صور الصفحة
PDF
[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

+ 2 ; ry + etc.); and if we choose a such that N=1, we find for its value the converging series– 1 1 1 e=1+1+3+33*ā-āi-F53. IF +.... = 2,71828.18.... It is this base which gives what are called the natural, hyperbolic, or Napierian logarithms. In all systems of logarithms the logarithm of unity is zero; hence the logarithms of proper fractions must less than zero–i.e. they must be negative quantities. . For example, the common logarithm of 0.2 is log. 2–log: 10=0.30103 – 1=–0.69897. It is usual, however, to keep the expression in the form first given—viz. – 1:30.103. in which it is understood that the fractional part is positive. This is almost universally written in the more concise form 1.30103, in which the negative sign is represented by a short stroke over the characteristic or number before the decimal point. The logarithmic curve is a curve whose one co-ordinate is the logarithm of the other co-ordinate. Its equation, may be written in the form y=log. (x/a). The logarithmic spiral is represented by a similar equation between 0 and r —viz. 9/a-log. (r/a). The logarithmic spiral is also known as the equiangular spiral, because of the roperty, that all radii vectores #. from the pole cut the curve at the same angle for any one given curve. Logau, FRIEDRICH, FREIHERR von so German poet, studied law at Frankfurt-on-the Oder, and entered the service of the Duke of Liegnitz. The prevailing note of bitterness pervading his epigrammatic and satirical verse was doubtless deepened by public and private vicissitude, A selection made by Ramler and Lessing from Logau’s Sinngedichte appeared in 1759; while a later selection, from his poems, with biographical notice (1870), was followed } a complete edition, edited by Eitner (1872). Log Cabin and Hard Cider opolo, the campaign of William Henry Harrison (q.v.) for the presidency of the U.S. in 1840, so called because Harrison's political opponents had taunted him for

[ocr errors]

living in a log-cabin and drinking nothing better than hard cider– a taunt which his adherents turned into a compliment, logcabins becoming one of the party emblems of the Whigs and "logcabin’ and ‘hard cider’ becoming party cries. Logcock, a local name in the United States for the great black fileated woodpecker. See WooDPECKER. Loggerhead, or CARET, the largest of the sea-turtles (Thalassochelys caretta), which inhabit the equatorial zone of the Atlantic, and is especially numerous about the Antilles. It is related to the hawksbill, is covered with bony plates, and sometimes, exceeds 400 pounds in weight. They feed on shellfish, cuttles, and the like, and the flesh is not good for the table, but the eggs are greatly liked. The name “loggerhead' is iven to several birds, whose eads seem notably big and conspicuous. Loggia, the Italian name for galleries and verandas roofed over, but open on at least one side to the air. In Italy the name is also given to the numerous arcades and porches of public buildings—e.g. , those of the Vatican, decorated by Raphael and his Fo: Logia, a reek word (pl.) meaning ‘oracles,' and often aplied by Biblical scholars to colso of the agrapha, or say: ings,' of Jesus. Papias, who lived in the first half of the 2d century A.D., asserts that Matthew wrote a book of logia in Hebrew (i.e. Aramaic); this is probably incorporated, at least in part, in the canonical (Greek) gospel of Matthew, but the exact relation is a matter of dispute. The statement of Papias has been of service in pointing to a possible solution of the synoptic problem (see GosPELs), as it indicates the existence a collection of our Lord's utterances, which forms one of the sources of the “two-document theory,' the other being the narrative of Mark, and which, existing in various forms, has been incorporated in our Matthew and Luke. That such books of logia were actually compiled is demonstrated by the discovery, in the Oxyrhynchite nome, of two papy: rus leaves containing eight and five, sayings respectively, , each inning with the words “Jesus said, published by Grenfels and Hunt (1897 and 1904). Logic as the systematic study of reasoning, or thought was created by Aristotle. is logical system is embodied in a number of writings collectively known as the Organon . ARISTOTLE), and of these the three most important —viz. the Prior and Posterior Analytics and the Topics—belong

