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mar, and a Talmudic and Tarso Dictionary. See his Life y Leir (1888). Levites. Levi (derivation uncertain; Wellhausen regards it as a Gentilic formed from Leah, the name of Levi's mother) was the third son of Jacob. According to Gen. 34:25, he joined with Simeon in avenging the dishonor of Dinah, an incident probably intended to represent some deadly affray in the Israelite conquest cf Canaan, which, as the Shechemites were attacked in violation of a treaty, was severely condemned, and its perpetrators doomed to dispersion o 49:5). How the truculent tribe of Levi became the priestly order of the whole nation is probably to be explained by the personality and work of Moses, a Levite by birth, and the brother of Aarón, the founder of the priesthood. In the settlement of Canaan no territory was assigned to the Levites, but forty-eight, cities were granted to them, and above all the Polo of serving the sanctuary, as being devoted to God instead of the firstborn (Num. 3:12). The three sons cf Levi were Gershon, Kohath, and Merari, whose special tasks are detailed in Num, 3:17 ff. The development of the priesthood can be traced in the various Codes of the Pentateuch: thus, in the Book of the Covenant (JE) any, Israelite may act as priest (of Ex. 20:24 f.); in Deuteronomy the phrase is “the priests, the Levites’ (17:9)—i.e. the priests are , identical with the . Levites; in the Priestly Code, only Aaron and his sons are priests (Lev. 21, 22), while the Levites are inferior ministrants and the servants of Aaron (Num. 8:19). See Curtiss's The Levitical Priests (1877), Baudissin's Geschichte des Alttest. Priesterthums, and Hoonacker's La Sacerdoce Lévitique. Leviticus, the third book of the Bible, derives its name, through Latin, from the Greek Ecuition, its Hebrew title, being Wayyikra (“And he said'), its opening word. It is almost entirely concerned with the ritual of the Levitical .. and has been aptly called the literary monument of the Hebrew priesthood. The whole book is assigned by scholars to P (see HExATEUCH), but with the proviso that this symbol indicates a school rather than a single writer, and various strata are discriminated. The law of holiness (Ph; ch. , 17–26) is the oldest portion, and forms one of the three great legal codes of the Hebrews. Between it and Ezekiel many resemblances are traceable; and it probably attained its present form shortly after that prophet's time,, the whole book being of still later date. See Commen

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by Keil Lange 1874), §raft (1894), Dillmann ed. Ryssel, 1897), Băntsch (1900), ertholet (1901); see also literature at HEXATEUCH. Levkosia. See Nicosia. , Levuka, seapt. and former cap. of the Fiji Is., on the E. coast of the island of Ovalau. Levulose. See FRUCTose. Lewald, FANNY (1811–89), German novelist, a native of Königsberg, spent most of her life in Berlin, where she married Adolf Stahr, the author. Her novels were very popular, the most successful being I) iogena, Roman von Iduna Gräfin Hahn-Hahn (1847), Von Geschlecht zu Geschlecht 1863–5), Die Erlöserin (1873), eue Novellen (1877), and Stella (1884). She was a strenuous advocate of woman's rights, and after travelling through Europe wrote an interesting account o her journeys. Her autobiography, Meine Lebensgeschichte, was published in 1861-3. Lewes, munic; bor. and co, th:, Sussex, England, , on the Ouse, 8 m. N.E. of Brighton, and 7 m. from the port of Newhaven. Trade in *} cattle, and farm roduce. At Lewes was fought É. the battle in which Hen III. was defeated by Simon de Montfort. Area, 1,024 ac. Pop. (1901) 11,249. Lewes, th:, . Sussex co., Del., near Cape Henlopen, on Delawaré Bay, 15 m. N.E. # of Georgetown, and on the Phil., Balt. and Wash. and the Queen Anne's R. Rs. . It is the headquarters of the Delaware Bay pilots, and exrts agricultural products. Pop. 1900) 2,259. I.ewes, GEORGE HENRY (1817– 78), English man of letters, born in London, the grandson of Charles Lee Lewis, a comedian of some repute. He studied medicine, but soon abandoned it for literature. His early writings were chiefly for periodicals. The most important were those on the drama, republished as Actors and the Art of Acting (1875). Lewes was editor of the Leader (1849– 54), , founded the Fortnightly Review (1865), and was for a time its editor. is association with George Fliot, which began in 1854 o he left his wife, Agnes

