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qualities to be cultivated are jo and suppleness and a elicate perception of balance. Stiffness is unpardonable, and it is a great mistake to offer a dull resistence to the stress of assault instead of yielding to it and cultivating an elastic and aggressive recovery. The first thing that, must be learned is the art of falling without shock or injury. The natural man usually falls on a joint—i.e. either on the base of the spine, the elbow-joint, or the wrist. Thus injury, is caused. In the §. method of falling, the violence of the shock is taken by ads of muscle on the arm, leg, or oot. Figs. 1 and 3 show the shock taken by the arm. Fig. 2 shows how a ju-jitsu, throw depends entirely on position, and balance, and not on strength; Fig. 4, how a man's balance may be ăiţă. without coming within range of his fists. The other illustrations depict various movements and methods of defence and attack, thus:–Fig. 5. To counter a blow from knife or fist, dive down to a kneeling position, press suddenly against the groin, with the whole weight of the o: at the same time pulling away the man's leg, held just behind the ankle. Figs. 6, 7, and 8 show the shoulder throw. Opportunity serving you, twist yourself in under your opponent's centre of gravity. Then suddenly, by straightening yourself, you wif rotate him over into position shown, in Fig. 7. . The correct position in falling is shown in Fig. 8. Figs. 9 and 10 show first the escape from a seizure from behind, and, secondly, a sequel disconcerting to the aggressor. A blow on the small bones of the hand will loosen for a moment its grip. The arm is instantaneously seized and twisted into the position indicated in Fig. 10. Pain may then be applied at leisure. Figs. 11, 12, 13, and 14 show the critical moments in a ju-jitsu defence against a knife. Following on a square parry the wrist is gripped and twisted. Step in under the man's extended arm, and as your hips come well under the arm, reach up, and with a firm pressure (applied, with the stiff edge of the hand) roll over his triceps. His arm, thus attacked in two places, will give to your twist. #. body must follow the twist into position shown in Fig. 14, and thence to the floor. In Fig. 14 you have but to kneel on his elbow-joint to cause his grip of the knife to relax. . The knife can then be secured. Fig. 15. !. as in boxing, the combatants eep, in continual motion. Fig. 15 shows a critical moment in which something is about to happen. Figs, 16, 17, and 18. A ift" lead at the head is parried
sharply across, the sleeve, is instantaneously gripped, and a second grip secured on the wrist. In o 17 the lady has swun herself into a position from .# she can deliver a backward kick, His supporting leg thus knocked away, the man is easily pulled own. At the very, moment of his fall (Fig. 18) the lady has put her foot, upon the man's side, and is, in the act of breaking the elbow-joint across her shin. The reader is advised, however that the complicated nature of many ju-jitsu movements, renders the practice of them undesirable until the beginner has grasped the simple elementary principles upon which all of them are based. See Skinner's Ju-Jitsu (1905), and Hancock and Higashi's The Complete Kano Jiu-Jitsu (1905). Ju-Ju, a name given by West African negroes to any fetish, whether an idol, or a magic rag, or anything else used as a charm. The word also denotes witchcraft and whatever is regarded as supernatural. The “Long JuJu' of the Nigerian Aros, was a sacred shrine (and equally the oracle of the shrine), held in such high regard that pilgrimages were made to it from great distances. It was the scene of human sacrifices and other savage rites. For an illustration of it, and an account of its destruction by the British punitive expedition of 1901–2, see the Graphic of March 1, 1902. See also De Cardi's 'Juu Laws and Customs in the iger Delta,' in Jour. Anthrop. Inst., Aug.