[blocks in formation]

roof. In every syllogism we ave the two terms which are connected in the conclusion, and a middle term through, which the connection is established. And the connection of the two extremes in the conclusion is affirmed in virtue of their clearl perceived relationship throug or within the middle term, which relationship is explicitly set forth in the premises of the syllogism. Thus, when we want in geometry to prove that the sum of the three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles, we do so by showing that the sum of the three angles of a triangle is equal to the sum of any one angle and the adjacent exterior angle, and this latter sum we already know to be equal to two right angles. Here, then, we use the more general or elementary principle regarding the sum of the angles made by the junction of two lines (two sides of the triangle) to prove the reuired property of the triangle. nq it "is clear that the whole chain of demonstrations in which geometry, consists may, thus be resolved into a series of reasonings of whose essential structure the syllogism is an analysis. In Aristotle's view the essential nature of scientific proof consists in the deductive process by which we pass from universal principles to their necessary consequences. And such proof within any one science therefore depends in the last resort upon those fundamental or ultimate principles, which are assumed as the basis of all our demonstrations in that science, and which cannot themselves be demonstrated in deductive fashion. Such principles are arrived at inductively—i.e. they are suggested by an examination of instances. But this sort of so is not strictly proof, and induction is thus subsidiary or preparatory to the deductive process of science proper. The history of the Aristotelian logic has been largely a history of degeneration, and for this deeneration the mediaeval schoastic logicians were chiefly responsible. To Aristotle the syllogism was the instrument , or method of science; to the scholastic theologians it was a method

Logic

of o the dogmas of the church, and of expanding these into all their remoter consequences and details. In view of this degradation of the syllogistic logic to a mere formal method of disputation, it is not surprising that thinkers of the modern, period, like , Bacon and Locke, imbued with the new scientific spirit, should have conceived a strong distaste for such a logic, at any rate as a method of science. This antagonism of the - empirical school was not lessened when, later in the modern period a purely formal conception of logic was expressly put forward and defended on the basis of a rigid distinction between the form and the matter of thought by logicians under the influence of Kant. Such a type of logic was represented in Great Britain b Hamilton, and Mansel. . J. S. Mill, on the other hand, the contemporary representative of the empirical school, upheld their traditional view by attacking the syllogism as a fift. principii, and developing his own analysis of the inductive methods of scientific proof as a real logic of investigation—a logic of truth as opposed to a mere logic of consistency. And accordingly, in several most popular, and widely used text-books, written under the influence of Mill's great work, we find a sharp division, made between deductive and inductive logic—the former dealing , with the merely formal manipulation of propositions and reasonings, the latter with the real processes of scientific inference. But from this condition of things modern logic has tended, and more especially within recent years, to diverge in two opposite directions. The purely formal logic of the formal logicians has given rise to a still more extreme symbolic logic, which o: to express the processes of thinking by mathematical methods and formulae. (See Venn's Symbolic Logic, 2d ed. 1894). And, on the other hand, philosophical logicians have, in a manner, returned to the genuine Aristotelian standpoint, and treating, logic as the theory of knowledge Tor science, have revindicated for deduction its true place in logical theory. The abstract separation of the form from the matter of thought has been rejected, and a more real interpretation of deductive method has been made possible; while induction is seen, when rightly interpreted, to be simply the inverse process of deduction. (See INDUCTION.) This more philosophical type of logic, was revived by Bradley's Principles of Logic (1883), a keen criticism of current logical theories, which