taries (1870),

ervis, after an unhappy, married

ife of fourteen years), only ended with his death. (See Eliot, GEORGE.) Lewes's earlier works, including two novels, took no permanent place in literature; but after the assured success of George Eliot's Scenes of Clerical Life (1857), he, no longer under the necessity of writing for in mediate profit, turned his attention to biology and philosophy. The most important of his later works are Seaside Studies (1858); Physiology of Common Lije (1859);


Studies in Animal Life (1862); Aristotle, a Chapter from the History of Science (1864); Problems of Life and Mind (1874–9); The Study of Psychology (1879). Lewis, riv. ee SNAKE RIVER, Lewis, LEWIS-wiTH-HARRIs, or “THE LEws,' the most northerly island of the Outer Hebrides, Ross and Cromarty, and Inverness-shire, Scotland, separated from the mainland by the Minch. The greatest length is 60 m., average breadth 15 m. Area, 770 sq. m. It consists of two Ho: Proper and Harris. he surface for the most part is peat and moss, and is almost treeless. Towards the N. it ends in precipitous cliffs. which form the Butt of Lewis. The shores are deeply indented. The principal crops raised are barley and potatoes, and the chief industries are cattle-breeding and fishing. The only town is Stornoway. Pop. (1901) 32,160. Lew i s , EstELLE ANNA BLANCHE (1824–80), American poet, was born (Robinson) of Anglo-Spanish extraction at Baltimore, She received early W. from Edgar Allan Poé. as married (1841) to Sidney D. Lewis, of Brooklyn, N. Y., and lived much in England and Italy.

Her volumes of verse include Records of the H cart (1844), Poems (1866), and Sappho of

Lesbos, tragedy (1868). Lewis, SIR GEORGE CoRNEwall (1806–63), English politician and author, was born in London, and educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. He was intended for the bar, and was one of the little band of able men who attended the famous lectures of John Austin. But he soon abandoned the bar for literature and politics. After serving on various commissions he was returned to Parliament for Herefordshire (1847), and became secretary to the Board of Control #. under-secretary at the ome Office (1848), and financial secretary to the Treasury (1850). In 1855-58 he sat for Radnor Burghs, being almost immediatel appointed to the post of Chanceslor of the Exchequer, whilst the Crimean War was raging. On the return of Palmerston to wer in the following year, he É.ie Home Secretary, and, in 1863, the year of his death, Secretary for War. He was the author of many works, the best known of , which are Essays on the Administrations of Great Britain from 1783–1830 . (1864), Remarks on the Use and Abuse of some Political Terms (1832), he Government of %. encies (1841), and The Influence of Authority in Matters of Opinion (1849). See his Letters, edited


by his brother (1870), and Bagehot's Literary Studies (1879). Lewis, JAMES, (1840–96), American actor, was born at Troy, N. Y., and made his first appearance at the Troy Museum (1858) in the art of Farmer Gammon, in The riting on the Wall. . . He was acting at Montgomery, Ala., when the Civil War opened, and esçaped to the North with difficulty. His first appearance in New York city was made (1866) at the Qlympic theatre in Mrs. John Wood's company, as low comedian in Your Life's in Danger. Three years later he was engaged by Augustin Daly, as , leadin comedian for the latter's stoc company, a position he filled with continual success until his death. Lewis, MATTHEw GREGORY (1775–1818), English author, often referred to as “Monk” Lewis, was born in London. He was educated for a diplomatic career, and in 1794 went to The Hague as attaché to the British Embassy; and although his stay there lasted only a few months, it was marked by the production of Ambrosio, or the Monk (1795), a romance which achieved great popularity. His other works include a popular play (The Castle Spectre, 1798), translations of German romances, Tales of Terror 1799), and (with Scott's help) ales of Wonder (1801). Two voyages to the W. Indies, to see the condition of the slaves there, led to the publication of The Journal of a West Indian Proprietor (1834). See Life and §". (1839), and Beer's English Romanticism (1898). Lewis, MERIw ETHER (1774– 1809), American explorer, born near Charlottesville, Va. He en: tered the U. S. Army as an ensign (1795), became a captain in Dec., 1800, and from 1801–3 was the private secretary of Pres. Jefferson, who caused his selection as one of the leaders, with Lieut. William Clark to lead what has become known as the ‘Lewis and Clark Expedition’ across the continent (1804–6) to explore the region acquired in the Louisiana purchase. The exploring party, consisting at the outset of about 45 men, 14 of whom subsequently returned with reports and various collections, left St. Louis, in May ison, and, proceeding by way of the Missouri, Jefferson, and Columbia rivers, reached the Pacific at the mouth of the Columbia in Nov., 1805. , Here they spent the winter, and in Nov., 1806, were †† at St. Louis. The story of the expedition is one of the most interesting, in the history of American exploration. A vast amount of valuable data, physiographic, climatic, ethnographic, and biological, was gathered concerning the conutry traversed. In