-Nov. 1899. Jujuy. (1.) Province in N.w.. of Argentina, bordering on Bolivia. It is occupied by too. of the Andes (Cordillera Real) rising to 18,000 ft., while the lowest point is 1,300 ft. above, sea-level. Agriculture is the chief occupation. Copper, silver, gold, lead, , and antimony exist, and some of the mines are exploited. Area, 18,980 Sq. m. o 54,287. (2.) Capital of above prov., founded in 1593, near the Grande or San Francisco R., 970 m. by rail N.w.. of Buenos Ayres, 40 m. N.E. of Salta. It has several educational institutions, including a normal school for women. t. 4,035 ft. Pop. about 5,000. Jujuy River, or Rio Grande de Jujuy, Argentine Republic. It rises near boundary of Bolivia, and flows into the Vermejo after a course s. and E. of c. 300 m. Jukes, THE, a fictitious name iven to a family which, formed the subject of an exhaustive study in heredity and criminology, as , its members, manifested a striking disposition, to crime, depravity, disease and pauperism. This scientific inquiry was undertaken under the direction of the Prison Association of New York,
and, revealed, the fact that this single family in seventy-five years had cost the community some $1,308,000. It originated from the marriage of two brothers of Dutch descent with two sisters who are known as ‘The 3. Sisters.” Of 1,200 descendants some 709 were investigated, an it was found that of this number 140 were criminals and offenders, having. spent an aggregate of 140 }.} in prisons and jails. 280 ad been supported at the public expense, while a large proportion not only were of debased morals but suffered from nervous and other diseases. The investigation was made by R. L. Dugdale, and in addition to its publication in the 30th Annual Report of the Prison Association, was subsequently printed by itself, 1891. Jukes,. Joseph BEETE (1811– 69), English geologist, born, at Summerhill, Birmingham; studied under Sedgwick at Cambridge, and was appointed geological surveyor of Newfoundland (1839). He was director of the Geological Survey in Ireland (o, and lecturer at the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Among his publications are Excursions in and about Newfoundland (2 vols. 1842); A Sketch of the Physical Structure of . Australia (iss0); Popular Physical Geology §§ a Student's Manual ; Geology (1857); and a geological map of Ireland. , See Letters of J. Beete Jukes, ed. by his sister (1871). Julfa. See IsPAHAN. Jülg, BERNHARD (1825–86), German philologist, born at Ringelbach in Baden; was professor of classical philology at Lember (1851–3), Cracow (1853–63), an innsbruck (isog, until his death). He was one of the greatest Eu
ropean folklorists of modern times. He published an edition of Vater's Litteratur der Gram
matiken, Lexika, und Wörterbücher aller Sprachen der Erde g;7) Die Märchen des Siddhiiir (1866); Mongolische Mārchensammlung (1868); and Die iechische eldensage im Wierschein bei den Mongolen (1869). Julia, several ladies of the Julian clan at Rome. (1.) The sister of Julius Caesar; was the randmother of Augustus. (2. i. Caesar's daughter; marrie ompey in 59 B.C., and died in childbed in 54. (3.) The daughter of Augustus, by Scribonia. She was born in 39 B.C., and married first, in 25 B.C., to Marcelsus, who died in 23; and then to M. Agrippa, by whom she had three sons –Gaius and Lucius Caesar, and §: Postumus – and two daughters, Julia and Ao ina; and thirdly, after his death in 12 B.C., to Tiberius, who was afterward emperor. Her immorality was notorious, and in