[ocr errors]

is followed up by the masterly constructive work of Bosanquet (Logic, 2 vols., 1888). The translated works of Lotze and Sigwart have contributed powerfully to the same general tendency to treat logic as a theory of knowledge and scientific method. From such a standpoint logic and epistemology become identical, and no hard and fast line can be drawn between logic and metaphysics: (See, PHILosophy.) The revival of philosophical logic in England was due to the influence of GerIIlan t-Kantian idealism, and partakes of , the metaphysical character of the latter; but quite apart from this influence, other important contributions have been made, which are in line with Mill in bringing logic into close relation with science. Of these, Venn's Empirical Logic (1889) may be said to be a very valuable revision of Mill, while Jevons's Principles of Science (2d ed. 1877) combines the scientific standpoint with symbolic methods...The best recent work on the lines of the older formal logic is Keynes's Formal Logic (3d ed. 1894). Logistics includes, all the details of moving and supplying armies and is one of the most important duties of the general staff of an Army in the § (q.v.). The different branches of the subject are apportioned to the various divisions and , departments of the General Staff (q.v.). In moving armies, and their , supplies, questions of tactics, and logistics are so related that they cannot be separated; and the possibilities and limitations of these operations bring us at once into the field of so Šiš' where considerations of politics and statesmanship are involved. §: of the more important of the purely military problems, of logistics are those of arranging and timing of marches (see MARCHING), moving, troops by rail and water, preparing and transmitting orders, supplying troops in camign, camps, cantonments, and ivouacs, etc. See Field Regudations, U. S. Army (1905), and articles under appropriate titles, such as QUARTERMASTER’s DEPARTMENT, SUBSISTENCE DEPARTMENT, etc. Logogram (Gr. logos, “word’; gramma, “letter’), a form o uzzle in which, a word having n selected (as, for example, ‘mate'), as many anagrams as possible are formed from it (‘team,” ‘meat,” “tame'). These anagrams themselves are not mentioned; but in the verses which form the puzzle either their synonyms (e.g. yoke,’ ‘food,” “domesticated') or a description of them is contained. The reader is required from this to guess the original word. See

Lohengrin

ANAGRAM; also Wheatley's Anagrams (1862). Logone, now part of the north of Kamerun, Central Africa; consists of a well-wooded plain. Its people are allied to the Makaris and Musgu. Logone is the capital. Pop., estimated at 250,000. Logos (Gr. logos, “word,” “discourse,” “reason o a term applied in the prologue of John's Gospel to Jesus Christ #. 1:1, “the Word”). It has affinities with the Hebrew. “Wisdom” (see Prov. 8, especially over. 22–30; cf. Wis: dom of Solomon 7:25 f.), and also with the Memra (i.e. word) which in the Jewish Targums ranks as the agent of God in creation. The decisive step of identifying the Logos not only with the Messiah, but with an actual person, Jesus Christ, was taken by St. Jöhn. See Liddon's Bampton Lectures (1866), Heinze's Die Lehre vom Logos in der Gr. Phil. (1872), Drummond's Philo Judaeus (1888), Réville's La Doc

trine du Logos (1881), and Harnack's History of Doctrine (1895).

Logroño. (1.) Inland prov. of N. Spain, consisting of a mountainous district's of river Ebro. Area, 1,945 sq. m. It produces cereals, but is especially famous for its red wines. Pop. 186,223. (2.) (Anc. Lucronius), waiied th: and cap. of above prov., on the Ebro, 30 m, S.E. of Vitoria; is the centre of the Rioja wine district. Pop. (1901) 18,866. Logwood is obtained from the logwood tree (Haematoxylon campechianum), which is indigenous to Central America. The heartwood is imported, and is cut into chips, heaped together, moistened, #: osed to the air, when a process of fermentation takes place, which darkens the wood and gives it a beetle-green lustre, due to the formation of a coloring matter, haematein, which can be extracted by hot , water. Logwood is largely used as a red dye in the o: of inks, an as an astringent to control diarrhoea. See DYEING. Lohardaga, cap. of dist... of same name in Chota Nagpur div. Bengal, India, 155 m. s.s.w. o Patna. Pop. of dist. 1,188,562. Loharu, cap. of native state, India, in the S.E. of the Punjab, 85 m. w.s.w.. of Delhi. Area, 226 sq. m. Pop. 15,233. Lohengrin, son of Parzifal, and one of the knights of the Holy Grail, whose adventures form the subject of a 13th-century poetical romance. The legend runs that he was conveyed in a car drawn by a swan to Mainz to rescue Elsa, daughter of the HDuke of Brabant. After fighting her enemy, Telramund, he married Elsa. His wife, in spite of his dissuasion, endeavored to