1905, at Portland, Oregon, the centennial of the expedition, was celebrated by the holding of the Lewis and Clark Exposition. As a reward for his services, Lewis received from Congress a grant of 1,500 acres of land. In 1807 he became *. of Louisiana Territory. In 1809, while, journeying to Washington, Lewis met a violent death in Tennessee, probably at the hand of another, though, according to many, authorities, at his own. rom Lewis's and Clark's journals Biddle prepared a History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark (1814), many editions of , which have appeared, the best, including much supplementary material, being that of Coues (4 yols. 1893). The long-lost original journals, with much additional and illustrative material, were edited by Thwaites (1903–5), as The . Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, and this is the most exhaustive and best source of information concerning the expedition. Among briefer summaries are Brooks's First Across the Continent (1901) and Lighton's Lewis and Clar (1901). Lewis, TAYLER (1802–77), American educator, was born at Northumberland, Saratoga co., N. Y., and graduated (1820) at Union. He practised law at Fort Miller, N. Y., for some years, and conducted classical schools in the northern part of the state until his appointment, 1838, to the chair of Greek in the Üniversity of New York. Eleven years later he was made professor of Greek and lecturer on Biblical and Oriental literature at Union College. As a writer it was his chief aim to reconcile religion and science, and his o books were The Six Days of Creation (1855) and The Bible and Science (1856). Lewis and Clark Centennial, American Pacific Exposition, and Oriental Fair.-An exposition held in Portland, Oregon, from June to October, 1905, in commemoration of the centennial anniversary of the exploration of the Oregon country by the exdition commanded by Captains K. Lewis and William Clark, and Wood by President Jefferson. site of 406 acres at the base of the low hills surrounding Portland, on slopes overlooking Guild's lake, and Willamette river was chosen. These grounds were, near the residential portion of the city and readily reached by electric cars. There were eight principal structures as follows: Agriculture, European Exhibits, Oriental Exhibits, i." and Mines and Metallurgy, Fine . Arts, Varied Industries and Machinery, Electricity,


