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an Evangeliad (1850) is an attempt at a ‘Unitarian epic,’ and he published another novel similar in character to Margaret. Jude, THE EPISTLE of, one of the shortest of the New Testament books, Fo to have been written by "Jude (Judas), the brother of James' (yer. 1); he would thus be one of the “brethren of the Lord' (Gal. 1:19; Matt: 13:55). The letter is addressed to Christian saints in general, and is mainly compo of warnings †. alse teachers. Its single chapter, both in substance and in language, bears, a remarkable similarity to 2 Peter, especially ch. 2:1–19; and scholars generally incline, to regard the latter as the derivative document, though Spitta, Zahn, and others hold the reverse view. The epistle also reveals many assonances with the Book of Enoch. Many recent critics, arguing from the contents of the book, see in Jude aPoo": work of the late 2d century. Commentaries b Plumptre (Camb. Bible, 1880), Lumby (Speaker's, 1881), Plummer (Expos. Bible, 1891), Kühl (Meyer's, 1897), Von Soden (Kurzer Hand-Commentar, 1899). Judge. In our legal system, the presiding officer of a court of justice. As the administration of justice involves the determination th of questions of law and of fact, the same person or grou of persons may perform bot functions, or the two may be separated, questions of law being decided by one man or set of men and questions, of fact, in whole or in part, , by another. The former practice was followed in the Greek and Roman systems of jurisprudence and still obtains, with some modifications, in the modern systems of the Continent and of Spanish America which are derived from the Roman law. Such persons, however numerous they may be, are known as judges. The separation of the two functions of determining law, and fact in the English and American jurisprudence has resulted in vesting the latter in a separate branch of the court known as the jury, the title ‘judge’ being confined to the member or members of the court to whom is committed the decision of questions of law. Many questions of fact, however are even in our system decided by the judges. The great power and divinity of the judicial office are recognized in the care exercised in every civilized country to secure fit men to perform its duties. Judges are in Great Britain and the United States almost invariably selected from the legal profession and are protected by the bar in the exercise of their high office. In many other countries the judiciary consti

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tutes a separate profession, its members being specially trained for the performance of judicial duties. Formerly in Europe, as is still the case in some oriental states, the king or chief administered justice in person. As the “fountain of iustice’ he still a points the officers who are to administer the law in his stead. In England the actual power of appointing minor judicial officers, such as county_court judges, is vested in the Lord Chancellor, who is himself appointed by the Crown on the recommendation of the government for the time being: The judges of the High Court of Justice are appointed by royal patent. In this count e practice of filling the judicial office varies. The logo. of the United States Supreme Court and of the circuit and district, courts, are appointed by the President subject to confirmation by the Senate. In some of the states all judges of record are appointed by the governor, whereas in many, if not most, of them all judges of whatever degree are elected by the o In the federal system and in some of the states judges hold office for life, but in most states for a fixed term of years. The modern tendency is to give all the higher judges a long tenure of office and to render them entirely independent of partisan olitics. In the Unit States judges are removable by impeachment and, in some if not all of the states, by vote of the legislature. See CHANCELLoR; Courts. Judge, WILLIAM QUAN (1851– 96), Irish-American theosophist, born in Dublin. As a child he was taught theosophy. He came to the § S., when 13 years old, was admitted to the bar in N. Y., 1872, and practised for 2 years. With Mme. Blavatsky and H. S. Olcott he founded the Theosophical Society of America, and was

made its secretary. In this capacity he visited Mexico and Centras and Southern India (1884).

Judge Advocate, the prosecutor of a general or garrison courtmartial or a military commission, detailed and published as such in the U.S. army in the order constituting the court, usually from the line of the army, but in cases of the trial of officers of high rank or other trials of special importance, from among the officers of the Koi..." staff of the Judge

dvocate General's Department. His duties are accurately defined by military law and customs of the service from , which he may not depart. In addition to conducting the prosecution, he informs the accused , person of the charges against him, of his right to be represented by the court, examines witnesses, prepares his case