Loire

ascertain his previous history. He gave the information, and at once the swan and car appeared, and he returned to the Grail. On this story Wagner founded his opera Lohengrin (1848). Loire. (1.) The longest river in France, rises in Mt. Gerbierde-Jonc, Cevennes, in dep. Ardèche, and flows N. and N.W., S.w.., and finally w., reaching the Bay of Biscay between St. Nazaire and Paimboeuf, after , a course of 620 m. It passes the towns of, Roanne, Nevers, Orleans, , Blois, Amboise, fours, Ancenis, and Nantes, and receives on the r. bk, the Arroux and the Maine, on , the l. bk. the Allier, Cher, Indre, Vienne, Thouet, and Sèvre Nantaise. It is subject to frequent floods, and dikes have been constructed in

[ocr errors]

tributaries of the Rhone. The coal field is one of the richest in France, and iron and lead are mined in large quantities. Hardware, cutlery, machinery, ribbons, and muslins are manufactured, and the silk industry is important. The mineral springs of St. Alban, St. Galmier, and Sail-sous-Couzan attract many visitors. There are three arrondissements—St. Etienne (cap., since 1855); Montbrison, in the w.; and Roanne, in the N. Pop. 647,633. Loire, HAUTE-. LoIRE. Loire - Inférieure. maritime dep. of W. France formed from art of ancient Brittany and ying between the Bay of Biscay in #e w. and the de; of Maineet-Loire in the E. The department is 2,693 sq. m. in area, and is

See HAUTE

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

some parts to prevent, destructive inundations. The Maritime Canal of the Loire was opened in 1892, between Paimboeuf and Martinière, to enable vessels to reach Nantes (31 m.) without navigating the shallow, estuary. #. Canal Latéral à la Loire accom

nies the river all the way from

oanne to Briare, from which it proceeds to the Seine. The Loire is also connected by canal with the Saône. (2.) Department of central France, formed from parts of the ancient Lyonnais and Forez, is bounded on the N.W. and N. by Allier and Saôneet-Loire, and on the s. by HauteLoire and Ardèche. It is 1,838 sq. m. in area, and is largely mountainous. e department is drained centrally and towards the N. by the Loire and its tributaries, and in the S.E. by the

[blocks in formation]

Lokman

is drained by the Loire and its tributaries, the N. by the Loing and Essonne, towards the Seine. o of Orleans, occupying the w. and N.w.. part of É. department, comprises a large tract of land of great fertility. Wheat, sugar beet, and the vine are cultivated. Distiling and sugar-refining are carried on, and hosiery andT. are Inlanufactured. ere are four arrondissements—Orleans (cap.), Gien, Montargis, and Pithiviers. Pop. (1901) 366,660. Loir-et-Cher, dep. of central France, formerly part of Orléanais and Touraine, lying between Eure-et-Loir on the N. and Indre on the S. Area, 2,478 sq. m., consisting mostly of plain. The N. is drained by the Loir, the centre by the Loire, and the s. by the her. Forests cover one-sixth of the surface. Cereals and fruit are o ; industries are sheep an ultry rearin § ; wo j leather and glass manufactures. There are three arrondissements —Blois (cap.), Romorantin, and Vendôme. Pop. (1901) 275,538. Loja. (1) City, prov. Granada, Spain, 30 m. w of Granada, romantically situated in a valley on the river Genil. The town contains the ruins of a Moorish castle, several notable churches, and a modern palace of , the fuke of Valencia. There is some trade in grain and cattle. Pop. (1900) 19,143. (2.) Loja, or LOXA, cap. or prov. of same name, Ecuador, S. America, beautifully situated, at an altitude of 6,900 ft., near the s, frontier. It has a cathedral, founded in , 1546. The province is famous for its cinchóna bark. Pop. 10,000. Lokeren, tr., prov. £. Fianders, Belgium, 11 m. N.E. of Ghent; , manufactures cottons, lace, and tobacco; Pop. 21,000. Loki, one of the principal beings in Scandinavian mythology, F.F great physical beauty, combined with exceptional ability and cunning, which o perplexed the other deities. He may be regarded as the Scandinavian 'spirit of evil,' or Norse Mephistopheles. See "BALDER. Lokman, the name of two persons in Arabic tradition. he first was said to have made the Ma'rib dike, and in reward for his virtues to have been dowered with the lives of seven vultures, these birds being said each to live eighty years. he other is variously described as an Abyssinian slave of David's time, or a relative of Job, or is identified with Balaam, the names possessing the same root onio, “swallower” or ‘devourer.” o him were ascribed fables, proverbs, and poems. See Derenbourg's Fables de Loqmān le Sage (1850), and