and Transportation. In addition there were various state, territorial, and other , minor buildings, including an Administration Building and an ornate Colonnade Entrance. Under the ... auspices of the Government, exhibits were made from the various Departments and the Smithsonian }. tution. These were of special interest and included exhibits of fisheries, and life-saving appliances, and a comprehensive Płł pine exhibit. The prevalent style of architecture followed was that known as §§. Renaissance or California Mission. The amusement features were gathered on the Bridge of Nations, which was 2,000 feet long and was called “The Trail.” . The opening exercises took place on }. 1, and President, Roosevelt designated Vice-President Fairbanks to represent him on this occasion. The exhibits, of which there were more than 3,000, were examined by a }.} of Awards, who distributed gold, silver, and bronze medals, and certificates of honorable mention in accordance with their judgment as to the character of the exhibits. A series of conferences embracing religion, education, civics, charities and correction, labor, science, history and woman's work, were arranged for, and their chief purpose was the demonstration of all §. forces that had prevailed in the develop: ment of western America and contributed to its progress. The grand total attendance was 2,545,509, of which number 70,000 were visitors from the Mississi pi Valley, and Eastern States. F. Exposition was a financial success and a dividend of nearly 40 per cent, was paid to the joid. of the corporation by which the Exposition was built and conducted. The Lewis and Clark Journal was published in Portland from January, 1904, until October, 1905, and was devoted to the interests of the Exposition. See also World's Work for August, 1905, and the Pacific Monthly for July, 1905. Lewisburg, th:, Pa., the co, seat of Union co., 15 m. w. of Danville, on the w. branch of the Susquehanna R., and on the Pa. and the Central of N. J. R. Rs. It is the seat of Bucknels University, (Bapt.). The industrial establishments include five flour mills, lumber and woollen mills, a furniture factory, and machine shops. Pop. (1900) 3,457. Lewisham, sub. (parl. bor.) of London, England, on Ravensbourne R., 4 m. S.E. of St. Paul's. It comprises several ecclesiastical parishes. Pop. (1901) 134,678. Lewisia, a genus of dwarf N. American herbaceous plants, order Portulaceae, with only one species, L. rediviva, the bitterLewistonLexington

root, whose starchy root, is du up by the Indians in spring an used as food. The plant has thick fleshy leaves, which wither on the appearance of the large handsome pink and white flowers. Lewiston. (1.) City, Androscoggin co., Me., on the Androscoggin R., at the falls, and on the Maine Central and other R. Rs., 35 m. N. of Portland. The falls supply abundant water power, which is made available by means of a canal. The chief manufactures are woollen and cotton goods, the mills employing about 7,500 persons, and there are also


Niagara co., N. Y., 20 m. from Buffalo on the Niagara R., and on the N. Y. C. and H. R. R. R. It is in , daily communication by steamboat with Queenston and Toronto, Ontario. The Tuscarora indian Reservation is in the township. It was settled in 1800 and incorporated in 1818. Pop. (1905) 3,033. (3.) City, Idaho, co. seat of Nez Perce co., 90 m. S. by E. of Spokane, Wash., in the fork of the Snake and Clearwater rivers, on three branches of the N. Pac. R. R., and on the rail and the water line of the Oregon R. R. and Navigation Co. It is a

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of the Pa., R. R., 42 m. N.w.. by w. of Harrisburg. The chief industries are represented by the Standard . Steel Works, manufacturing heavy parts for engines, the Baldwin Locomotive Works, the Logan Iron and Steel Works, manufactories of edge-tools and axes, roller mills, etc. he district contains deposits of , limestone and glass sand which is extensively shipped. There are a ublic library and a new hospital. ' eatures of interest are sacks Creek Bridge, Prospect Rock Burnham Park and the Soldier's Monument. The borough was

Monument in the Common, Lexington, Mass., showing the Line of the Minute Men.

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tilleries and manufactures of flour, foundry products, building supplies, carriages and wagons, harness, canned goods, etc. But the chief industries spring from agriculture and the breeding of blooded live-stock. It is the centre of the famed ‘blue-grass country,’ which has a very imortant grain trade and excels in #. and cattle. Many of the best racing horses are bred here. Tobacco and hemp are largely cultivated. Lexington is the seat of Kentucky University. Other public institutions are the Kentucky Reform School, Hamilton and McClelland colleges, for young ladies, a state agricultural and mechanical college, St. Catherine's Academy, a state hospital for the insane, Sayre Female Institute, public library, etc. Features of interest are Ashland, the home of Clay, Gen. John Moran’s home, and the Clay and #ji. monuments. The site was named in 1775 to commemorate the battle of Lexington, and was permanently settled in

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Boston, on the Boston and Maine R. R. has a good trade in agricultural products, but few manufactures. It has many features of historic interest. mong these are the Revolutionary monument, the Monroe Tavern, the Buckman Tavern, a memorial hall containing statues of Samuel Adams and #. Hancock, the old Belfry club-house, etc. Lexington is notable as the scene of the first bloodshed of the Revolution. It took place about daybreak on April 19, 1775, when between 70 and 80 militiamen, commanded by Capt. John Parker, assembled on the common, and were drawn up to oppose the advance of a British force (which numbered about 800 men), desF. from Boston by Gen.

