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Libraries

complete catalogue made by Audif§ #oa. o expert and exact work. The Laurentian Library at Florence is the finest collection not under government control. It is not l in point of numbers, but of the highest rarity and interest. Thirty-two govern: ment libraries are under control of the Minister of Public Instruction, and in these are included seven national libraries in the leading cities, and the libraries of the universities of the first class at Bologna, No. Padua, Pavia, Pisa, Rome. mong the world's great iibraries are the following:—

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property and his entire library of jo volumes. Yale began in 1700 with a donation of books from each of its ten trustees, with the words, “I give these, books for the founding of a college in Connecticut.” Kings College, now Columbia University, chartered in 1754, received in 1756, by bequest of Dr. Bristow, of ndon, his library of about 1,500 volumes, the library of Joseph Murray, and other ifts of books. In 1757 Princeton d its first building, with a library of 1,200 volumes. Before 1800 there were founded eighteen other college libraries. At the present

Great Libraries of the World (1910).

British Museum, Lib Library of Co

Kongelige

Royal Library, Brussels (

- §- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Advocates' Library, Edinburgh (1682). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Royal Library, Dresd
Library of the Im
Vatican Library,

Royal Library, Stockholm. . . . . . . . . .

Library of Parliament, Ottawa. . . . . . .

Of these libraries, only three have modern printed catalogues—viz., the Bibliothèque Nationale, the British Museum, and the Advo. cates' Library.

UNITED STATEs. - Library of Congress. – In §§ 1800. Congress appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of ks necessary for its use and for housing them. The 3,000 volumes that had accumulated were destroyed when the Capitol was burned in 1814. In 1851 a second fire destroyed 35,000 of the 55,000 volumes which the library then contained. In 1897 it was transferred to its new building, one of the finest and best adapted to its p in the world. (See LIBRARY of CoNGRESS.)

College Libraries.—The earliest library foundation in America was that established in 1621 by the gift of an unnamed person in London to the college for the education of the natives at Henrico, Va. is gift was sup lemented by additional volumes from persons in England and the Colonies to the young college where children of both sexes were already .# taught in 1616. The college, and library were dego in the Indian massacre of

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Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (1367)...........................
rary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Congress, Washington (1800). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Imperial Library, St. Petersburg (1814).. ... 1
R. Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Floren
Royal Library, Berlin (1661) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
K. Hof- u. Staatsbliotek, Munich (1550)
Royal #"; Vienna ( ...} - - - - - - - - - -
Bibliothek, Copenhagen (1665) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
University Library, Vienna (1775). . . . .
Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid (1716). . . .

en . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rial Cabinet, Tokyo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

No. Vols. 3,500,

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Public Libraries.—The will of

ohn Oxenbridge, of Boston, dated

an. 12, 1673–4, makes mention of a bequest of books to the “public library’; and reference to such an institution also occurs in the town records for March 11, 1695, but no further information concerning it has been found. In 1700 "Še. York City received a donation of books from Rev. § Sharp, chaplain of Governor Bellomont, and to these were added, in 1730, -1,642 volumes bequeathed by Rev. John Millington, of England, to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and given by , it for the benefit of New York and the neighboring provinces. A room was provided for this library in the City Hall, and in 1754 it was taken into the collection of the Society Library. In 1700 South Carolina passed the provincial library law for the en