2 b.c. she was banished by Au; gustus to Pandataria, an island off the coast of Campania, and died there in 14 A.D. (4.) Daugh; ter of the above; she married AEmilius Paulus; like her mother she was openly immoral, and in 9 A.D. was banished by Augustus to the island of Tremerus, off the Apulian coast. She died in 28 A.D. Julia Gens, the Julian clan, a famous house in ancient Rome, which claimed its descent from Iulus, the son of Æneas, and so from Venus. No doubt it originally belonged to Alba, and removed to Rome when the former city was destroyed and incorrated with the Roman state y Tullus Hostilius. The family names of the clans were Iulus, Caesar, Mento, and Libo. See Baring-Gould's Tragedy of the Caesars (1892). Julian, whose full name was FLAvius CLAUDIUs JULIANUs (331-363 A.D.), surnamed the Apostate, was the son of Julius Constantius, and nephew of Constantine the Great. He and his elder brother Gallus alone of the imperial family were spared by Constantius II. when on his adcession he massacred all the descendants of Constantius Chlorus by Theodora. In 355 Julian was aslowed to live in freedom at Athens, and in , the same year was invested with the dignity of Caesar, and given the government of the provinces beyond the Alps; he was also married to Helena, Constantine the Great's youngest child. In 357, he gained a great victory, over, the Alemanni, and invaded their territory in that #. and also in 358 and 359. e fortified the island at Lutetia §§ where he usually lived, and built baths there (ruins near the Musée Cluny). In 360 his soldiers roclaimed him emperor; but on Nov. 3, 361, Constantius died, and Julian was left undisputed emFo He had long ceased to a Christian, disgusted by the hypocrisy of the cruel Constan. tius ...} the mutual intolerance of the Orthodox and Arian Christians, and at once proclaimed a general toleration of all religions, choosing, however, his own officers from the pagans, forbidding Christians to teach rhetoric and grammar in the schools, and, to annoy them, allowing the Jews to rebuild their temple at Jerusalem. After spending some time in Antioch, he set off to invade Persia in March, 363; he crossed the Euphrates and the Tigris, and took of his position before the walls of Ctesiphon, the Persian capital. A treacherous Persian nobleman persuaded him to march inland to meet the king, Sapor; but he was forced to retreat, harassed by the Persians, and was shot in
a rear-guard action by an arrow, and died. Julian was a ruler, of great ability, and a very prolific writer on all sorts of subjects. His most interesting work is The Caesars, or The Banquet; a great work, Against the Christians, is lost. The whole of his works have been edited by Hertlein (Teubner Series, 2 vols. 1875–6); The Caesars, by Hersinger (1741) and Hazlen (1785). It and some other of his works were translated into English by J. Duncombe (1784). See Rendall's Life and Times of Julian (1879); : Gardner's Julian (1895); and Negri’s Julian the Apostate (trans. 1905). Julian, GEORGE WASHINGTON (1817–99), American political leader, born near Centreville, Ind. He was admitted to the Indiana bar in 1840 and practised law with success, but gave much of his attention to politics, and, sharing the anti-slavery views of his father-in-law, Joshua Reed Giddings, was one of the most prominent of the political abolitionists before the Civil War. He entered politics as a Whig, was elected to the Indiana legislature in 1845, joined the Free Soil Party in 1848, was its candidate for the vicepresidency of the U. S. in 1852, and was a representative in Con#. as a Free Soiler (1849–51). e was one of the organizers of the Republican Party in Indiana and sat in Congress as a Republican (1861–71). In 1864 he was one of those who opposed the renomination of Pres. Lincoln. In 1872 he joined the Liberal Republican, revolt against Pres. Grant and supported Horace Greeley for the §: He wrote a volume of Political Recollections, 1840–72 (1884), of great value for the period covered, and an excellent Life of Joshua R. Giddings (1892). Julian Calendar. Fenlo Ar. Jülich, or JULIERs, th:, Prussian prov. of Rhineland, 17 m. É. rāji N.E. of Aix-la-Cha elle, the chief town of the former duchy of Jülich. Pop. (1900) 5,459. Jülicher, ADolf '...} German New Testament scho ar, was born at Falkenberg, near Berlin; became professor of New Testament history at Marburg in 1888. His chief works are Die Gleichmisreden Jesu, i. (ed. 2, 1899), ii. 1899); Einleitung in das N. T. ed. 4, 1901; trans. 1903). Among living scholars Jülicher takes high rank, both as exegete and as critic. Julien, STANISLAs AIGNAN (1799–1873), French Chinese scholar, was born at Orleans. Becoming conservator of the Bibliothèque Impériale (1839), in 1854 he was appointed the head of the Collège Impérial. He made