age to seize the military stores at Concord (about 6 m. from Lexington), and to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock. Major Pitcairn, the commander of the British, ordered , the militiamen to lay down their arms, and, as they kept their ranks, a musketry fire was Po. into them, killing four and wounding, nine. The Americans retreated and dis

rsed, four more being killed. . A ew of the British were wounded É. shots of the militiamen. The ritish then continued their march to . Concord, whence, after a fight with the Americans, they retreated, pursued by the patriots. On this retreat they were harassed by, the men of xington, who killed and wounded a number of them. It was in connection with this conflict that Paul Revere made his famous ride from Charlestown to Lexington,


Voinți the inhabitants on his way: heodore Parker was at this place. It was settled in 1642 and first incorporated in 1713. Pop. (1905) 4,530. (3.) City, Mo., co. seat of Lafayette co., 40 m. E. of Kansas City, on the s. bank of the Missouri R., and on the Missouri Pac. and the Atch., Top. and Sante Fe R. Rs. It has an elevation of 300 ft. above the river. The Central Female College (M. o Baptist Female College, and Wentwort Military Academy are situated here. , Coal mining is an important industry. The town was taken by the Confederates, but regained , by the Federals a few days later, in Sept., 1861. It was settled in 1821. Pop. (1900), 4,190. (4.) Th., Va., co. seat of Rockbridge co., 34 m.s.w. of Staunton, on the North R., and on the B. and Ö, and the Čhes. and O. R. Rs. Washington and Lee University and the Virginia Military Institute are situated here. he water-works are operated under municipal ownership. Pop. (1900) 3,203. Lex Loci. (Lat. the law of the place.) Many transactions are governed by the law of the place, and not by the law of the domicile of the parties. . But the place may be determined in several ways: for on.' Lex loci reisita, the law of the place where the thing is situated—e.g. land is always governed by the law of its situation; (2) Lex loci contractus or celebrationis, the law of the place where the contract is made; (3) Lex loci solutionis, the law of the place where the contract is to be performed. The law of the place where a contract is made will generally govern unless the parties intend to abide by the law of some other jurisdiction. This **ś, be express, or may be implied from the facts, as where the performance is to take place in another state, and will be of such a character as necessarily to be governed by the laws of the latter. See CONFLICT OF LAws: CONTRACT. Leyden, or fleides (anc. Lugdunum Batavorum), th:, Netherlands, prov. S. Holland, on the Old Rhine, 9 m.N.E. of The Hague, the seat of a famous university, founded in 1575, and attended by about 900 students. Amongst its better-known teachers have been Arminius and Gomarus, Grotius, Descartes, Scaliger, lmasius, Ruhnken. Hemsterhuis, and Boerhaave. The medical faculty has been and still, is especially, distinguished. The painters Rembrandt, Lucas van Leyden, {. Steen, Gerard Douw, and Van Mieris were all natives of Levden, as well as the Anabaptist leader, Jan Bockold, or John of Leyden, and some of the Elzevirs, the printers. In the 14th century the town was famous for its


cloth and baize. These are still made. as are woollens, cottons, leather, soap, and salt. In 1573–74 the town heroically resisted the Spaniards. Pop. (1899 53,657. Leyden, JoHN (1775–1811) Scottish poet, and Orientalist born at Denholm, Roxburghshire where his father was a shepherd. He was educated at Edinburgh University, where his career was brilliant. He is said to have been master of at least a score of lan§. and as many dialects. estined as a preacher, Leyden was licensed in 1798. But failing o in his pulpit appearances, he drifted into literature. With Scott he was on terms of closest intimact, and in the preparation of the Minstrelsy there was no more valued helper. Leyden was a born balladist, and several of his compositions adorn the volume. He graduated M.D. of St. Andrews (1803) after six months of ‘incessant day and night study,’ Went to India, where he occupied, during the next seven or eight years, a number of important governmental positions, and died at Java at the early age of thirty-six. His chief poem, Scenes of Infancy (1803), is a universal favorite in Teviotdale. His best piece is probably the Address to an Indian Gold Coin. See Memoirs, by Scott Morton (1819) and Robert White (1858), Crockett's The Scott Country (1902), and the recently discovered Tour in the Highlands o , which contains an admirable bibliography of his life and writings. Leyden burg. BURG. Leyden Jar, a particular form of electrical condenser, named from the place where the principle of its construction was discovered. See ELECTRosTATIcs and CONDENSER. Leyds, WILLEM JoHANNES (1859), minister - plenipotentiary of the late South African Republic (1898–1900), the chief adviser of Mr. Kruger after the Jameson raid. Appointed attorney-general, (1884), he held that post until he was elected state secretary, (1888), and re-elected (1893 and 1897). He resigned the office (1898), to become plenipotentiary, in Europe; but since the annexatism of , the republic, he has disappeared from public life. He was always credited with violent anti-English opinions. *: HENDRIK, BARON (1815– 69), eigian historical and genre inter, was born at Antwerp. e made the “resuscitation of a national art’ his aim, and painted the illustrations of Flemish history in the Hôtel de Ville, Antwerp. His works gave him a European reputation. The Armourer is at Windsor, and The