Libraries

†. of parochial libraries. The Redwood Library at Newport, R.I., was founded in 1730. Twenty ears later, Kittery, Me., had a ibrary, half public, half private, ...?the “Revolving Library,' circulating in three parishes, Mention should be made of the thirty-nine parochial libraries established between 1698 and 1730 in the Colonies, through the efforts of Rev. Thomas Bray, founder of the Society for the Propagation of the Go! in Foreign Parts. ew Hampshire, in 1849, passed the first known law enabling towns to establish and maintain libraries by taxation. Massachusetts had passed a similar act, for the benefit of Boston only, in 1848, but made the law general in 1851. Maine followed in 1854, Vermont in 1865, Ohio in 1867. Illinois d a liberal law in 1872, providing for the management as well as estab: lishment of public libraries; and this law served as a model in most of the Western States. Some of the State laws have made such indifferent provision for the legal support of H. that few have been established within their borders. A very considerable number of books was distributed among the libraries of this country by foreign floo. during the forties of the nineteenth century. This distribution was the result of the efforts of a Swiss, Alexandre Vattemare. Vattemare was a public entertainer of much talent and renown. In his travels in Europe he was impressed by the l numbers of duplicate and unused books in public and F. collections. He conceived the idea of sending these books to the United States in exchange for specimens of the natural resources–minerals, woods, flora and fauna—of the new country. He himself came to this country to solicit the co-operation of the State legislatures in his plan. He succeeded to the extent of introducing about half a million volumes into this country. . His work resulted in the establishment of the present International Exchange system, maintained by the Smithsonian Institution. Vättemare is recognized as one of the founders of the Boston Public Library. Massachusetts in 1890 passed a law creating a library commission of five persons to foster the establishment and growth of .public libraries; as a result, 36 libraries were established in 1891. In 1891, New Hampshire enacted a similar law. In 1889, New York provided State aid for libraries, ..P. 1891

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Libraries

rians in the United States assembled in New York City. , But the tidal wave of library spirit settled back for twenty-three years, until the Centennial impulse again pushed it to the front. At another conference of librarians held in Philadelphia in 1876, the American Library Association was organized, with Justin Winsor, then librarian of the Boston Public Library, as president. In the same year the first number of The Library Journal was published. Both have exerted great influence in the dissemination of sound library ideas and principles. In 1885 the New York Lib Club was organized for the benefit of the libraries of New York City and its vicinity. There are seventeen other similar clubs, city and local, in various parts of the country. In 1890 the librarians of New ork State formed themselves into an association which holds annual meetings. Since that date thirtythree other State and library associations have been organized. During the same period, twenty-two State lib commissions have been established, not including New York, and the system of travelling libraries has been adopted by each. It is the boast of Massachusetts that every one of her townships has a. o library. n 1887, a Lib School was established at Columbia College; it was afterward removed to Albany as the New York State Libr School. There are six other suc schools in the United States, and in addition seven summer schools in library science are regularly conducted. Many of the larger have an apprenticeship system for traintheir own assistants. he principal public libraries of the United States are:–

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of technical and trade lists, and
catalogues. In New York City,
work, with children, the foreign
population, and the blind is fea-
tured. The budgets of public li:
braries reflect this ex ion of
effort. During 1910 the total ex-
renditure of the Philadelphia Free

Libraries

1850 the law was repealed. Eight: een other States tried the school library system, but it proved successful in only five-California, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, and New

ersey. One of the developments of modern library work is the centraliza

itrary was $235,887; of the tion of bibliographical effort. In Statistics of United States Libraries (1910). 5,000 Vols. 1,000–5,000 and Over. Vols. Total General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,126 1,370 2,496 Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 7 50 State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 8 62 College. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 163 588 College society. . . . . . . . . . 7 3 10 hool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 1,377 1,598 Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 • 67 176 Theological . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8s 26 114 Medical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 25 57 Historical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 26 70 Scientific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 31 74 Society. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 125 188 Institutional . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 106 139 Unclassified. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8 18 Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,298 3,342 5,640 Volumes. Pamphlets. Total. 5,000 vols. and over . . . . . 55,350,163 11,259,569 66,609,732 | 1,000–5,000 vols. . . . . . . . . 7,278.378 754,235 8,032,613 Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62,628,541 12,013,804 74,642,345

Boston Public, $357,789; of the Cin-
cinnati Public, $160,718; of the St.
Louis Public, $704,204.
School District Libraries.—In
1835, New York State appropriated
$55,000 a year, to be apportioned
among the school districts, for buy-
ing books for general circulation,
and required an equal amount to be
raised % taxation for the same pur-
pose. The school authorities had

United States Public Libraries (1910).