[graphic]
[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

nent pasture. The darnel (L. temulentum) is said to be the ‘tares' referred to in the Gospels. Lolland, Danish Island. See LAALAND. Lollards, a name applied most commonly to the followers of Wycliffe (q.v.). It is said to have n also one of the names of the Alexians or Cellites, a semi-monastic association formed in Brabant in 1300, to bury those who had died of the plague. The German lollen, “to chant," is thought to give the root of the word, though a Continental teacher named Walter Lollardus is also mentioned. The Lollards were opposed, but not actively persecuted, by Richard II., whose wife, Anne of Bohemia, was a Lollard, and actively promoted the cause in her native country. (See HUss, John.) On the accession of Henry Iv. (1399) the Lollards were subjected to violent persecutions. Henry Iv. passed the

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

statute De Harretico Comburendo, and William Sawtre was the first Englishman to be burned for he resy (1401). The most distinguished leader and martyr of the movement was Lord Cobham, executed in 1417. In the early part of the fifteenth century, in spite of vigorous efforts at suppression, the movement was widespread and influential. During the Wars of the Roses the vigor of the persecutions waned. In Tudor times Lollard opinions gradually triumphed, and in 1547, the first year of Edward VI.'s reign, all statutes against Lollardism were repealed. See Wycliff E. Consult Trevelyan's England in the Age of Wycliffe; Carrick's Wycliffe and the Lollards; Gairdner's Lollardy and the Reformation in England (1908). Lolos, or NESUs, an aboriginal tribe in China, inhabiting the Inountainous country Ta-liangshan, lying between the Yangtse-kiang and the Chien-chang valley in the provinces of Yünnan, Kwei-chau, and Sze-chuen. The pure type is taller than the European, with oval face, prominent cheek bones, and pointed chin. The language is of the primitive type, simple, uninflected, and monosyllabic. Their writing is pictographic. Women hold a high position. Consult Legendre's Le Far West Chinois (1910). Lo maria, a genus of coarse ferns (order Polypodiaceae), with dimorphous fronds, and linear sori occupying the space between the midrib and the edge of the frond. There are 35 species, found chiefly in the Southern Hemisphere. L. gibba is a very symmetrical and decorative fern from New Caledonia, which is cultivated for table centrepieces and as a house plant. It needs warmth and an abundance of water. It has cycas-like crowns when young, but develops into a tree-fern in miniature. Lombard, PETER (c. 1100–60), theologian, bishop of Paris, was born in Novara, Lombardy. Educated at Bologna, he went to France, where, through the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux, he obtained a professorship of theology at Paris, and was appointed to the bishopric in 1159. He became famous through his Sententiarum Libri Quatuor, a collection of extracts from the fathers, which was widely used by students of theology. His Works were edited by Aleaume. Lombard Architecture, the type that resulted from the influence of the Lombards (q.v.) on the Byzantine architecture that they found on their arrival in