numerous translations from the Chinese, among which are the lays, Tschao-chi-kou-eul (The hinese Orphan), and Hoei-lanki (The Chalk Circle). He also translated some Chinese romançes; Avadānas, a collection of Chinese tales; Chinese works of o; as the Livre de la oie et de la Vertu; and the valuable Histoire de la Vie d’HiouenTsang et de ses Voyages (1851); and wrote Syntaxe Nouvelle de la Langue Chinoise (1867–70). Julier Pass (7,504 ft.) is in the Swiss canton of the Grisons, and by carriage road connects the hine , and Inn, valleys. It was much frequented, being the shortest route from Coire to the Upper Engadine. It is now superseded % the railway under the Albula Pass (opened 1903). Julius I. (337–352), pope, born at Rome; was a vigorous su K. of Athanasius against the rians. Two of his Epistles are extant, addressed to the people of Antioch and Alexandria respectively. Julius II., GIULIANo DELLA Rov FRE (1443–1513), was nephew of Sixtus IV., and was chosen o (1503) . A great fighter and successful politician rather than an ecclesiastic, he recovered Romagna from the Borgias, and devoted all his energies to the re-establishment of the papal sovereignty and the extinction of, foreign domination in Italy, With this purpose he entered the League of Cambrai (1508) with the Emperor Maximilian and Louis XII. of France against Venice. On the submission of the republic, he formed the Holy League, which included Venicé, Spain, , and . England, and was directed against Louis XII. and his occupation of Naples. Eventually the pope's armies drove the French back over the Alps. With all his unecclesiastical militarism Julius was an enlightened atron of arts and letters. See ife by Dumesnil (1873) and by Brosch (1878). Julius III., GIovaNNI MARIA DEL Monte (1487–1555), was elected Fo in 1550. As a cardinal he had been one of the three papal legates who opened the Council f Trent. He favored, the Jesuits, freeing the order from many, disqualifications; and sent Cardinal Pole to arrange with Mary of England the best means of bringing the English Church and kingdom once more within the pale of Rome. His character was marred by his aggrandizement of his own relatives. Jullandur. See JALANDHAR. July. See YEAR. Jumet, mining th:, Belgium, rov. Hainault, 3 m. by rail N. of harleroi. Pop. (1900) 25,937.
at a height of 12,000 ft. Flowing s. it forms the boundary between Punjab and the United Provinces;
then running S.E. through the United Provinces, joins the Ganges 3 m. below Allahabad. It supplies the waters for the irrigation works of the E. and the W. Jumna canals. The chief cities on its banks are Delhi, Agra, Firozabad, Muttra, and Allahabad. It has a length of 860 m., and drains an area of 118,000 sq. m. Jumping. See TRACK AND FIELD ATHLETICs. Jumping Hare, or SPRINGHAAs, a fro: African jerboa (Pedetes caffer). In size, color, and the shape of the head and ears, the animal resembles a hare; but the tail is long and thickly haired throughout. There are five toes on the fore foot, and four on the hind. The animal inhabits both the plains and the mountains of S. Africa, and is es
Wi." common in Cape Colony. When feeding it goes on all fours, but if alarmed, attempts to escape by the leaping movements characteristic of the family (Dipodidae).
Jumping Mouse (Zapus hudsonius), N. American jerboa-like
mouse, with long hind legs, a very long tail, and five complete toes on the hind foot. It is, warmly reddish above, white on the lower
nest (a hollow ball of grass) in some small hole or burrow, and spends the cold months in a long hibernation. Junagarh, feudatory state in Kathiawar, Gujarat, India, with an area of 3,283 # m., and a pulation of half a million. É. and cereals are grown.