Vols. cardholder. circulation.
Boston (1852). . . . . . . . . . . 922,348 79,662 1,529, 111
Chicago (1872). . . . . . . . . . 414,686 94,499 1,601,645
Cincinnati (1855) . . . . . . . . 433,681 60,339 1,383, S25
Enoch Pratt (1882). . . . . . 264,872 38,979 613,689
Milwaukee (1875) . . . . . . . . 173,619 39, 151 637,566
Newark (1888) . . . . . . . . . . . 142,493 25,000 851,009
*New York (1896) . . . . . . . . 680,244 68,251 6,504,402
Philadelphia (1894) . . . . . . 388,986 154,611 2,007, 167
Pittsburg (1895) . . . . . . . . . 326,321 104,229 2,099, 182
St. Louis (1865) . . . . . . . . . 316,911 79,008 1,710,919
*Circulation Dept. only.
There is a marked tendency away charge of these libraries, which
from conservatism in public library prospered until 1853, when they
administration. . In Chicago, for contained 1,604,210 volumes. From

instance, "...P. library deposits

collections o

from 300 to 500 vol

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that time they declined through
mismanagement or other causes, so
that in 1875 nearly one-half of the
books had disappeared. Through
the influence of Horace Mann, a
law was enacted in Massachusetts,
in 1837, allowing school districts to
establish libraries; in 1842 only one-
fourth of the districts had formed
libraries. Interest waned, and in

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FAMOUS BRITISH LIBRARIES. 1. Advocates' Library. Edinburgh... upper corridor... (Photo by J. Patrick.) 2. Bodleian Library, Oxford. #: by G. W. Wilson & Co.) 3. British Museum Library: the reading room. (Photo by D. Macbeth.) 4. Trinity College Library, Dublin. (Photo by W. Lawrence.) 5. Cambridge University Library. (Photo by J. Palmer Clarke.)

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Libraries

complete catalogue made by

Audiffredi, 1761–88, is a model of expert and exact work: The Laurentian Library at Florence is the finest collection not under the government control, not large in point of numbers, but of the highest rarity and interest... In Jan., 1904, the National Library at Turin suffered irreparable loss by fire. Thirty-two government libraries are now under control of the Minister of Public Instruction, and in these are included seven national libraries in the leading cities, and the libraries of the universities of the first class at Bologna, Naples, Padua, Pavia, Pisa, and Rome. Space fails to even mention scores of libraries of high rank. The earliest library foundation in America was that established in 1621, by the gift, on o: of an unnamed person in London, to the college for the education of the natives at Henrico Va. This gift was supplemented by additional vols, from persons in England and the colonies to the young college where ‘children of both sexes were already bein taught in 1616. The college an library were destroyed in the eneral Indian massacre of 1622. #.d College was founded in 1636 by an appropriation of onehalf the annual rates of the colony, but its active lo. came two ears later with the bequest from ohn Harvard of one-half of his property and his entire library of nearly 300 vols. Yale began, in 1700, with a donation of books from each of its ten trustees, with the words, “I give these books for the founding of a college in Connecticut.” The Junto, a debating society organized by Franklin, in 1729, at Philadelphia, , became later (1731) the Library Compan of Philadelphia, the mother of all the o and circulating libraries of America, now containing 225,000 vols. Kings College, now Columbia University, chartered in 1754, received in 1756, by bequest of Dr. Bristow, of London, his library of about 1,500 vols., the library of }.}}| Murray, and other gifts of books. In 1757 Princeton had its first building, with a .*. of 1,200 vols. efore 1800 there were founded eighteen other college libraries; the 19th century opened on twenty-two American college libraries; it closed with thirty times as many. The will of John Oxenbridge, of Boston, dated Jan. 12, 1673–4, makes mention of a bequest of books to the “public library’; and reference to such an institution also occurs in the town records for Mar. 11, 1695, but no further information con#;"K it has been found. In 1700 New York city received a donation of books from Rev. John