See LYDENLeyte

Knight's Funeral in the South Kensington Museum. See Sulzberger's Henri Leys (1885). Leyte. (1.) Prov. and isl., Philippines, Visayas group. Area, 3,872 sq. m. On each side of the island is a large bay, with several excellent harbors. . The interior is mountainous; highest peak. Mount Sacripante ... (3,930 ft.). The island is fertile and well watered, and there are extensive forests of dammar pine and fine hardwood. The principal crops are hemp, rice, sugar, coffee, cotton, and corn. Minerals are abundant. The chief manufactures are cocoanut oil and o goods. Shipbuilding is carried on at the capital, Tacloban. Pop., all civilized, (1903) 388,962. (2.) Pueb., prov. Leyte, Philippines, at the head of a bay on the N.W. coast, 37 m. w. by N. from Tacloban. Pop. (1903) 6,918. Leyton, par. . and to, Walthamstow div., Essex, England, on Lea R., 8 m. w. of Romford, is a N.E. suburb of London; has Roman remains. Pop. (1900) 98.900. ieze-majesty (cf. mod, Fr. léser, “to injure'), an insult to, or an offence committed against, the person of a sovereign, punishable by death in Great Britain. It comes under the law of treason, of which the essential features are traceable to an act of Edward III. Abroad leze - majesty includes many less serious offences than those dealt with by this act. Lhassa, LASSA, . HIASSA, or Lobose of the Divinity. “of the Divine Intelligence... ‘of the Venerable One'), .."; of Tibet, metropolis of Lamaite Buddhism, seat of the ‘Dalai Lama’ (‘Sea of Wisdom'), chief th: of Ui prov., 500 m. N.N.E. of Calcutta, 25 m. from the junction of the Ki-chu with the Upper Brahmaputra (Sanpo), over 11,800 ft. above sea-level, in 29° 39'. 20" N. lat., and 91° 5' 46" E. long.; popuz lation fluctuating, but considered by the best recent travellers as not much exceeding 10,000 in the city itself (not including pilgrims and other visitors making temporary sojourn). Of this, 10,000, Tsybikov estimates two-thirds to be women. The town circuit measures from four and a half to five miles; that of the area, enclosed by the circular road which pilgrims traverse (praying, all, the while) is from seven and a hal to eight miles. Lhassa is well built for an Asiatic town; the main streets are wide and regular, lined with trees, and containing many large stone, brick, or earthen houses, several stories high, terraced at the top, and painted white, except the windows and door-frames, which are red and yellow, the sacred colors. In one quarter the