Junco, any of the ‘blue snowbirds' of the genus Junco, several species of which are scattered locally throughout the U. S. and Canada. They are small, finchlike birds, with plumage prevailingly slateblue on the upper parts and white on the breast and below, while western species show
chestnut tinges on the back and wings; the beaks and feet are ale pink. There is but one ind common in the East– Junco hyemalis. These birds breed in Canada, or on cool mountain heights farther south, making their nests on the ground. In the autumn they gather into small flocks which come south into the warmer climate, and become familiar visitors to farm and village dooryards as . long as cold weather sasts. Their ordinary note is a metalic chip, but in i.; a short pretty song will be heard. Junction City, city, co. seat of Geary co., Kan., on Kansas riv., at its junction with the Smoky Hill and Republican rivs....71 m. from Topeka, near Fort Riley, on the Mo., Kan. and Tex., and Kan. Div. of U. Pac. R. Rs. It has a public library. It was settled in i850 and incorporated in 1859; It has a large trade in agricultural products. É. (1905) 5,264. .. Juncus, a genus of grasslike herbs, growing in boggy places: These are the true rushes, and are o used for making mats, especially in Japan. o the best known species are conglomeratus, the common rush, with cylindrical stems and crowded panicles of flowers below the tapered extremities of the stems; J. effusus, the soft rush, nearly as common as the preceding o —from which it may be distinuished by its branching and ooser inflorescence; and there are many other American and cosmopolitan species. The only species worth cultivating is, the !. J. laetevirens, which ars tufts of bright green leaves about three feet high, and is easily grown in boggy ground. June. See YEAR. Juneau, cap. of the Territo of Alaska, situated at the headwaters o: o o: opposite Douglas I. (q.v.), in lat. o N., long. 134° o w. It is a mining and fishi. town and a base of supplies for the mining and other interests of that region, as well as a mail-distributin centre for all points westward. There are various manufactures, such as lumber products, beer, cigars, etc.; and the general trade of the vicinity supports a considerable number of wholesale and retail stores. The city has an excellent school system, fine public buildings, one of which was recently built by the federal government at a cost of $60,000, and is connected b telephone and hourl ferry with Douglas and Treadwell (q.v.). It has, steamship, communication with other Alaskan towns, and with San Francisco and Seattle. In the vicinity are the famous Treadwell gold mine and the Silver Bow mines. There
1577) to the legend that no one could defile the snows of the ‘virgin' peak; but it was ascended in 1811 by J. R. and H. Meyer. The usual starting-point is the Concordia Inn (9,436 ft.) above the Great Aletsch glacier to the E. of the peak, which can be thence gained in six hours or less, without difficulty or danger for those used to mountain climb in g. It can also attained from Grindelwald, Lauterbrunnen, and the Little Scheidegg. A railway has been built from the Little Scheidegg W. to the Eiger glacier. See Th. Wundt's well-illustrated monograph (1897). Jungle, or JANGAL, literally “waste,” is now applied to land Jungle-cat
covered with dense, luxuriant vegetation, such as long grass or undergrowth. It , has also been used to signify the dense intertropical forest, also known as wet jungle. Jungle-cat. See CHAUs. Jungle-fowl, a general name for the members of the genus Gallus. The red jungle-fowl, G. ferrugineus, is the origin of the domesticated breeds of poultry. It inhabits India, Farther India, Sumatra, the o: Celebes, and Timor, and strongly resembles the “black-breasted game’ variety of domesticated birds, with its fine orange or purplishred upper surface, and greenishblack wings, tail, and under surface. Though excessively pug
nacious in the wild state, polygamy is stated to be then rare. Three other species of junglefowl are known—the o unglefowl of S., Central, and wo India (G. Sonnerati), G. Lafayettii of Ceylon, and G. varius of Java iombok, and Flores; but all these are stated to be sterile when mated with the common fowl. See PoultRY FARMING.
Junia Gens, the Junian clan of ancient Rome. Tö it belonged Lucius Junius Brutus, who exÉ. the kings, and the famous
rutus who murdered Caesar.
