« السابقةمتابعة »
VIEWS IN LHASSA.
1. A Street in Lhassa. 2. Potala Palace. 3. The British Rxpedition in Lhassa. 4. Scene in Lhassa. 5. The ‘Chortan” at the Lhassa. (Nos.1 and 2 by permission, from o: o the Imperial Russian Geo #. Society. Nos. 3 and 4 by ‘ncy. No. #.
1904); Waddell's Lhasa and its Mysteries, with a Record of the Expedition of 1903–4 (1905); and Landon's The Opening of Tibet (1905). Lherzolite, a dark green or black crystalline rock which consists of olivine enstatite, and augite (chrome diopside). It is a member of the peridotite group, and has long been known to occur at Lherz in the Pyrenees. L'Hôpital, MichEL DE (1507– 73), chancellor of France (i. who tried to carry out a liberalminded policy during the regency of Catherine de' Medici for her son Charles Ix. o off the Inquisition, oppos persecu#. and helio. balance between Roman Catholics and Huenots in the civil wars. But É. lost the friendship of Catherine after the peace of Amboise (1563), he resigned, his chancellorship, and retired to Etampes. He expressed his horror of the massacre of St. Bartholomew in a Latin poem. ...See Lives by Villemain (1827), Taillandier (1861), and Dupré-Lasale (1875). Li, a Chinese measure of distance, equal to rather, over onethird of an English mile. Posthouses are generally to be found about ten li apart. Lia Fail, the Fatale Marmor, or ‘Stone of Destiny,’ on which the ancient Irish kings sat at their coronation, and which was said traditionally to utter a groan if the person who occupied the seat was a pretender. It was removed
The Coronation Chair, with the “Stone of Destiny.”
by Fergus, the first Scottish kin (513), from Ireland to Dunstaffnage; by Kenneth II. to Scone (840); and by Edward I. to London (1296). It now forms a part of the coronation chair in Westminster Abbey. Liana, a name given to the woody, climbing, and creeping
plants of tropical forests. Among them are species of Smilax, Wrightia, and Calamus. Liao-tung. See FENG-TIEN. Lias. The Lias comprises the lowest part of the , Jurassic system. ocks of this age are extensively developed in southern England and western Europe, but have small importance in the United States, being found only on the Pacific coast. The fossil remains include ammonites, belemnites, marine bivalves, and reptiles, such as Ichthyosaurus, Pleiosaurus, etc. Libanius (c. 314 to after 391 A.D.), Greek rhetorician, was a native of Antioch, but lived chiefly at Athens, Constantinople, and Nicomedia, though he returned to Antioch for the latter Dart of his life. Several of his works survive, the most important of them being sixty-seven speeches and more than a thousand letters, which are elegant in style and historically important. Editions: of the speeches, Reiske (1791–7); of the
letters, J. Ch. Wolf (1738). See Sievers's Das Leben des Libanius (1868).
Libanus. See LEBANON.
Libation, an offering of wine or other liquor made to the gods of Greece and Rome. It was the custom whenever wine was drunk first to pour a drop into the cups and then to pour it out on the ground in honor of the gods; and on special occasions whole cups were emptied, sometimes over victims sacrificed. A libation in ancient Greece was the chief ceremony in concluding a peace—the literal translation of the Greek word for a treaty of }. being “libations.”