beforehand, conducting it so as to Secure exact joi. in all cases. If the accused be an enlisted man, he is entitled to have an officer detailed to act as his counsel, failing which the judge advocate's duties are divided between the prosecution and defence, in so far as bringing ‘...?"; in favor of the accused and advising him of all his rights and #. es, is concerned. A similar officer is appointed in all foreign armies. See Courts-MARTIAL; MILITARY LAw, and JUDGE ADvoCATE GENERAL's DePARTMENT. Judge Advocate General’s Department. A bureau of military justice of the War Department headed by the Judge Advocate General with rank of brigadier-general and consisting of two Judge Advocates with rank of colonel, three with rank of iieutenant-colonel and six with rank of major. In addition to these É. anent officers, a certain numr of others are detailed from the line for this duty to transact the business at the central office at the War Department, and one at the headquarters of each territorial department. The Judge Advocate General is the custodian of all records of trials or inquiries, by military courts or commissions, and of all H.P...? relating to lands under control of the War Department such as public lands, military reservations, parks, etc. When called upon to do so by proper authority, the officers of this department explain the law and give opinions upon legal uestions, being law officers of the War Department as far as concerns military law. The corresponding departments of foreign armies differ chiefly in the manner of appointing the officers. For joi account of the duties of the department, see Army Regulations, Manual for Courts-martial. also Courts-MARTIAL; MILITARY CoMMIssions, and MILITARY LAw.

Judges, THE Book of, purports to narrate the history of Israel from the death of Joshua till the time of Samuel. After an introduction (ch. 1-3:4), giving an account of the subjugation of Canaan differing from that in the Book of Joshua (see, Josh UA); it ives the histories of the several judges' in their long-protracted struggle with internal or external foes—viz. Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah (with Barak), Gideon (with Abimelech's usurpation), Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan,

lon, Abdon, and Samson (ch. 3:5–16). Ch. 17–20 form a sort of appendix treating of two, sinister episodes of the period. The book shows a relatively simple structure; the history of the earlier judges is largely cast according Judges' Cave

to the following recurrent cycle

of events:–Israel sins, is given over to the enemy, and sort op. ressed for a period; is then deivered by the particular judge, and has rest for o forty years. Parts of the k, notably the song of Deborah (ch. 5), are undoubtedly very ancient; and the compiler, writing, after the captivity of the ten tribes $'; 18: 30), seems to have availed himself of written sources throughout, though how far such sources can be identified with the various strata of the Pentateuch (see HEXATEUCH) is a moot point. The Septuagint version of Judges is extant in two main recensions, which show considerable divergences in both facts and lan#. Commentaries by Bero Lias in Camb. Bible 8. S. Black, Smaller Camb. Bible), ettli (1893), Moore. (Internat. Crit. Com., 1895), Budde (Kurzer Hand-Commentar, 1897). Judges' Cave, New Haven Conn. The hiding-place of Goffe and Whalley, regicides, in 1661.

Judgment, in cholo is the mental act by o which a predicate is affirmed or denied of a subject; in logic, the affirmation or denial itself, which, as expressed in language, is called a proposition. Judgment, so defined is the unit of all thought, for definite thinking is made up of judgments, and short of judgment there can be neither trut nor falsity. An idea is in itself neither true nor false; it becomes so only as referred implicitly or explicitly, to a subject. Consequently the judgment is the true o in logic, although it has been the more usual practice of the text-books to start with the concept. . The fundamental nature and significance of judgment or predication– ‘the import of propositions,’ as it is sometimes phrased—has been one of the standing problems of logic, and leads into equally difficult problems of metaphysicse.g. the controversies of nominalists, conceptualists, and realists in mediaeval philosophy. For the best modern opinion, see Bosanquet's Logic, vol. i.

Judgment. The judicial determination of a cause by a court of justice. Such determination may settle, conclusively all the issues involved in an action, in which case it is denominated a final judgment; or it may settle some of the issues raised, leaving one or more unsettled, or may determine the issues between the parties, leaving the extent or nature of the remedy undetermined, when it is known as an interlocutory judgment. The judgment is the final act of the court in a cause, the enforcement of a

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judgment by execution being an administrative and not a §§ proceeding. , Excepting in criminal cases judgment is seldom formally pronounced by the court in modern procedure, the more usual practice being the filing with the clerk of the court of what is known as the judgment roll and the ‘entry’ of the judgment on the records of the court. It should contain the title of the cause, including the names of all the parties, a brief recital of the trial or other disposition of the action, and the judicial , determination, of the issues. Such entry, or 'docketing’ of a judgment makes it a lien in most states on the real property of the judgment debtor. When paid, a judgment is said to be satisfied. If the judgment debtor desires to have the lien released during the pendency of an appeal he may generally obtain an order to this effect on giving a bond to secure the R. of the judgment. See APPEAL; DECREE.

