless. After Worcester he was detained a prisoner in the Tower until the Restoration. See Gardiner's History of the Great Civil War, and his History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate; Colonel Leslie's Historical Records of the Family of Leslie (1869). Leslie, FRANK, born Henry Carter (1821–80), American publisher, was a native of Ipswich, England, and was the son of a glove-manufacturer of that town. Leslie

Apprenticed to... the dry-goods business, he studied drawing and engraving privately, and obtained acceptance of his sketches by the Illustrated London News, over the name ‘Frank Leslie.' He came to the U. S. in 1848, and, after working on various illustrated riodicals, established his own usiness, 1854, and began (1855) the publication of Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper. In his long and successful career as a publisher he founded a number of other illustrated periodicals, of which the chief was his Popular Monthly. Leslie, SIR JoBN (1766–1832), Scotch mathematician and natural philosopher, was born at Largo. He was tutor for the sons of a Va. planter (1788–90), and from 1790 till 1805 occupied himself with teaching, travelling, writing, and research. He translated Buffon's Natural History % Birds (1793), and invented the ifferential thermometer and a hotometer. His treatise on the ature and losio of Heat (1804) obtained the Royal Society's Rumford medal. He became professor of mathematics at Edinburgh (1805), and professor of natural Fo 1819). The invention of his hygrometer led to the discover artificial freezing (1810). His Elements of Natural Philosophy appeared in 1823. See Napier's Memoir (1838).

Leslie, or LESLEY, John (1527– 96), Scotch prelate, statesman and historian, the natural son o Gavin Lesley, rector of Kingussie, Inverness-shire. After Queen Mary's marriage to Darnley he received the abbacy of Lindores, and he was presented to the see of Ross (1566). Though op

sed to the Bothwell, marriage, e continued to retain the queen's confidence, and after her flight into England was her chief legal adviser in the , negotiations with Elizabeth. He for some time represented the interests of Mary at the court of Rome, whence he was sent, by the Pope on various missions on her behalf. He became suffragan and vicar-general of the diocese of Rouen (1579), and was appointed to the bishopric of Constance in Normandy (1591); but the distracted state of the country made it impossible for him to obtain possession of it, and he died in an Augustinian monastery near Brussels. Leslie is now best known by his histories of Scotland: that in the vernacular, from the death of James I. to 1561, written for

ueen Mary's perusal, and printed by the Bannatyne Club (i.S30); and the Latin #io. entitle De Origine, Moribus, et Rebus Gestis Scotorum (1578), the most valuable portion of which is the contemporary description of Scot

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land and its inhabitants. A Scottish translation made in 1596 was printed by the Scottish Text Society (1884–91). See Letters of Mary Queen of Scots, edited by Labanoff (1839); Irving's Lives of Scottish Authors (1801); Father Cody's Introduction to the Scottish translation of Leslie's Latin History (Scottish Text Society, 1888). Lesley, J. PETER (1819–1903), American geologist, was born in Philadelphia, and graduated (1838) at the University of Pennsylvania. . His young manhood was passed in a very remarkable alternation between geological and theological work. He prepared for the ministry at Princeton, and was pastor of a Congregational o at Milton, Mass. in the intervals of his geological studies. In 1851, however, he took up geology finally, and was rofessor in that subject at the o of Pennsylvania, 1872– 8. Mr. Lesley was chief geologist of the survey of Pennsylvania made in 1874, was a commissioner to the Paris. Exposition of 1867, and held office in learned societies. Besides his technical books and reports he published Man's §§ and Destiny as seen from the Platform of the Sciences (1868). L e s lie, THOMAS Edward CLIFFE (c. 1827-82), Irish economist, born in County Wexford, and educated at King William's College, on the Isle of Man, and at Trinity College, Dublin. He was made professor of jurisprudence and political economy, at Belfast in 1853, and was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1857. He applied Sir Henry Maine's historical and comparative method in jurisprudence to the study of economics. Most of his earlier lectures and F.P. were published under the title, Essays in Political Philosophy (1888). He attacked the “wages fund’ theory successfully, but was less convincing in his arguments against the popo that wages are *}. ized by competition. His Land Systems and Industrial Economy of Ireland, England and Contimental Countries o was warmly commended o Mill. In an article On the Philosophical Method of Political Economy.” (1876), , he attacked deductive economics because of its failure to take into account actual facts. Lespinasse, JULIE JEANNE ELEoNore DE (1732–76), natural daughter of the Countess d'Albon, a leader of French, society, was born at Lyons. Being early left unprotected, she went to reside with the Marquise du Deffand. Here her brilliant, wit and originality attracted the attention of D'Alembert, Turgot, and Marmontell, and others of the marquise's circle soon transferred their al

Lessing

legiance to her, and her salon became famous. Her charming letters to her lover, the Comte de Guibert, were published in 1809

(ed. in English, 1903). See Lettres Ynèdies i. Whi. "... Lespinasse (1887); Mrs. Humphrey Ward's novel, Rose's Daughter

(1903) is reminiscent of Mlle. de Lespinasse's career. Lesquereux, , LEo (1806-89), American botanist, was born at Fleurier, Switzerland. He taught for some years, and worked as an engrayer and in other ways while studying the mosses and fossil plants of Switzerland. He received commissions, to investigate the peat-bogs of Neufchatel and northern Europe, and came to America as an assistant of Agassiz at Cambridge, Mass., 1848, afterward removing to Columbus, O. He soon began to study the coalformations of the Middle West, and subsequently prepared his three-volume work on The Coal Flora (1884) for the second geological survey of É.i. which embodies the results of his lifo-work. His other publications nusmber over fifty titles. Lesseps, FERDINAND, Vicomte DE (1805–94), French diplomat, cousin of the Empress Eugénie, was in the consular service at Lisbon (1828) and at Alexandria where he received the Cross o the Legion of Honor for heroic conduct during the plague (1834– 35). He also served at Tunis, Cairo, and Madrid. In 1854 he evolved the Suez Canal scheme, which, on account of British oppo. sition to the work, was not begun till 1860. The canal was finished in 1869. For this he received the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor and an English knighthood. In 1881 he began the Panama Canal on insufficient funds, and, in 1892, the management was charged with fraud, and De Lesseps was condemned to five years' imprisonment, but was too ill to undergo the sentence. His son, Charles, at the same time was found guilty of fraud, and sentenced to pay a fine, and to undergo imprisonment, but the sentence was not enforced. He wrote Lettres, Journal, et Documents pour servir à l’Histoire du Canal de Suez (1875; trans. 1876), and Souvenirs de Öiurante A ns (1887). See PANAMA CANAL. Lesser Antilles. See WEST INDIEs. Lessing, GoTTHold EPHRAIM Ş. German critic and ramatist, born at Kamenz, Upper Lusatia, where his father was pastor primarius. Proceeding to the University of Leipzig to study theology (1746), he soon drifted to the literary and philosophical lectures. After spending the summer of 1748 at Wittenberg, he went to Berlin. At first he was compelled

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