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Sharp, chaplain of Gov. Bellomont, and to these were added in 1730, 1,642 vols. bequeathe §. Rev. John Millington, , of ewington, Eng., to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and given by it for the benefit of INew York and the neighborin rovinces. A room was ...i or this library in the City Hall, and in 1754 it was taken into the collection of the Society Library. In 1700 South Carolina passed the provincial library law for the , encouragement of parochial libraries. The Redwood Library at Newport, R. I., was founded in 1730. Twenty years later Kittery, Me., had a library half public, half private, called the “Revolving Library, circuo in three parishes. Mention should be made of the thirty-nine

- parochial libraries established be

tween 1698 and 1730 in the colonies, through the efforts of Rev. Thos. o: founder of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. In April, 1800, Congress appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of books necessary for its use and for housing them. The 3,000 vols. that had accumulated were destroyed when the Capitol was burned in 1814. . In Dec., 1851, a second fire destroyed 35,000 of the 55,000 vols. which the library then contained. Since then its growth has kept pace with the library movement of the last half of the 19th century. In 1897 it was transferred to its new building, one of the finest and best adapted to its purpose in the world. n June 30, 1905, it contained 1,344,618 books, 82,744 maps and charts (pieces), 410,352 pieces of music, 183,724 prints, and a collection of manuscripts, estimated by the custodian in 1904 at 121,266 pieces. New York state, in 1835, passed a law appropriating $55,000 a ear to be apportioned to the diferent school districts, for buyin books for general circulation, an requiring an equal amount to be raised by taxation for the same Fo The school authorities ad charge of these libraries which prospered until 1853, when they contained 1,604,210 vols.; from that time they declined through mismanagement or other causes, and in 1875 nearly one-half of the books had disappeared. Through the influence HP Horace Mann a law was enacted in Massachusetts in 1837 allowing school districts to establish libraries; in 1842 only one-fourth of the districts had formed libraries; interest waned, and in 1850 the law was repealed the total number of vols. reported in 1849 being 91,539. Eighteen other states tried the school library system, but it proved successful in only five—California,

Lilbraries

Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, and New ersey. Failure was due to deects in legislation and administration and also to the ‘school district proving too small a unit for efficient library work.” New Hampshire, in 1849, o the first known law enab o towns to establish and maintain libraries by taxation... Massachusetts had passed a similar act for the benefit of Boston only in 1848, but made the law general in 1851; Maine followed in 1854, Vermont in 1865, Qhio in 1867. Illinois passed a liberal law in 1872 providing for the management as well as establishment of public libraries, taken as a model in most of the Western states. Some of the state laws have made such niggardly provision for the legal support of libraries that few have been established within their borders. Massachusetts in 1890 passed a law creating a library commission of five persons to foster the establishment and growth of public libraries; as a result 36 libraries were established in 1891. In this year, New Hampshire enacted a similar law. New York having provided state aid for libraries in 1889, in 1891 placed the free library system under the charge of the Regents of the University, made the State Library the head of the system, and encouraged towns to change from the old school district to the new town system and receive state aid. The new movement began, as indicated above, at the middle of the nineteenth century. The great Boston Public Library was established in 1852. In 1853 the first convention of librarians that ever assembled , in the United States met in New York city; fifty-three persons were in attendance, as though one responded for each year of the century to that date.'. But the tidal wave of library spirit settled back for 23 *.*. until the centennial impulse again pushed it to the front. At another conference of librarians held in Philadelphia Oct. 4–6, 1876, the American Library Association was organized with Justin Winsor, then librarian of th: Boston Public Libra , as president. In September of the same year the first number of the Library Journal was published. Both have exerted an incalculable influence for the dissemination of sound library ideas and principles throughout the civilized world. In 1877 twenty-two American librarians were present at an international conference of librarians in London, where the Library Association of the United Kingdom was organized, to advance the library interests of Great Britain. In 1885 the New York Libra

Club was organized for the benefit

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