Judgment, THE LAST, in Christian theology, the final determination of the destinies of men, to be made at the last day. In the Old Testament, the ‘day of Jahweh’ was awaited as the time of Israel's salvation, but in the mouth of Amos (5:18 f.) it becomes a day of judgment, which will sift even the chosen nation, and "...i. to destruction all that is unworthy. After the exile, the hope of a glorified and triumphant Israel £olly gave way before the idea of a kingdom of heaven to be established upon the earth, and ushered in by a

eat catastrophe. . When the

:lief in a personal resurrection had been fully developed, as in New Testament times, we find Jesus represented as speaking of a tremendous crisis, both for the world and for individuals, which

"is to take place at the end of the

age, when He will return, and bring the living and the dead before Him for final arbitrament. There seems little doubt that this transaction is represented in Scripture as an event—the day of judgment. But, on the other hand, it is manifest from several passages ohn 3:18 ft.; 12:31) that the estinies of men, are being fixed even now, and that death closes their account; in which case one naturally asks, what is left for the day of jo to decide. Again, it is not false to Scripture to recognize that a subject like this is spoken of in highly figurative terms: compare Peter's interretation of Joel's ‘day of the

rd’ (Joel 2:2 f., 28 f., and Acts 2:16 f.). Whatever the solution may be, it is the Christian belief that Christ is to be the principal of the last judgment (Rom. 14:10; 2 Cor. 5:10), and that men's ultimate fate will be determined by


their relation to Him. See Dorner's Christian Doctrine (trans. 1880–2), iv. 415 off.; an excellent section in Kaftan's Pogmatik (1897), s. 70, et seq. Judicature Acts. The successive enactments of the years 1873–1881, by which the judicial system of England was reformed. rior to that legislation justice had for many hundreds of years been administered by a great number of independent tribunals of diverse origin, some of which exercised a concurrent, jurisdiction and some a jurisdiction which differed in spirit and in procedure from that exercised by others. The most important of these earlier courts were the courts of King's Bench, of Common Pleas, and of Exchequer the High Court of Chancery, the Aims.si. Court, the Court of Probate and for fivorce and Matrimoniai Causes, the last two of which were derived from the older ecclesiastical tribunals. All of these were merged by the acts in question in one great court, known as the ‘Supreme Court of Judicature,’ to sit in two permanent divisions— the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal. The supreme judicial functions of the House of rds and the Priyy Council were not interfered with. The further #. changes effected by the Judicature Acts were (1), the consolidation of law and o jurisdiction and (2) the inji cation of procedure. In all of these particulars the Acts did little, more than put into effect in England reforms which had already been made in the judicial systems and procedure of many of e United States. Judicial Committee. PRIvy CouncIL and APPEALs. Judicial Separation. See DIvorce.

o: See JUDGE.

Judith, THE Book of, one of the jiā’ī’estament Apocrypha. It records how Holofernes, at the head of 132,000 troops, had been commissioned by Nebuchadnezzar to take vengeance on the countries, including , Judaea, which had not aided the king in the war against the Medes; and how, while he was besieging Bethulia Judith, a Jewish, widow, gained access to him by her beauty, and, having drugged him with wine, cut off his head—a deed which emboldened the Jews to fall upon the leaderless Assyrians, who were routed with immense slaughter. The story can have no possible historical setting, and is either simply a tradition of obscure origin, or a kind of allegory designed to show forth the great No. triumph. The work probably originated in the 1st century B.C. It contains numer; ous parallels with the books of

See Judith

the Maccabees, and is referred to by Clement of Rome (Ad. Cor. i. : It seems to have been originally written in Hebrew; Jerome states that his translation was made from a Chaldaean text; but it is probable that the Septuagint version is older than any of the Hebrew recensions now extant. As a work of literary art Judith takes high rank, but its religious atmosphere is that of the legalism and the bigoted nationalism characteristic of the closing centuries before Christ. See Ball in #: ...; Com.: Löhr in so. phen und Pseudepigra hen (1898): Judith, an epic fragment of about 350 lines; the whole poem robably contained 1,300 or 1,400 ines. }. cantos that have survived contain one of the spirited battle-pieces for which Old English poetry is justly famous. The source of the poem is certain chapters (especially xiii-xv.). in the apocryphal Book of Judith. The date of composition seems hopelessly disputable. If, as is besieved, the Battle of Brunanburh shows imitation, 937 A.D., is the downward limit; the present writer would assign it to the 8th century. The standard edition is Professor A. S. Cook's. Consult, also Foster's Judith: Studies in Metre, Language and Style. Judson, HARRY PRATT. (1849), American educator, was born at Jamestown, N. Y., and graduated at Williams College in 1870. He was teacher and o in the High School at Troy, N., Y., in 1870–85, and professor of history in the University of Minn. in 1885–92, when he became head of; of political science and ean of the faculty of arts, literature and science at the University of Chicago, of which institution he was elected President, in February, 1907, to succeed, Dr. Harper. His publications include many works on political history and political science, such as Europe in the Nineteenth Century (1894, 1901), The Growth of the American Nation (1895), and The Essentials of a Written Constitution. Judson, ADONIRAM (1788– 1850), American missionary, was born at Malden, Mass. e was educated at the Andover, Theological Seminary, and his decision to become a missionary was the occasion of the organization of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (Con*gational), which sent him out §: On his voyage to Calcutta, however, he became a Baptist, and after 1814 was supported by the newly organized American Baptist Missionary Union. With his first wife, Ann Hasseltine till her death in 1826, he labor at Rangoon, Ava, Maulmain, and in other parts of Burma, issuing