Libau, LIBAVA, or LEEPAJA, tn., rt, and important Baltic naval station, Courland ... gov., N.W. Russia, in Grobin dist, 7 m. w.s.w.. of Grobin town, and on a tongue of land between the sea and the lagoons known as Libava Lake. It is the centre of several §. railways from St. Petersurg and from the interior, and has good stone buildings, public gardens, and promenades. The ort (on the lake) is almost ice ree, being open three weeks before that of Riga, and six weeks before that of St. Petersburg. . It is the most southerly Russian harbor of note on the łań. and is of increasingly commercial importance. The lake is connected with the open sea by a canal (over 23 ft. deep) which gives, access to the largest ships, and is kept open throughout the winter by icebreakers. Chief iP". flax, hemp, linseed, petroleum, fish and salt meat, wool, leather, and skins. There are manufactures of , rope, matches, agricultural implements furniture amber, and soap. There are nava dockyards, and a large meat
freezing establishment. It was acuir y Russia in 1795. Pop. 1897) 64,505, one-fourth being ews. Libau suffered severely in the Russian disturbances of 1905–6. Libby Prison, a Confederate prison in Richmond, Va., which was used as a tobacco warehouse by its owner, a Mr. Libby, before the Civil War and in which during the war (particularly after 1863), Federal prisoners, chiefly officers, were confined. Conditions were extremely unsanitary, the building was at times overcrowded, and the prisoners suffered terribly in consequence. In 1888–9 the building was torn down and set up anew in Chicago as a museum for war relics of , various kinds ; the museum, however, was not successful. Libe 1. A libel is written defamation made public, the effect of which is to impair the reputation of a person for honesty, decency, or virtue, or to injure him in , his business, occupation, or public office, or to bring upon him ublic contempt, ridicule, or atred, or cause him to be shunned or avoided, . This may be done by handwriting, printed matter, pictures, or signs, which may reasonably be understood to refer to the person intended by the author, . by those, who know him. The fact that the matter is false is sufficient. In general, a person may sustain an action o the author or instigator of any matter published about him, falling , within the above definition, without proof of special damage as a of: thereof, an this is an arbitrary distinction between libel and slander, (q.v.). The forms, which , libel may assume are innumerable, but the following will serve as examples of libelous charges and words: wrongfully to impute the commission of a crime; publish a cartoon or caricature of a person tending to bring disgrace upon him, or to expose him to ridicule or contempt; to publish matter imputing cowardice, ill-breeding, hypocrisy, , dishonesty, , illegitimacy, bad habits, breach of faith or confidence, common drunkenness, gambling, having a loathsome disease, want of chastity, #o stupidity, or ignorange. he law is especially strict in the matter of statements affecting a person in his business, office, or occupation. . Charges of incapacity, lack of skill, , learning, or training in a profession, of course, fall within the rule. The plain and ordinary meaning of words in the connection in which they are used is taken in determining whether they are libelous or not. However, “coined' ... words, Gr words having a peculiar meaning in a certain locality, will be given
cations between, attorney and client, physician and patient, clergyman and arishioner,
persons in very confidential relations, members of a family, principal and agent, persons engaged in a common business enterprise, an answer in good faith to a question as to a so. character b one financially interested. Suc communications must be made without malice, with some idea of protecting, the persons to whom they are made, and in view of the close The judge, jury, witnesses, and parties to judicial ... proceedings are absolutely privileged in all matters pertaining to a case in issue. Fair criticism is not libelous. A person repeating libelous matter, or #o selling or distributing it is held to publish it. By statute in most states certain classes of libels are made a criminal offence. By the common law the truth of the matter published is a complete defence, but b statute in some states the defendant must show good faith. See DEFAMATION, SLANDER; consult Newell on Slander and Libel. Libellatici. See LAPSED. Liber, a name frequently given } Latin poets to the Greek god ionysus; but the god Liber and the goddess Libera were ancient Italian deities, who protected the vine and gave fertility to the fields—hence they were worshipped along with &. Liberalism, a term used in politics and in ecclesiastical controversy, and subject, therefore, to some ambiguity when it is used in both ways The term seems to have been first used in Spain, to indicate the advocates of freedom in church and state along what may be called constitutional lines. Liberalism was anti-clericalism, as the opoff movement in France and Italy, however named, has generally been. But liberal1sm has always claimed the merit of working on constitutional lines, or of working to secure a constitution as a guarantee of freedom. Under one name or another. liberalism appears in the politics
relations of the parties. .
of every modern state. Owin to changes of circumstances an conditions, the party which bears the name Liberal may be very far from having any present right to the name; and it is not always safe, in dealing with the domestic litics of foreign nations, for a riton to assume that the Liberal party in another land stands for the same or similar ideas as the Liberal party stands for in England. uch depends on what has already been achieved. The most advanced party in German politics —viz. the Socialists—puts, forward a programme which, in so far as it is not economic in character, calls for reforms which were secured in England nearly half a century ago; while, the German Liberals, who are relatively weak, correspond to the earlier ."g. Whigs. Liberal parties in England and Germany have frequently been weakened by secessions and disruptions. After such an event each section claims the right to use the name. But though there is in every modern state some body advocating liberal ideas of