houses are o built of ramshorns and ox-horns, forming extraordinary patterns. The chief edifices of Lhassa are sacred. Among the , leading monasteries are those of Miru or Muru, on the N., a centre of literary Lamaism, with a printing press; Daibun or Daibung, seven miles N.w.. of central Lhassa, and the largest monastery of the sacred town (8,000 to 8,500 monks); Sera three miles to the N., renowned for its ascetic hermits, as Daibun is for its seers, or the more distant Galdan (twenty miles to the S.E.) for its relics. aibun, Sera, and Galdan were aii founded by the Buddhist reformer Tsonhava, or during his lifetime, at the beginning of the 16th century. They are now not so much refuges of eremites as schools for teaching, philosophical theology. The cathedral, Jowo-khang, or JoK’ang, the true Lhassa, or “place of the fo. standing in the southcentral portion of the town, not far from the circular pilgrim road, and the Potala, the palace of the Dalai Lama, w. of the city proper, are the chief sites of Lhassa. The Jo-K’ang contains the famous golden image of the Buddha, said to represent him in his youth. The present residence of the Buddhist pope, a towering building of four stories, on the summit of the “Haven hill’. Shich rises abruptly out of the Plai. i:1 which Lhassa stands, and -er, tinating in five ilded dor.les, was an offering rom Kanghi, sirst Manchu emeror of §. o: a building destroyed by the Dungans at the beginning of the 18th century; but from the 7th century A.D. the Potala mount has been one of the holiest places of the Buddhist world. Its, treasury contains a famous collection of sacred objects both old and new. To the s.w.. of Potala is the summer residence of the Grand Lama, the medical college of Chagpa hill, the palace of the ex-regent Kun-de Ling, and the Lama's Shuktri throne-garden; to the N.w.. are the palaces of the Grand Lama's parents; to the E. is the main y of the city; to the S.E. the Chinese residency, theatre, barracks, and vegetable ardens, and the Lama's Tse#. pleasure park. . Among other notable objects of the city are the palaces of the present and late king and prime minister, N.w. of the cathedral; the temple of the Buddha of Boundless Life the upper and lower schools of mysticism, and the residence of the astrologer-royal, to the N. and N.E.; the Kashmiri mosque, to the s. E.; the leather, horse, and mule markets, along the eastern section of the circular road; the royal pasturage and dancinggrounds, to the w, between Po


tala and the city; and the irrigation canals, to the S. The principal industry of Lhassa, is woollen manufacture, but silk stuffs, tea, and other Chinese Fo are here exchanged for Indian, European, Russian, and other wares. , Musk, yak tails, sable furs, dried fruits, sugar, rice, tobacco, indigo, hardware, drugs, sweetmeats, velvet, linen, incense, articles of Buddhist worship, gems, and shawls, are also among the articles of local trade (import or export). The chief merchants and bankers are Moslems, originally from Kashmir, but now settled for centuries in Lhassa, , and called. Kachis. The trade in linen, silk, cloth most articles of luxury and of dress, is also in their hands. The metal-working and coloring industries are controlled by the Indian (Bhutanese or Nepalese) Pebuns; the Chinese colony is mostly com: posed of government officials, soldiers, and religious students. From December, when the foreign merchants arrivé, to March, when they leave, is the busy time in Lhassa. ost of the petty shopkeepers are women, who trade at ths, in the open, air, and do not veil but stain their faces. Lhassa was perhaps, visited by the Franciscan traveller Odoric of Pordenome in about 1328, on his way home from China to Europe; if so, he was the first European to see it. In the 17th and i8th centuries several Jesuit and Capuchin missionaries (Andrada, ió24; Grueber and Dorville, 1661; Desideri, 1716–29; Della Penna, 1719–41) penetrated here, as well as the Dutch layman Van de Putte (1724). After 1760 access was forbidden to Europeans ; but a few have eluded the restriction since, such as Manning in 1811 and Huc and Gabet in 1844. The prohibition does not o: to Russian Buriats and Kalmuks, several of whom have

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1900–1901, Norzunovin in 1899– 1900, Badmaiev in 1900. Several Indian pundits have also gone there (in 1866, 1872, 1875, 1879, 1880), and made important observations. On August 3, 1904, a military expedition from British India arrived at Lhassa, and on September 7 a treaty was signed in the Potala palace, by which trade facilities with British India were increased, and the exclusive attitude of the Tibetan government was somewhat modified. Buddhism was not firmly established in Tibet until the 4th century A.D., and the importance of Lhassa as the Rome of this religion was largely the result,of the "ruin of the faith of Hindostan between the 6th and 11th centuries. See Sarat Chandra Das's Journey to Lhasa (new ed

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