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a translation of the Bible into Burmese (1852), and a Burmese and English Dictionary (1852). lo is always regarded as peraps the greatest of American missionaries. See Lives by Wayland (1853) and Edward Judson (1883). udson was married three times, his second wife being Sarah Hall Boardman (1803–45), the widow of George Dana Boardman, and his third, Emily Chubbock (1817–54), a writer, best known under her pseudonym ‘Fanny Forrester.’ See Knowles's Life of Ann Hasselline Judson g; #} C. Judson's Life of arah Hall Boardman Judson }.} and, Kendrick's Life of 2mily Chubbock Judson (1861). Juel, NIELs (1629–97), Danish admiral, born at Christiania in Norway; fought under É; and Ruyter against the Englis and the Barbary corsairs; entered the . Danish, service. (1656), and distinguished himself in the wars with Sweden (1659–60 and 1675– 79), his o o being i. victory of Kjöge Bay (July 1, 677). Juengling, FREDERICK (1846– 89), American engrayer and artist was born in Leipzig, Germany and received a common schoo education. He served an apprenticeship in *o: with various firms in Leipzig, and studied under Jahrmarkt in Berlin. He came to America in 1866, and established an engraving firm of his own at New York (1871), which secured an extensive patronage. After 1879 Mr. Juengling devoted himself to painting. Among his best-known engravings and etchings are Portrait of J. McNeill Whistler, after Whistler's §. At the Forge, after hirlaw, and Pilgrims to Emmaus, escamp. Some of his §. are The Intruder (1884), estward Bound (1884), and In the Street (1886). Juggernaut. . See PURI. Juggling, is often confused with conjuring, though the two arts, are quite distinct. In an exhibition of juggling there is no concealment of method, and there is no deception; in an exhibition of conjuring we have both concealment of method and deception. The ancient jugglers, joculators, , or jongleurs, seem to have given only a kind of rough and general acrobatic and nastic o and to have sło, in their feats none of the neatness and finish we look for in jug; performances to-day. Peraps the most pleasing jugglers are the Japanese. This is not due to any so dexterity on their part, but to , their quiet, grave style and their humor, which are greatly assisted by their garb. Common , Japanese feats are performed with the um

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Jugular Weins

brella and with the spinning-top. The performers lie o #.; and manipulate the umbrella with their toes in a manner that would be astonishing even when done by the hands and in a natural position. In juggling with tops, the Japanese juggler will, kee them spinning an amazing le: of time, and make them spin up.a. cord to the top of a high building.

Juglandeae, an order of mostly North American shrubs and trees, including .Juglans and Hicoria, some of which have economic im: portance, their wood being emFo in cabinet work and their ruit very valuable. The staminate flowers are borne in catkins, the pistillate in racemes or ter. minal clusters. The fruit is a drupe.

Juglans. A genus of deciduous trees, , with , primate foliage, included in the Juglandaceae. Almost all are valuable for their fruit or for their timber. The heart-wood of the American and foreign black walnuts is strong, hard, and of a rich golden-brown color, darkening with age. It Was formerly much used in furniture making, interior fittings and gunstocks, and is still used for #. paint boxes, etc., being ghter in weight than mahogany; but the finest trees, which occa: sionally attained to a height of 150 feet, have nearly all been destroyed. . The exocarp of the drupes of Juglans is fleshy and somewhat fibrous, and deca without splitting away from the bony endocarp. The nut of J. nigra, the black walnut, is nearly round and very rough; that of J. cinerea, the butternut, is obng and very .# sculptured, with sharply } ged ridges. Both are nearly black in color. . The kernel of the black walnut has a peculiar and strong flavor, but the butternut is sweeter. The viscid husks of the butternut, which ultimately shrivel into black fragments, were used for , dying yellow or "butternut-brown.' #. nuts of the European walnut #: regia) have more fragile she and are the best of the walnuts, being commonly known as “English walnuts.” . The tree is not hardy in the northern United States, but the native Juglans are found all over the eastern or middle sections. Jugular Weins. . The number varies in different individuals, and the size of each is also indeterminate. , Generally, however, on each side an .*.*. vein transmits the bl rom the scalp and deeper parts of the face to the subclavian; a posterior external jugular collects the blood from the back of the neck and opens into the external jugular; an anterior Jugular passes