reform, and freedom, the name is prominent in , the politics of three nations only which need special reference "3. Canada, and England. The German Liberal party or parties may be said to date from the revolution of 1848, when the more moderate advocates of reform separated themselves from the Radical section of the reformers. . . Early Liberalism was succeeded by the Nationalism of the middle of the 19th cehtury; and out of the somewhat vague Liberal or Progressive party, was formed, in 1866, the National Liberal party, which professed to seek freedom in a national unity. The party was weakened by the Free Trade controversy, which in 1880 resulted in the secession of the free traders to form one of the minor groups in German politics. Since then the National Liberals have declined in importance as a party. In Canada the Liberal party was formed out of somewhat heterogeneous elements. Those who favored and carried confederation naturally , supported the first administration, while the opponents of that union who had secured seats in the new Dominion Parliament were in opsition. These opponents had een drawn partly from the old reformers, and partly from the old Conservative parties. The Liberal party began to take definite shape about 1872, and in 1874 accepted office. In 1878 they were defeated in the country on the Protectionist issue, and till 1896 remained, under various leaders, in opposition. In 1896 they, as
a Free Trade party, carried the election, and have since maintained themselves in power. Liberalism in England dates from the period of the Reform Act, when, owing to the extension of the suffrage, the power of the Whig houses began to decline. The Liberal party has been the
reform party, in English, politics; but it has been, as all reform ed of
É. have been, com ivergent and contending sections. On the one hand was the Whig element, believing strongl in freedom as already achieve and accepting the doctrine of laissez-faire. The work which the Liberal party has accomplished, has been mainly of a political character. It has been concerned mainly with the perfecting of the political machine, so to speak. he extension of the franchise may be taken as the typical example. This was promoted, not as a good in itself, but as providing an opportunity to a hitherto unrepresented class to express their demands. Social legislation from the Liberal point of view, must come only as the result of demand; it cannot be imposed on , the people from above. This, in a measure, is what has happened. The country refused to accept the last Liberal, reform of the political mechanism—viz. Home "Rule— because that measure was so much more than a readjustment of machinery; and Home Rule having been relegated more or less to the background, the party fell back for a time on the particularism of the Newcastle programme. The motto of th. Liberal party in the middle of the 19th century—‘Peace, Retrenchment, and Reform'—indicates both the strength and the weakness of the arty. . It pursued an essentially omestic Poio Not only was it opposed to a spirited foreign policy, but frequently, it spoke and acted as if a foreign polic were unnecessary. Liberal administrations have been by no means always successful in avoiding foreign complications, although it has to be remembered that an administration is to a large extent bound to carry on the work of its predecessor and to meet its obligations. On one point only has the Liberal party departed from its devotion, to a domestic and non-interference policy—and that is in relation to nationalism. Through its reat leader, Mr. Gladstone, it as always shown a great regard tor, the principle, of nationality. and has repeatedly intervened to secure the recognition and salvation of oppressed nationalities— e.g. in Italy and in the Balkans. Liberal League, a political organization founded in 1903 Liberal-Republican Party .
within the English Liberal party, but claiming for itself great liberty of speech and action. It was formed to promote the ideas set forth by Lord Rosebery in a speech at Chesterfield §e. 1901), in which he called for efficiency and for a “clean slate,’ articularly as regards Home ule. The League adopted this as a programme; but it is not in any sense a rival to the official organization of the party. Liberal-Republican Party, a political organization in the U. S. made up of those Republicans who opposed Pres. Grant on various grounds, particularly because of his attitude toward the South and toward civil service reform, and who were opposed to his renomination in 1872. The party really had its origin (1870), in Missouri, where it was probably stronger than in any other state, and in January, 1872, held (at Cincinnati) a national convention of which Carl Schurz was permanent chairman. By this convention Horace Greeley and B. Gratz Brown, of Missouri, were nominated for the presidency and the vice-presidency, respectively, and a platform was adopted vigorously arrainging Pres. Grant's administration, demanding “the immediate and absolute removal of all disabilities imposed on account of the rebellion,” a “thorough reform of the civil service,’ and ‘a speedy return to specie payments,’ and asserting that “it is imperatively required that no President shall be a candidate for re-election.” There being both protectionists and free-traders represented, a colorless and non-committai declaration concerning the tariff was made. Both the o and the nominations of the Liberal-Republicans were adopted by the Democrats, but their adhesion was not enthusiastic and, moreover, it undoubtedly alienated many Republicans who otherwise would probably have voted for Greeley. In the ensuing election Greeley received a popular vote of 2,834,125, Grant receiving 3,597,132; Grant received 286 out of the 349 electoral votes, the remainder being cast for Hendricks, B. Gratz Brown, C. J. Jenkins, and David Davis, Greeley havingdied before the meeting of the electoral college. With this campaign the party, never . well organized, passed out of existence. Liberia, independent negro republic on Grain Coast of W. Africa, between Sierra Leone on the w. and the French, Ivory Coast on the E., extends for 500 m. between the Manna and the Kavalli, from the basins of which conventional boundaries were determined by the Anglo-Liberian and Franco-Liberian agreements WOL. WII.-Jan. 10.