Lombards

Italy. They brought practically no art with them; and the form characteristic of their influence appeared after their political power had been gone for nearly three centuries. Typical of the Lombard architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries are the basilica church, with grotesque ornaments of animal forms; the round arch; the plain, square campanili; and the use of terra-cotta, clay being more plentiful in the Po valley than stone or marble. Illustrations of Lombard art are the Church of San Michele at Pavia (eleventh century) and the Duomo of Piacenza; while the Parma Baptistery (twelfth to fourteenth century) was begun in the Lombard style and finished in the Gothic. Lombards, or LONGoBARDI, a German people who, at the beginning of the Christian era, settled on the Lower Elbe, and in the fifth century seem to have migrated to the regions of the Danube, where they became converts to Arianism. Throwing off the yoke of the Herulae (490), under whose domination they had fallen, they destroyed the Gepidae (566), took possession of Pannonia, and under Alboin invaded Italy (568). There they easily established themselves in the northern half, with Pavia as their capital, and were induced by Gregory the Great and their queen Theodelinda to accept Roman Catholicism. On the seizure of the Pentapolis and Ravenna by the energetic Lombard king Liutprand, the Pope, fearful of further aggression, summoned Pepin, king of the Franks, who subdued the Lombards and presented the disputed territory to the Pope. Charlemagne finally subjugated and made their kingdom an imperial province. The Lombards thereafter became merged in the general Italian population. Consult Brown's Studies in Venetian History (1907); Paulus Warnefridus' History of the Longobards (ed. by Foulke, 1907); Blasel's Die Wanderzüge der Longobarden (1909). Lombards, those merchants from the commercial cities of Northern Italy who acted as bankers, or rather money-lenders, to the kings of England from the time of Henry III. (1216–72) to the time of Edward III. (1327– 77). The Lombards had offices in the street in London which still bears their name. Their us urious transactions caused their expulsion from the kingdom by Queen Elizabeth. Consult Cunningham's Growth of English Industry and Commerce.

[graphic]
[graphic]

Lombardy

Lombardy, division of Northern Italy, being the central part of the long depression between the Alps and the Apennines, drained by the Po and its tributaries, and having Piedmont on the west and Venetia on the east. It comprises the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia, Como, Cremona, Mantua, Milan, Pavia, and Sondrio, and covers an area of 9,374 square miles. On the north and east borders are Lakes Maggiore and Garda, while Como, Iseo, and part of Lugano are included in the territory. Much of it is very fertile and extensivel irrigated, yielding maize, wheat, rice, flax, and grapes. The division is noted for its silk manufactures, and for its wine and cheese industries. Copper, iron, and zinc ores are mined. The chief city is Milan. Pop. (est. 1911) 4,600,000. History.—After the conquest of the Lombards (q.v.) by Charlemagne, Lombardy became a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Its cities, however, grew to be republics, vying with one another in politics, commerce, and art. In 1167 they united in the Lombard League against the Emperor Frederick, Barbarossa, and were successful in forcing from him favorable terms at the Peace of Constance (1.183). In the first half of the sixteenth century the communes passed into the hands of Spain. Two centuries later the territory was captured by Austria, , which, except for the interval of Napoleon's conquest, held it until 1859, when Lombardy was annexed to Sardinia. In 1861 it became part of the new kingdom of Italy. Consult Butler's Lombard Communes (1906). Lombok, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, forming with Bali on the west a residency of the Dutch East Indies. Area, about 2,000 square miles. It is volcanic in origin and mountainous in character, the highest peak in the Indian archipelago being Goenoeng Rindjain (12,350 feet). The valleys are fertile, and yield rice, maize, tobacco, coffee, indigo, and sugar-cane; cattle and horses are bred. Mataram is the capital; Ampanan, on the west coast, is the seaport. The Balinese, who have dominated the island since the eighteenth century, are Brahmins, but the more numerous Sassaks (Malays) are Mohammedans. Lombok was captured by the Dutch in 1894. Pop. (est. 1910) 350,000. Consult Cabaton's Les Indes Néerlandaises (1910). Lombroso, CESARE (1836– 1909), Italian criminologist, was