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from the submaxill region to the external ju o... the subclavian; while the internal jugular draws the blood from the interior of the cranium and from the superficial parts of the face. The internal jugular unites at the root of the neck with the subclavian vein to form the vena innominata. Cases of death occurring within a few seconds of the ‘jugular' being severed may be attributed to wounds of the carotid; but a slower form of death often follows a wound of one of the jugular, veins, and is due to the admission of air through the opened vein to the cardiac chambers. Apart from this danger, a wound of the jugular vein is usually of minor importance.

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in-law, Bocchus, king of Mauritania. logo adorned Marius's triumph, and was executed in Rome. He is the subject of the Jugurtha of Sallust, one of the most vivid pieces of historical writing in the Latin language. Ju-Jitsu, or JIU #: ". Japanese art of self-defence, is of great antiquity, but until recent §. was practised only by the amurai, the governing and military caste of Japan; it was an essential part of their elaborate training, and the exclusive knowledge of it was considered necessary to their predominance. In the late, Japanese renaissance much wider functions were given to it; originally for self-defence purely, it came to be valued as a means to health and general

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the Russian War, that the proficients in ju-jitsu have turneå out articularly effective in the field. s a consequence of these changes the methods of ju-jitsu have undergone considerable development, differing, in different parts from one another and from the older art; hence some contradiction in the writers on the subject, who have derived their knowledge from different schools. j. means literally “the gentle, art.' It opposes knowledge and skill to brute strength more successfully than any other mode of self-defence, and promises to teach a feeble, youth to overcome a giant less skilful than himself. Its principle is to use a man's weight and strength against himself. An opponent's blow that

Jugurtha, king of Numidia in Africa. Micipsa, Jugurtha's uncle, brought him up with his own sons, Hiempsal and Adherbal; but, observing his ambitious nature, he sent him with an auxiliary force to aid Scipio in the conquest of Numantia in 134 B.C. hen Micipsa died in 118, he left his kingdom equally to his two sons and Jugurtha; but the latter soon in ordered Hiempsal. . The Romans then, interfered, but Jugurtha prevailed on them to assign to him the western and better half of the kingdom; then he declared war upon Adherbal, and, after some fighting, captured him and put him to death in 112 B.C. The Romans now declared war on Jugurtha, who defeated them in 110 B.C. After that Caecilius Metellus took command, and j two years frequently defeate Jugurtha; , then he , was super; by Marius, who, after defeating Jugurtha so possession of him, betrayed y his father

Juglans., Butternut (Juglans cinerea).

hysical efficiency, and, finall

#. #. training of ohoe. #: the end of ju-jitsu is to make a man independent of weapons and mere strength—able to meet any opponent successfully with his bare body; and proficiency therein helps to self-confidence and a tranquil mind in the face of unforeseen difficulties. The emperor of Japan and many leadin

statesmen, took this high view o

the possibilities of ju-jitsu; the training was thrown open to the whole people, and made compulsory for army, navy, and police; every encouragement was given by the government; it was taught in most schools; a great national society of ju-jitsu, now having one and a half million members, was formed, with local branches all over Japan. In consequence the art is now held in high esteem by the people, and some slight knowledge of it is almost universal ; and it has found this special sanction from

Trees and spray of blossoms.

cannot be resisted can be turned; the triumph of ju-jitsu is to turn it to his own downfall. It is a common misconception to regard ju-jitsu as a collection of elaborate tricks that must be learned mechanically. In the most fruitful teaching it is far otherwise. The pupil is shown a few elementary methods of falling without hurt, of throwing an opponent, of rendering him helpless when down, and then is set to work to put these in practice in rough-and-tumble encounters. The trick itself is a small off io in attempting it. skiii and quickness in carrying it, out are the weighty matters, and these can only be learned by using the brains in frequent practice; in the course of which, according to his capacity and persistence, the student will arrive naturally, with the help of a few hints, at the more elaborate developments of the art. It will be easily seen that the

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(For explanation, see text.)
(Photographed by special permission at the Japanese School of Ju-jitsu, Oxford Street, London.)

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