of 1885 and 1892, fixing the limits of the hinterland as far as the athering ground of the Upper
iger and its tributaries, an inland stretch of some 200 m. The total area has been estimated at 45,000 sq. m. The coast is o indented, and has numerous lofty headlands. . Beyond the narrow coast region the country rises in successive terraces towards the highlands near the hinterland, where there are valuable but neglected forests of gum trees, oil palms, and other trees. The country is said to be rich in minerals o coal, and diamonds), whic the W. African Gold Concessions Company began to exploit in 1901. Exports are coffee, rubber, palm oil and
American negroes, but it was not till 1822 that an actual settlement was made. In 1847 the colony was recognized by the Howe: as an independent repubic. Intertribal wars have been frequent, but the declaration of peace so in 1904 by the most powerful chiefs may lead to their cessation. Continued encroachment by the neighboring colonies finally, led to a request to the United States for advice and help. The report of the commission sent in response has not been published, but, the future of the country is evidently not assured. See Wouverman's Liberia (1885); Buttikofer's Reisebilder aus Liberia 1890); and Durham's The Lone
tar of Liberia (1893).
kernels, cocoa, and raffia fibre. The revenue, mainly derived from customs duties, was in 1903 $350,000; the expenditure $340,000. The chief towns are Robertsport, Monrovia (cap.), Marshall, Edina, Great Bassa (Upper Buchanan), Greenville, and Harper. The capital has a population of 5,000; while the population of the country is estimated at 2,000,000 natives (Krumen bein the most important), pagans an Mohammedans, and some 60,000 civilized negroes, who are Episcoalians . Presbyterians, etc. nglish is the official language, and British weights and measures and money are #: used. The president, vice-president, and a council of six form the executive, while legislation is in the hands of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Liberia was sug: gested in 1816 as a home for freed
Liberius, St. (352–366), pope, who, for supporting the Nicéne Creed and its champion, St. Athanasius, Poio of Egypt, was banished to Thrace (355). He was restored to his see (358), but the terms of his recall are disputed. His letters are found in Epistolae Romanorum Pontificum (1821). See also Döllinger's Pabstsabeln (1890).
Libertad. (1.) Roadstead on the Pacific coast of Salvador, Central America, which serves as a port for the capital; San Salvador. go Maritime dep, in N.W. Peru, S. America, lying between the Pacific on the w. and the dep. Loreto on the E. Area, about 10,000 sq. m. The capital is Truxillo. Mahogany, dye-woods, sarsaparilla, hides, cattle, fruits, cocoa are exported. Pop. 251,000.
Liberty: (1.) City, Mo., co seat of Clay co., 4 m. N. of the
nité), the motto of the French reFol. adopted at the time of the rst revolution. By ‘equality’ was meant not equality of position, but equality for rich and poor in the eyes of the law. Liberty of the Press. See PREss, FREEDOM of #. l Liberty Party, a itical part moś the presidential campaigns of 1840 and 1844, and which was organized by a group of Abolitionists who, unlike Garrison, believed that those who were fighting against slavery should take an active part in politics. Late in 1839 an Abolition convention, assembled at Warsaw, N. Y., nominated James, G. Birney for President, and in April, 1840, this nomination was confirmed, and the name “Liberty Party’ was chosen, by a ‘national’ convention at Albany, N. Y., most of whose members were from New York. In the , ensuing election Birney received no electoral votes and only 7,069 popular votes, 2,808 of which were cast in s. and 1,621 in Mass. In August, 1843, a national Liberty Party convention, in which twelve states were represented, met at Buffalo, N. Y., again nominated Birney for the residency, Thomas Morris of hio, being named for the viceresidency, and adopted a platorm, demanding ‘the absolute and unqualified divorce of the general government from slavery and also the restoration of equality of rights among men, in every state where the party exists or may exist,’ and asserting that “the eneral government has, under the constitution, no power to establish or continue slavery anywhere, and therefore that . . all attempts to hold men as property within the limits of exclusive national jurisdiction ought to prohibited by law,' that “we regard voting, in an eminent degree, as a morãi and religious āut which, when exercised, should §: by voting for those who will do all in their wer for immediate emancipation,” and that “we hereby give it to be distinctly understood . . . that, as Abolitionists . . . we owe it to the Sovereign Ruler of the universe . . . to regard and to treat the third clause and the fourth article of that instrument [the constitution], whenever, applied to the case of a o slave, as utterly null and void, and consequently as forming no part of the Constitution of the United States, whenever we are called upon or sworn to support it.’ This ast clause is of particular interest, as a justification by Northerners of the right of nullification as regards a hateful national enactment. In the election of 1844 Birnev, as before, received no electoral votes;