Juniata College, a coeducational institution at Huntingdon, Pa., established in 1876 as the Brethren's Normal School and Collegiate Institute for children of the Dunker Brethren Church. In 1896 it was rechartered under its present title. It offers , a course in arts, leading to the degree of B.A.; a normal English course with the degree of bachelor of English; a sacred literature course, and academic music, and business courses, with a total registration in 1906 of 333 and 25 instructors. The o contained 24,035 volumes and 10,000 pamphlets. f
Juniata River, Pa., has its sources in the Alleghanies, takes a generally E. though very circuitous course, through beautiful scenery, and flows into the Susuehanna riv. at Duncannon. ts length, is about 150 m. Its course is followed by the Pennsylvania R. R. and canal. Junin or Xunin. (1.) Depart. of Peru, which is crossed by a range of the Andes, contains the lake of Junin, and is drained by the Mantaro riv. Area, 23,347 sq. m. Cap. Cirro de Pasco. Pop. (1896) 394,393. (2.) Tn. of Peru, depart. of Junin, on the Oroya R., R.. It is 13,000 ft. above the level of the sea. (3.) A lake in depart. of Junin. Its length is c. 37 m. and its breadth c. 7 m. From it issues the Mantaro riv. Juniper (Juniperus), a genus of hardy, evergreen, coniferous trees, with inconspicuous, dioecious flowers—the male in scal catkins, the female in small globose cones—scale-like or needle-like leaves, and with berrylike fruit. The common juniper J. communis, is widely distribute throughout , the northern, hemisphere, with many varieties. It is an evergreen shrub, with three sharp linear leaves in each whorl. When bruised, , both stems and leaves , yield the characteristic aromatic odor. The glaucous, blue fruits of the common juniper are used in the making of hollands and other varieties of gin, and also in medicine, an oil being distilled from them which has a warm, aromatic taste and the characteristic odor of juniper. It is a
Common Juniper. 1, Juniper, with fruit; 2, with male flowers; 3, male catkin; 4, anthers; 5, ripe fruit; 6, section.
strong diuretic, and gives to the urine a scent as of violets. Spirit of juniper is a mixture of one part of the oil with forty-nine parts of rectified spirit. Other species are J. virginica, the socalled red cedar, from the color of its heart-wood, a very handsome American tree, with erect
trunk, and, when young, a coneshaped form, the soft, fragrant timber of which is used in manufacture of lead pencils; J. occidentalis, a similar tree, but of a broader habit; J. Sabina, the common savin, a dwarf procumbent shrub with a disagreeable odor when bruised; the tops of the twigs are occasionally used in pharmacy, oil of savin being reputed to have echolic properties. Propagation of any of the species may be effected b seed or cuttings. They flouris in open, rocky situations, and are not very particular as to soil. Junipero, MIGUEL Joss. SERRA (1713–84), Spanish Franciscan missionary, the founder of the California missions, born on the Island of . Majorca. “Junipero” was his clerical name, assumed by him when he became a Franciscan. He went from Spain to the City of Mexico §o was a missionary to the Sierra Gorda tribes of Indians (1750–69), was placed in charge of the missions of Lower California (1769), and in the same year, at San Diego, founded the first of the missions in Upper California—the territory which forms the present State of California. He subsequently founded other missions §§§ that of San Carlos, at what is now Monterey (1770), and met with much success in his work among the Indians. See Helen Hunt Jackson's Father Junípero and the Mission Indians of California and G. W. James's In and Out o the Missions of California (1905). Junius, LETTERS OF. On Nov. 21, 1768, Junius's first letter o: in Woodfall’s Public vertiser, the last on Jan. 21, 1772, in which year the letters were reproduced in two volumes. George Woodfall compiled an edition containing 113 extra letters in 1812. Many were not by Junius; others by him are excluded. Woodfall did not know Junius, but he affirmed that he was neither Boyd nor Francis, who had contributed to his paper. With the signature ‘Britannicus,' Francis defended Mansfield and the king against the attacks of Junius. In 1813, Taylor wrote that Dr. Francis and his son were jointauthors of the letters, and, in 1816, that Francis was the sole author. Francis emphatically denied the authorship. ‘Crito” wrote to George oodfall in 1821, saying that he possessed the most of Junius's manuscripts, and used a seal, which Junius had done. The discoverer of “Crito” will probably unmask Junius. His last authentic letter, after 1772, appeared in 1774. Lord Camden wrote of it to Garrick that "Junius has given Mansfield another stab in the back in the Morning Chronicle.” A second