Vol. VII.-Oct. "11

[ocr errors]

born in Verona of Jewish parentage. He studied Oriental languages, then medicine at Turin, and continued his work at the Universities of Pavia, Paris, and Vienna. He served for eight years as physician in the army, and was appointed (1862) professor of psychiatry at Pavia. Later he became director of the Pisaro lunatic asylum, and was appointed professor of forensic m e di cine (1876), psychiatry (1896), and criminal anthropology (1900) at Turin. He also acted as medical officer to the prison in Turin, and made numerous examinations of the bodies of criminals, both living and dead. He was a socialist, and during his last years he became interested in psychic research, devoting to that subject after 1896 a special section in the Archivio di psichiatra, which he edited. The fundamental points of Lombroso's criminology are that (1) men's actions and modes of thinking are conditioned by their physical structure; (2) therefore criminals are in some way physically abnormal; (3) such abnormality, or degeneration, is a pathological state of arrested development, or atavistic reversion; (4) the psychical expression of such criminal degeneration is moral insanity. For the occasional criminal he advocates the indeterminate sentence; for the ‘born criminal,' complete and permanent isolation. Lombroso's writings have met with criticism for their neglect of social and economic elements in the development of abnormal types. Even if one-sided, they have launched the science of criminal anthropology (q.v.), and, in conjunction with their author's vigorous personal efforts, have profoundly influenced the treatment of criminals and the administration of prisons and asylums. Lombroso also made important contributions to the study of pellagra (q.v.). His work on the subject, though its conclusion that diseased maize causes the trouble has been challenged, is invaluable as the record of thirty years' investigation. Among his works are L'Uomo Delinquente (1889); L'Uomo di Genio (Eng. trans. 1891); Gli Anarchici (1894); Trattato Profilattico e Clinico della Pellagra (1892); Delitti Vecchi e Delitti Nuovi (1902); After Death— What? (1909); Crime, Its Causes and Remedies (1911). Consult Marie's Pellagra (1910; translation and abridgment of Lombroso's work); Kurella's Cesare Lombroso (1911).

London

Lomond, Loch, between Dumbartonshire and Stirlingshire, Scotland, which from its size and picturesqueness is justly entitled the "queen of Scottish lakes." It covers an area of 2,709 square miles, is 21 miles long and in breadth varies from 5 miles to 1 mile, the southern portion being wide and island-studded. Ben Lomond overlooks it from the east, and the double-peaked Ben Voirlich rises from its north western shore. It drains to the Clyde by the Leven at the southern end. Of the thirty wooded islets, the best known are Inchmurrin, Inchmoan, Inchcailliach, and Inchlonaig, the first containing the ruins of Lennox Castle. On the eastern shore are Balmaha, Rowardennan, and Inversnaid, the centre of the Rob Roy country, famous for its falls, and the reputed scene of Wordsworth's vision of A Highland Girl; on the west are Luss and

Tarbet, and in the northwest
Ardlui.
Lomza (Russian Lomzha),

rovince of Russian Poland, West ussia, bounded on the north by Prussia and Suwalki government, on the east by Grodno, on the South by Siedlce and Warsaw, and on the west by Plock. The province is mainly agricultural, the products being grain, peas, beans, potatoes, flax, and hemp. The chief rivers are the Narev and the Bug. Part of the province is marshy, and there is considerable forest area. Area, 4,072 square miles. Pop. (1908) 670,600. Lomza, city, capital of Lomza province, Russian Poland, 75 miles northeast of Warsaw, on the left bank of the Narev River. It has a gymnasium, a garrison, ten churches, two synagogues, a hospital, and an orphan asylum. There is considerable trade in grain and timber. Pop. (est. 1911) 29,000. London, the largest city in the world, the capital of England and of the British empire, stands on both banks of the River Thames, which is both tidal and navigable, and which at London Bridge (where it narrows) measures 325 yards across. Lat. of St. Paul's Cathedral, 51° 30' 48" N.; long. 0° 5' 48” w. London may be taken as distant 50 miles from the sea, for the Port of London extends from London Bridge to Queenborough on Sheppey Island (50 miles), though the strict limits are from London Bridge to Blackwall. The Thames Conservancy, however, has jurisdiction from the Nore to Oxford, but its powers on the Thames below Teddington

« السابقةمتابعة »